• [S602] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. 14, Ed. 1, Family #2699 (n.p.: Release date: October 20, 1997, unknown publish date).
  • [S628] Inc. Br²derbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. 19, Ed. 1, Family 0671 (n.p.: Release date: March 13, 1998, unknown publish date).
  • [S630] Unknown author, Broderbund WFT Vol. 2, Ed. 1, Tree #1822, Date of Import: 27 Jul 1997 (n.p.: n.pub., unknown publish date).
  • [S639] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 6 Oct 2000 from World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0017 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  • [S647] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. 19, Ed. 1 (n.p.: Release date: March 13, 1998, unknown publish date).
  • [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)). Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  • [S792] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=johanson, Susan Johanson (unknown location), downloaded updated 29 June 2001.
  • [S835] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=christos, Jr. Rev. Christos Christou (unknown location), downloaded updated 26 Feb 2007.
  • [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp. Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.
  • [S1427] Richard Fletcher, The Quest for El Cid (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989/1990). Hereinafter cited as Fletcher [1990] The Quest for El Cid.
  • [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • [S1479] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email "Re: Birthdate for Charlemagne"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 11 August 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 11 August 2003."
  • [S1556] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 1 Jan 2004: "Bastards of Robert 'Curthose', Duke of Normandy"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 1 Jan 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 1 Jan 2004."
  • [S1574] Chris Phillips, "Phillips email 22 Jan 2004 "Re: When DID he die?"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 22 Jan 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Phillips email 22 Jan 2004."
  • [S1593] Kelsey J. Williams, "Williams email 24 Feb 2004 "Re: Kuman lines into European( and other )Royalty"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 16 Feb 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Williams email 16 Feb 2004."
  • [S1608] Banks/Dean Genealogy, online http://www.gordonbanks.com/gordon/family/2nd_Site/geb-p/index.htm. Hereinafter cited as Banks/Dean Genealogy.
  • [S1646] Alasdair Friend, "Friend email 7 July 2004: "DFA: Scipio - Philagrius - Alfred"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 7 July 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Friend email 7 July 2004."
  • [S1677] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email 16 Sept 2004 "Re: Clarification on William III/V and William VI/VIII, county Poitou, Dukes Acquitaine requested"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 16 Sept 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 16 Sept 2004."
  • [S1707] J Bunot, "Bunot email 26 Feb 2005: "Ahnentafel Petronille de Comminges-Bigorre"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/forum/#!msg/soc.genealogy.medieval/YzUpz3CDrCM/zTYWP3a3pRkJ;context-place=forum/soc.genealogy.medieval) to e-mail address, 26 Feb 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Bunot email 26 Feb 2005."
  • [S1769] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 12 Aug 2005: "Re: Count Odo/Cunegonde"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/EG8fUGArHIU/m/Kjp8At_SVwoJ) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 12 Aug 2005."
  • [S1778] Roger Tansey, "Tansey email 24 Jan 2005 "Re: d'Auvergne -> Toulouse or Arles"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 24 Jan 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Tansey email 24 Jan 2005."
  • [S1781] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email 4 May 2005 "Death of Pippin the Fat"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 4 May 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 4 May 2005."
  • [S1787] Gordon Banks, "Banks email 30 July 2005 "Re: Descendants of Sir Richard de Lucy and Rohese of Boulogne"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 30 July 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Banks email 30 July 2005."
  • [S1836] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 14 Nov 2004: "Re: Wynflaed, great-grandmother of Æthelræd II of England"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 14 Nov 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 14 Nov 2004."
  • [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  • [S1936] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 25 Aug 2005: "Robert II of France to Maud de Bernake (was CP Addition:..)"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 25 Aug 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 25 Aug 2005."
  • [S1938] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email 25 Aug 2005: "Re: Robert II of France to Maud de Bernake (was CP Addition:..)"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 25 Aug 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 25 Aug 2005."
  • [S1956] Sharon Kay Penman, When Christ and His Saints Slept (New York: Ballantine Books, 1995). Hereinafter cited as Penman (1995), When Christ and His Saints Slept.
  • [S2016] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 15 Dec 2005: "Breaute and Geneville ancestry: King Stephen of England"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 15 Dec 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 15 Dec 2005."
  • [S2048] Douglas Richardson, "Richardson email 23 Mar 2006: "Queen's Kinsfolk: Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine's kinsfolk"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 23 Mar2006. Hereinafter cited as "Richardson email 23 Mar2006."
  • [S2097] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 6 Sept 2006: "The origins of Redburh or Rædburh (a conjecture)"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 6 Sept 2006. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 6 Sept 2006."
  • [S2114] Doug Smith, "Smith email 17 Dec 2006 "Early Comtes de Boulogne"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 17 Dec 2006. Hereinafter cited as "Smith email 17 Dec 2006."
  • [S2115] Bruce Hallowell, "Hallowell email 19 Dec 2006: "Re: More Kinsfolk: Hugues de Thouars, kinsman of Alice, Countess of Eu"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 19 Dec 2006. Hereinafter cited as "Hallowell email 19 Dec 2006."
  • [S2164] Roglo Genealogical database, online http://roglo.eu/roglo. Hereinafter cited as Roglo Database.
  • [S2184] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 23 Sept 2007: "Descendants Alfonso VI - improved and extended"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 23 Sept 2007. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 23 Sept 2007."
  • [S2217] Douglas Richardson, "Richardson email 19 Jan 2008: "Re: Children of Isabel of England (died 1241), wife of Emperor      Frederick II"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 19 Jan 2008. Hereinafter cited as "Richardson email 19 Jan 2008."
  • [S2262] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 17 Apr 2008: "William the Conqueror and Charlemagne"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 17 Apr 2008. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 17 Apr 2008."
  • [S2286] Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online http://oxforddnb.com/index/. Hereinafter cited as ODNB - Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
  • [S2347] 1830 Federal Census, 1830 Census PA Chester Co East Caln Twp.
  • [S2730] Frederick Edward Wright, compiler, MD Militia in the War of 1812 - 7 Volumes
    Volume 1 - Eastern Shore Counties
    (Silver Spring, MD: Family Line Publications, 2005). Hereinafter cited as MD Militia in the War of 1812.
  • [S3341] History The Interesting Bits, online http://historytheinterestingbits.com/. Hereinafter cited as History The Interesting Bits.
  • [S3434] Ravinmaven, ""Best" line for Anne Hyde, Duchess of York?," e-mail message from ravinmaven2001 via <e-mail address> (unknown address) to e-mail address, 5 July 2016. Hereinafter cited as "Ravinmaven Email 5 Jul 2016: ""Best" line for Anne."
  • [S4743] Geneagraphie - Families all over the world (Website), online <http://geneagraphie.com/>. Hereinafter cited as Geneagraphie.
  • [S4750] Michael Anne Guido and John P. Ravilious, "From Theophanu to St. Margaret of Scotland: A study of Agatha's ancestry", Foundations IV:81-121 (Vol. IV, 2012). Hereinafter cited as "From Theophanu to St. Margaret."
  • [S4753] Christian Settipani, La Préhistoire des Capétiens, 481-987, première partie - Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (n.p.: Van Kerrebrouck, 1993). Hereinafter cited as Settipani [1993] La Préhistoire des Capétiens.
  • [S4775] David N. Dumville, "The West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List and the Chronology of Early Wessex", Peritia Vol. 4, pp. 21-66 (1985). Hereinafter cited as "Dumville [1985] The West Saxon Gen'l Regnal List."
  • [S4778] Karl Ferdinand Werner, Die Nachkommen Karls des Grossen bis um das Jahr 1000, in: Karls des Großen Lebenswerk und Nachleben (n.p.: W. Braunfels, 1967). Hereinafter cited as Werner (1967) Die Nachkommen Karls des Grossen.
  • [S4797] Christian Settipani, "L'apport de l'onomastique dans l'étude des généalogies carolingiennes », dans Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval", Prosopographica et Genealogica Vol. 3; pp. 185-229 (2000). Hereinafter cited as "Settipani [2000] L'apport de l'onomastique."
  • [S4805] Royaume Europe, online <https://royaumeurope.wordpress.com/>. Hereinafter cited as Royaume Europe.
  • [S4809] Christian Settipani, "Les origines des comtes de Nevers dans Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval", Prosopographica et Genealogica Vol. 3; pp. 85-112 (2000). Hereinafter cited as "Settipani [2000] Les origines des comtes de Never."