• [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  • [S585] Unknown author, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #2765 (n.p.: published by: Family Tree Maker, Broderbund Software, Inc., Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  • [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  • [S599] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 28 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 14, Ed. 1, family # 1829 (n.p.: Release date: October 20, 1997, unknown publish date).
  • [S616] Inc. Br²derbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 26 Dec 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1, Family #18-0770 (n.p.: Release date: March 27, 1998, unknown publish date).
  • [S619] Inc. Br²derbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 27 Dec 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 6, Ed. 1, Family #6-1556 (n.p.: Release date: August 22, 1996, unknown publish date).
  • [S634] Robert Bartlett, The New Oxford History of England: England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings 1075-1225 (n.p.: Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2000, unknown publish date).
  • [S636] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 6 Oct 2000 from World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0043 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  • [S639] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 6 Oct 2000 from World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0017 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  • [S647] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. 19, Ed. 1 (n.p.: Release date: March 13, 1998, unknown publish date).
  • [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date).
  • [S742] Ed. Antonia Fraser, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England (revised and updated) (n.p.: University of California Press, Berkely, 1998, unknown publish date).
  • [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)). Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  • [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998). Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  • [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001). Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  • [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp. Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.
  • [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • [S1479] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email "Re: Birthdate for Charlemagne"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 11 August 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 11 August 2003."
  • [S1513] Chris Phillips, "Phillips email "Bastards of Henry I"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/RkKZnaKJH3k/m/uC7N0kFlCwAJ) to e-mail address, 14 November 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Phillips email 14 November 2003."
  • [S1514] Stewart Baldwin, "Baldwin email "Re: Bastards of Henry I"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/RkKZnaKJH3k/m/uC7N0kFlCwAJ) to e-mail address, 14 November 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Baldwin email 14 November 2003."
  • [S1515] Douglas Richardson, "Richardson 15 Nov email "Re: Bastards of Henry I"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/RkKZnaKJH3k/m/uC7N0kFlCwAJ) to e-mail address, 15 Nov 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Richardson email 15 Nov 2003."
  • [S1516] Stewart Baldwin, "Baldwin email "Re: Bastards of Henry I"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/RkKZnaKJH3k/m/uC7N0kFlCwAJ) to e-mail address, 15 November 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Baldwin email 15 November 2003."
  • [S1536] Stewart Baldwin, "Baldwin 27 November 2003 email "Bastards of Henry I, part 1: Introduction and Bibliography"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/yTTgtRZ87j4/m/uRyJPbrIYksJ) to e-mail address, 27 November 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Baldwin email #1 27 November 2003."
  • [S1537] Stewart Baldwin, "Baldwin 27 November 2003 email "Bastards of Henry I, part 2: sons"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/sosRxsz79Ag/m/jNT28df13wwJ) to e-mail address, 27 November 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Baldwin email #2 27 November 2003."
  • [S1538] Stewart Baldwin, "Baldwin 27 November 2003 email "Bastards of Henry I, part 3: daughters"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/4eAiRFBJ4_A/m/kh954g3PRaIJ) to e-mail address, 27 November 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Baldwin email #3 27 November 2003."
  • [S1539] Stewart Baldwin, "Baldwin 27 November 2003 email "Bastards of Henry I, part 4: probable, possible, etc."," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/JDscAx4oYYM/m/ZAAT71p31p4J) to e-mail address, 27 November 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Baldwin email #4 27 November 2003."
  • [S1540] Stewart Baldwin, "Baldwin 27 November 2003 email "Bastards of Henry I, part 5: mothers"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/JMuM7R8F_gE/m/NhzyYDcolkYJ) to e-mail address, 27 November 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Baldwin email #5 27 November 2003."
  • [S1556] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 1 Jan 2004: "Bastards of Robert 'Curthose', Duke of Normandy"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 1 Jan 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 1 Jan 2004."
  • [S1575] History Book Club FYI, "History Book Club FYI Ancient & Medieval History Newsletter: "William the Conqueror: The Bastard Who Became King"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to Greg Vaut, 10 Feb 2004. Hereinafter cited as "HBC FYI 10 Feb 2004."
  • [S1593] Kelsey J. Williams, "Williams email 24 Feb 2004 "Re: Kuman lines into European( and other )Royalty"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 16 Feb 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Williams email 16 Feb 2004."
  • [S1599] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email 3 March 2004 "Marriages of Isabelle of Angoulême's mother Alix de Courtenay"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 3 March 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 3 March 2004."
  • [S1646] Alasdair Friend, "Friend email 7 July 2004: "DFA: Scipio - Philagrius - Alfred"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 7 July 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Friend email 7 July 2004."
  • [S1671] Count W. H. Rüdt-Collenberg, The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans: The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (11, Rude de Lille, Paris 7e, France: Librairie C. Klincksieck for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Armenian Libraryn (Lisbon), 1963). Hereinafter cited as Rudt-Collenberg: The Rupenides, etc.
  • [S1704] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 17 Dec 2004 "A Plantagenet Descent: FitzWilliam of Woodhall to William Farrar"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/xCbd-kLQN30/m/PPe2A57bjJAJ) to e-mail address, 17 Dec 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 17 Dec 2004."
  • [S1769] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 12 Aug 2005: "Re: Count Odo/Cunegonde"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/EG8fUGArHIU/m/Kjp8At_SVwoJ) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 12 Aug 2005."
  • [S1781] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email 4 May 2005 "Death of Pippin the Fat"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 4 May 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 4 May 2005."
  • [S1836] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 14 Nov 2004: "Re: Wynflaed, great-grandmother of Æthelræd II of England"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 14 Nov 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 14 Nov 2004."
  • [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  • [S1936] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 25 Aug 2005: "Robert II of France to Maud de Bernake (was CP Addition:..)"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 25 Aug 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 25 Aug 2005."
  • [S1979] Douglas Richardson, "Mississippienne email 18 Oct 2005: "Grandchildren of Eleanor of Aquitaine"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 18 Oct 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Mississippienne email 18 Oct 2005."
  • [S2114] Doug Smith, "Smith email 17 Dec 2006 "Early Comtes de Boulogne"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 17 Dec 2006. Hereinafter cited as "Smith email 17 Dec 2006."
  • [S2286] Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online http://oxforddnb.com/index/. Hereinafter cited as ODNB - Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
  • [S2730] Frederick Edward Wright, compiler, MD Militia in the War of 1812 - 7 Volumes
    Volume 1 - Eastern Shore Counties
    (Silver Spring, MD: Family Line Publications, 2005). Hereinafter cited as MD Militia in the War of 1812.
  • [S3341] History The Interesting Bits, online http://historytheinterestingbits.com/. Hereinafter cited as History The Interesting Bits.
  • [S4743] Geneagraphie - Families all over the world (Website), online <http://geneagraphie.com/>. Hereinafter cited as Geneagraphie.
  • [S4750] Michael Anne Guido and John P. Ravilious, "From Theophanu to St. Margaret of Scotland: A study of Agatha's ancestry", Foundations IV:81-121 (Vol. IV, 2012). Hereinafter cited as "From Theophanu to St. Margaret."
  • [S4753] Christian Settipani, La Préhistoire des Capétiens, 481-987, première partie - Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (n.p.: Van Kerrebrouck, 1993). Hereinafter cited as Settipani [1993] La Préhistoire des Capétiens.
  • [S4777] Wikipedia - De vrije encyclopedie, online https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Hauptseite. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia (NL).
  • [S4805] Royaume Europe, online <https://royaumeurope.wordpress.com/>. Hereinafter cited as Royaume Europe.
  • [S4809] Christian Settipani, "Les origines des comtes de Nevers dans Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval", Prosopographica et Genealogica Vol. 3; pp. 85-112 (2000). Hereinafter cited as "Settipani [2000] Les origines des comtes de Never."