Rauffe/Ralph Sheldon of Beoley1

M, #92011, b. circa 1537, d. 31 March 1611
FatherWilliam Sheldon of Weston Warwickshire2,1 d. 23 Dec 1570
MotherMary Willington1
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Rauffe/Ralph Sheldon of Beoley married Anne Throckmorton, daughter of Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire and Muriel Berkeley;
His 1st wife.1 Rauffe/Ralph Sheldon of Beoley was born circa 1537.1
Rauffe/Ralph Sheldon of Beoley died on 31 March 1611.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Kwartierstatenboek 1993 De Herdenking van het 110-jarig best. K.N.G. v Geslacht en Wapenkunde. 81
     2. Harleian Society Publications Visitation series . 27:128
     3. Collections for a History of Worcestershire. 2 vols., 1781-2 , Nash, Treadway Russell. 1:64.1

Family

Anne Throckmorton b. c 1540, d. 16 Dec 1603

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rauffe|Ralph Sheldon, of Beoley: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00204553&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, William Sheldon, of Beoley: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00204566&tree=LEO

George Throckmorton1

M, #92012, b. 1545
FatherSir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire1 b. 1507, d. 12 Feb 1581
MotherHon. Elizabeth Hussey1 b. 1514, d. 23 Jan 1554
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     George Throckmorton was born in 1545 at Coughton, Warwickshire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, George Throckmorton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00651289&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Robert Throckmorton1

M, #92013, b. 1546
FatherSir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire1 b. 1507, d. 12 Feb 1581
MotherHon. Elizabeth Hussey1 b. 1514, d. 23 Jan 1554
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Robert Throckmorton was born in 1546 at Coughton, Warwickshire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Robert Throckmorton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00651290&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Anne Throckmorton1

F, #92014, b. 1548, d. after 1 January 1605
FatherSir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire1 b. 1507, d. 12 Feb 1581
MotherHon. Elizabeth Hussey1 b. 1514, d. 23 Jan 1554
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Anne Throckmorton was born in 1548 at Coughton, Warwickshire, England.1 She married Sir William Catesby of Ashby St. Legers on 9 June 1566 at Ashby St. Legers, Northamptonshire, England.2
Anne Throckmorton died after 1 January 1605.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1938. Page 2416
     2. Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.1

Family

Sir William Catesby of Ashby St. Legers b. 1546, d. Mar 1598
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Anne Throckmorton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344733&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir William Catesby, of Ashby St.Legers: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344732&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Robert Catesby: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00568644&tree=LEO

Sir William Catesby of Ashby St. Legers1

M, #92015, b. 1546, d. March 1598
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Sir William Catesby of Ashby St. Legers was born in 1546 at Ashby St. Legers, Northamptonshire, England.1 He married Anne Throckmorton, daughter of Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire and Hon. Elizabeth Hussey, on 9 June 1566 at Ashby St. Legers, Northamptonshire, England.1
Sir William Catesby of Ashby St. Legers died in March 1598 at Ashby St. Legers, Northamptonshire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1938. Page 2416
     2. Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.
     3. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia . for his son.1

Family

Anne Throckmorton b. 1548, d. a 1 Jan 1605
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir William Catesby, of Ashby St.Legers: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344732&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Robert Catesby: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00568644&tree=LEO

Robert Catesby1

M, #92016, b. 1573, d. 8 November 1605
FatherSir William Catesby of Ashby St. Legers1 b. 1546, d. Mar 1598
MotherAnne Throckmorton1 b. 1548, d. a 1 Jan 1605
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Robert Catesby was born in 1573.1
Robert Catesby died on 8 November 1605.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.1

;
Per Wikipedia:
     "Robert Catesby (born no earlier than 3 March 1572, died 8 November 1605) was the leader of a group of English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
     "Born in Warwickshire, Catesby was educated in Oxford. His family were prominent recusant Catholics, and presumably to avoid swearing the Oath of Supremacy he left college before taking his degree. He married a Protestant in 1593 and fathered two children, one of whom survived birth and was baptised in a Protestant church. In 1601 he took part in the Essex Rebellion but was captured and fined, after which he sold his estate at Chastleton.
     "The Protestant James I, who became King of England in 1603, was less tolerant of Catholicism than his followers had hoped. Catesby therefore planned to kill him by blowing up the House of Lords with gunpowder during the State Opening of Parliament, the prelude to a popular revolt during which a Catholic monarch would be restored to the English throne. Early in 1604 he began to recruit other Catholics to his cause, including Thomas Wintour, John Wright, Thomas Percy, and Guy Fawkes. Described latterly as a charismatic and influential man, over the following months he helped to bring a further eight conspirators into the plot, whose naissance was planned for 5 November 1605. A letter sent anonymously to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, alerted the authorities, and on the eve of the planned explosion, during a search of Parliament, Fawkes was found guarding the barrels of gunpowder. News of his arrest caused the other plotters to flee London, warning Catesby along their way.
     "With a much-diminished group of followers, Catesby made a stand at Holbeche House in Staffordshire, against a 200-strong company of armed men. He was shot and later found dead, clutching a picture of the Virgin Mary. As a warning to others, his body was exhumed and subsequently decapitated, his head exhibited outside Parliament.
Early life
Childhood
     "Robert Catesby was the third and only surviving son of Sir William and Anne (née Throckmorton) Catesby, and was born after 2 March 1572 at his father's main residence in Lapworth.[1] Robert was a lineal descendant of Sir William Catesby (1450–1485), the influential councillor of Richard III captured at the Battle of Bosworth and executed.[2] On his mother's side he was descended from Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton, and his second wife, Elizabeth Hussey.[3] His parents were prominent recusant Catholics; his father had suffered years of imprisonment for his faith,[1][3] and in 1581 had been tried in Star Chamber alongside William Vaux, 3rd Baron Vaux of Harrowden, and his brother-in-law Sir Thomas Tresham, for harbouring the Jesuit Edmund Campion.[4] The head of the Throckmortons, Sir Thomas Throckmorton, was also fined for his recusancy, and spent years in prison. Another relation, Sir Francis Throckmorton, had been executed in 1584 for his involvement in a plot to free Mary, Queen of Scots.[5]
     "In 1586 Robert was educated at Gloucester Hall in Oxford, a college noted for its Catholic intake.[1] Those either studying at university or wishing to take public office could not do so without first swearing the Oath of Supremacy,[6] an act which would have compromised Catesby's Catholic faith. Presumably to avoid this consequence, he left without taking his degree, and may then have attended the seminary college of Douai.[7]
     "In 1588 Robert was imprisoned at Wisbech Castle along with Francis Tresham.[8]
Adulthood
     "In 1593 he married Catherine Leigh, granddaughter of Sir Thomas Leigh of Stoneleigh Abbey in Warwickshire.[nb 1] Catherine came from a wealthy Protestant family and brought with her a dowry of £2,000, but also a religious association that offered Robert some respite from the recusancy laws then in effect. From the death of his grandmother the following year he inherited a property at Chastleton, in Oxfordshire. The couple's first son William died in infancy, but their second son Robert survived, and was baptised at Chastleton's Protestant church on 11 November 1595.[nb 2] When Catesby's father died in 1598, his estates at Ashby St Ledgers were left to his wife, while Catesby and his family remained at Chastleton. Catesby had seemed happy to remain a Church Papist[nb 3] but after his wife's death later that year he became radicalised, and reverted to a more fanatical Catholicism.[1][7][10]
     "In 1601 Catesby was involved in the Essex Rebellion. The Earl of Essex's purpose might have lain in furthering his own interests rather than those of the Catholic Church, but Catesby hoped that if Essex succeeded, there might once more be a Catholic monarch.[6] The rebellion was a failure however, and the wounded Catesby was captured, imprisoned at the Wood Street Counter,[11] and fined 4,000 marks (equivalent to over £6 million as of 2008)[nb 4][12] by Elizabeth I. Sir Thomas Tresham helped pay some of Catesby's fine,[13] following which Catesby sold his estate at Chastleton.[14][15] Several authors speculate about Catesby's movements as Elizabeth's health grew worse; he was probably among those "principal papists" imprisoned by a government fearing open rebellion,[16][17] and in March 1603 he possibly sent Christopher Wright to Spain to see if Philip III would continue to support English Catholics after Elizabeth's death.[nb 5] Catesby funded the activities of some Jesuit priests,[19] and while visiting them made occasional use of the alias Mr Roberts.[1]
Gunpowder Plot
Background
     "Catholics had hoped that the persecution they suffered during Elizabeth's reign would end when she was succeeded in 1603 by James I. His mother, Mary, Queen of Scots (executed in 1587 for treason), had been a devout Catholic, and James's attitude appeared moderate, even tolerant towards Catholics. Protestant rulers across Europe had, however, been the target of several assassination attempts during the late 16th century, and until the 1620s some English Catholics believed that regicide was justifiable to remove tyrants from power.[20] Much of James's political writing was concerned with such matters, and the "refutation of the [Catholic] argument that 'faith did not need to be kept with heretics'".[21] Shortly after he discovered that his wife Anne – who had been raised Lutheran and had abstained from the Anglican communion at her English coronation – had been sent a rosary from Pope Clement VIII, James exiled all Jesuits and other Catholic priests, and reimposed the collection of fines for recusancy.[22] Catesby soon began to lose patience with the new dynasty.[23]
     "British author and historian Antonia Fraser describes Catesby's mentality as "that of the crusader who does not hesitate to employ the sword in the cause of values which he considers are spiritual".[17] Writing after the events of 1604–1606, the Jesuit priest Father Tesimond's description of his friend was favourable: "his countenance was exceedingly noble and expressive ... his conversation and manners were peculiarly attractive and imposing, and that by the dignity of his character he exercised an irresistible influence over the minds of those who associated with him." Fellow conspirator Ambrose Rookwood, shortly before his own death, said that he "loved and respected him [Catesby] as his own life",[24] while Catesby's friend, Father John Gerard, claimed he was "respected in all companies of such as are counted there swordsmen or men of action", and that "few were in the opinions of most men preferred before him and he increased much his acquaintance and friends."[25] Author Mark Nicholls suggests that "bitterness at the failure of Essex's design nevertheless seems to have sharpened an already well-honed neurosis."[1]
Early stages
     "Despite the ease with which Catesby seems to have inspired his fellow conspirators, that it was he and not Fawkes (today most often associated with 5 November) who devised what became known as the Gunpowder Plot, has largely been forgotten.[26] The precise date on which he set events in motion is unknown, but it is likely that he first had the idea early in 1604.[1] Sometime around June of the previous year he was visited by his friend Thomas Percy. A great-grandson of the 4th Earl of Northumberland, Percy was reported to have had a "wild youth" before he became a Catholic, and during Elizabeth's final years had been entrusted by the 9th Earl with a secret mission to James's court in Scotland, to plead with the king on behalf of England's Catholics.[27] He now complained bitterly about what he considered to be James's treachery, and threatened to kill him. Catesby replied "No, no, Tom, thou shalt not venture to small purpose, but if thou wilt be a traitor thou shalt be to some great advantage." Percy listened while Catesby added "I am thinking of a most sure way and I will soon let thee know what it is." During Allhallowtide on 31 October he sent for his cousin Thomas Wintour, who was at Huddington Court in Worcestershire with his brother Robert. Thomas was educated as a lawyer and had fought for England in the Low Countries, but in 1600 had converted to Catholicism. Following the Earl of Essex's failed rebellion, he had travelled to Spain to raise support for English Catholics, a mission which the authorities would later describe as comprising part of a 'Spanish Treason'. Although Thomas declined his invitation,[28] Catesby again invited him in February the next year.[29][30]
     "When Wintour responded to the summons he found his cousin with the swordsman John Wright. Catesby told him of his plan to kill the king and his government by blowing up "the Parliament howse with Gunpowder ... in that place have they done us all the mischiefe, and perchance God hath designed that place for their punishment".[31] Wintour at first objected to his cousin's scheme, but Catesby, who said that "the nature of the disease required so sharp a remedy", won him over. Despite Catholic Spain's moves toward diplomacy with England,[32] Catesby still harboured hopes of foreign support and a peaceful solution. Wintour therefore returned to the continent, where he tried unsuccessfully to persuade the affable Constable of Castile to press for good terms for English Catholics in forthcoming peace negotiations. He then turned to Sir William Stanley, an English Catholic and veteran commander who had switched sides from England to Spain,[33] and the exiled Welsh spy Hugh Owen; both cast doubt on the plotters' chances of receiving Spanish support. Owen did, however, introduce Wintour to Guy Fawkes, whose name Catesby had already supplied as "a confidant gentleman" who might enter their ranks. Fawkes was a devout English Catholic who had travelled to the continent to fight for Spain in the Dutch War of Independence. Wintour told him of their plan to "doe some whatt in Ingland if the pece with Spaine healped us nott", and thus in April 1604 the two men returned home.[34] Wintour told Catesby that despite positive noises from the Spanish, he feared that "the deeds would nott answere". This was a response that in Nicholls's opinion came as no surprise to Catesby, who wanted and expected nothing less.[nb 6][1][35]
     "On Sunday 20 May in the well-to-do Strand district of London, Catesby met Thomas Wintour, John Wright, Thomas Percy and Guy Fawkes, at an inn called the Duck and Drake.[34] Percy had been introduced to the plot several weeks after Wintour and Fawkes's return to England.[36][37] Alone in a private room, all swore an oath of secrecy on a prayer book, and then in another room celebrated Mass with the Jesuit priest (and friend to Catesby) John Gerard.[38] Robert Keyes was admitted to the group in October 1604,[39] and was charged with looking after Catesby's Lambeth house, where the gunpowder and other supplies were to be stored. Two months later[nb 7] Catesby recruited his servant, Thomas Bates, into the plot,[40] after the latter accidentally became aware of it,[39] and by March 1605 three more were admitted: Thomas Wintour's brother Robert, John Grant and John Wright's brother Christopher.[29][41][42][43]
Further recruitment
     "Although the State Opening of Parliament was planned for February 1605, concern over the plague delayed it until 3 October. A contemporaneous government account has the plotters engaged in digging a tunnel beneath Parliament by December 1604, but no other evidence exists to prove this, and no trace of a tunnel has since been found. If the story is true, the plotters ceased their efforts when the tenancy to the undercroft beneath the House of Lords became available.[44][45] Several months later, early in June 1605, Catesby met the principal Jesuit in England, Father Henry Garnet, on Thames Street in London. While discussing the war in Flanders, Catesby asked about the morality of "killing innocents".[46] Garnet said that such actions could often be excused, but according to his own account during a second meeting in July he showed Catesby a letter from the pope which forbade rebellion. Catesby replied, "Whatever I mean to do, if the Pope knew, he would not hinder for the general good of our country." Father Garnet's protestations prompted Catesby's next reply, "I am not bound to take knowledge by you of the Pope's will."[47] Soon after, Father Tesimond told Father Garnet that while taking Catesby's confession[nb 8] he had learned of the plot. Father Garnet met with Catesby a third time on 24 July at White Webbs in Enfield Chase, the home of Catesby's wealthy relative Anne Vaux, and a house long suspected by the government of harbouring Jesuit priests.[49] Without acknowledging that he was aware of the precise nature of the plot, the priest tried in vain to dissuade Catesby from his course.[50]
     "By 20 July 1605, 36 barrels of gunpowder had been stored in the undercroft, but the ever-present threat of the plague yet again prorogued the opening of Parliament, this time until 5 November 1605.[51] Catesby had borne much of the scheme's financial cost thus far, and was running out of money.[52] As their plans moved closer to fruition, during a secret meeting at Bath in August at which he, Percy and Thomas Wintour were present, the plotters decided that "the company being yet but few" he was to be allowed to "call in whom he thought best". Catesby soon added Ambrose Rookwood, a staunch Catholic who was both young and wealthy, but who most importantly owned a stable of fine horses at Coldham. For the plan to work Rookwood and his horses needed to be close to the other conspirators, and so Catesby persuaded him to rent Clopton House at Stratford-upon-Avon. Francis Tresham was brought into the plot on 14 October.[53] Also descended from William Catesby, Tresham was Robert's cousin,[nb 9][54] and as young children the two had often visited White Webbs.[49] Although his account of the meeting is weighted with hindsight (when captured he sought to distance himself from the affair), he asked Catesby what support for the Catholics would be forthcoming once the king had been killed. Catesby's answer, "The necessity of the Catholics [was such that] it must needs be done", in Fraser's opinion demonstrates his unwavering view on the matter, held at least since his first meeting with Thomas Wintour early in 1604. The final conspirator to be brought in was Everard Digby, on 21 October, at Harrowden. Catesby confided in Digby during a delayed Feast of Saint Luke. Like Rookwood, Digby was young and wealthy, and possessed a stable of horses. Catesby told him to rent Coughton Court near Alcester, so that he would "the better to be able to do good to the cause [kidnap Princess Elizabeth]".[53]
     "The day after Tresham's recruitment, Catesby exchanged greetings in London with Fawkes's former employer, Lord Montague, and asked him "The Parliament, I think, brings your lordship up now?" Montague told him that he was visiting a relative, and that he would be at Parliament in a few weeks' time. Catesby replied "I think your Lordship takes no pleasure to be there". Montague, who had already been imprisoned for speaking out in the House of Lords against anti-Papist legislation, and who had no inclination to be present while more laws were introduced, agreed.[55] Following the plot's failure he became a suspect and was arrested, but after intense lobbying he was released some months later.[56]
     "The recruitment of Rookwood, Tresham and Digby coincided with a series of meetings in various taverns across London, during which the last remaining details were worked out. Fawkes would light the fuse, and escape by boat across the Thames. An uprising would start in the Midlands, during which Princess Elizabeth was to be captured. Fawkes would escape to the continent and explain to the Catholic powers what had happened in England.[55]
Monteagle letter
     "Several of the conspirators expressed worries about fellow Catholics who would be caught up in the planned explosion;[57] Percy was concerned for his patron, Northumberland, and when the young Earl of Arundel's name was mentioned Catesby suggested that a minor wound might keep him from the chamber on that day. Keyes's suggestion to warn the Earl of Peterborough was, however, derided.[58] On 26 October William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle (Tresham's brother-in-law) received an anonymous letter while at his house in Hoxton, warning him not to attend Parliament, and forecasting that "they shall receive a terrible blow this Parliament; and yet they shall not see who hurts them".[55] Uncertain of its meaning he delivered it to Secretary of State Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury.[59] In an extraordinary act of bravado Catesby had planned to go hunting with James, but was warned of the betrayal by Monteagle's servant. He immediately suspected that Tresham was responsible for the letter, a view which was shared by Thomas Wintour. Together the two confronted the recently recruited conspirator, and threatened to "hang him", but Tresham managed to convince the pair that he had not written the letter, and the next day urged them to abandon the plot.[60]
     "Catesby waited for Percy's return from the north, before making his decision.[61] He thought the letter too vague to constitute any meaningful threat to the plan, and decided to forge ahead. As Fawkes made a final check on the gunpowder, other conspirators took up their positions in the Midlands. Salisbury, already aware of certain stirrings before he received the letter, did not yet know the exact nature of the plot or who exactly was involved. He elected to wait, to see how events unfolded.[62] On 3 November, Catesby met with Wintour and Percy in London. Although the nature of their discussion is unknown, Fraser theorises that some adjustment of their plan to abduct Princess Elizabeth may have occurred, as later accounts told how Percy had been seen at the Duke of York's lodgings, enquiring as to the movements of the king's daughter.[63] Nicholls mentions that a week earlier—on the same day that Monteagle received his letter—Catesby was at White Webbs with Fawkes, to discuss kidnapping Prince Henry rather than Princess Elizabeth.[nb 10][64]
Death
     "Late on Monday 4 November, Catesby, John Wright and Bates left for the Midlands, ready for the planned uprising. That night Fawkes was discovered guarding the gunpowder in the undercroft beneath the House of Lords. As news of his arrest spread, the next day most of the conspirators still in London fled. Catesby's party, ignorant of what was happening in London, paused at Dunstable when his horse lost a shoe. When Rookwood caught them up and broke to them the news of Fawkes's arrest, the group, which now included Rookwood, Catesby, Bates, the Wright brothers and Percy, rode toward Dunchurch. At about 6:00 pm that evening they reached Catesby's family home at Ashby St Ledgers, where his mother and Robert Wintour were staying. To keep his mother ignorant of their situation, Catesby sent a message asking Wintour to meet him at the edge of the town. The group continued to Dunchurch, where they met Digby and his hunting party and informed them that the king and Salisbury were dead, thus persuading them to continue with the plan.[65]
     "On 6 November they raided Warwick Castle for supplies, before continuing to Norbrook to collect stored weapons. From there they continued their journey to Huddington. Catesby gave Bates a letter to deliver to Father Garnet and the other priests at Coughton Court, informing them of what had transpired, and asking for their help in raising an army in Wales, where Catholic support was believed to be strong. The priest begged Catesby and his followers to stop their "wicked actions", and to listen to the pope's preachings. Father Garnet fled, and managed to evade capture for several weeks. Catesby and the others arrived at Huddington at about 2:00 pm, and were met by Thomas Wintour. Terrified of being associated with the fugitives, family members and former friends showed them no sympathy.[66]
     "Back in London, under pain of torture Fawkes had started to reveal what he knew, and on 7 November the government named Catesby as a wanted man. Early that morning at Huddington, the remaining outlaws went to confession, before taking the sacrament — in Fraser's opinion, a sign that none of them thought they had long to live. The party of fugitives, which included those at the centre of the plot, their supporters and Digby's hunting party, by now had dwindled to only thirty-six in number.[67] They continued through pouring rain to Hewell Grange, home of the young Lord Windsor. He was absent however, so they helped themselves to further arms, ammunition, and money. The locals were unsupportive; on hearing that Catesby's party stood for "God and Country", they replied that they were for "King James as well as God and Country". The party reached Holbeche House, on the Staffordshire boundary, at about 10:00 pm. Tired and desperate, they spread in front of the fire some of the now-soaked gunpowder taken from Hewell Grange, to dry out. Although gunpowder does not explode (unless physically contained), a spark from the fire landed on the powder and the resultant flames engulfed Catesby, Rookwood, Grant, and another man.[66]
     "Catesby survived, albeit scorched. Digby left, ostensibly to give himself up, as did John Wintour. Thomas Bates fled, along with Robert Wintour. Remaining were Catesby (described as "reasonably well"), Rookwood, the Wright brothers, Percy and John Grant, who had been so badly injured that his eyes were "burnt out". They resolved to stay in the house and wait for the arrival of the king's men. Catesby, believing his death to be near, kissed the gold crucifix he wore around his neck and said he had given everything for "the honour of the Cross". He refused to be taken prisoner, "against that only he would defend himself with his sword".[68]

Richard Walsh, Sheriff of Worcester, and his company of 200 men besieged Holbeche House at about 11:00 am on 8 November. While crossing the courtyard Thomas Wintour was hit in the shoulder. John Wright was shot, followed by his brother, and then Rookwood. Catesby and Percy were reportedly both dropped by a single lucky shot, while standing near the door. Catesby managed to crawl inside the house, where his body was later found, clutching a picture of the Virgin Mary. This and his gold crucifix were sent to London, to demonstrate what "superstitious and Popish idols" had inspired the plotters.[68] The survivors were taken into custody and the dead buried near Holbeche. On the orders of the Earl of Northampton however, the bodies of Catesby and Percy were exhumed[69] and decapitated. John Harington, 2nd Baron Harington of Exton, made an opportune study of the heads while en route to London, and later reflected: "more terrible countenances were never looked upon".[70] Placed on "the side of the Parliament House", Catesby's head became one of the "sightless spectators of their own failure".[71]
Notable Descendants
     "Modern actor and producer Kit Harington is a direct descendant of Robert Catesby. He, along with co-creators Ronan Bennett and Daniel West, produced a three-part dramatization called Gunpowder with HBO delving into his ancestor's role as the mastermind of the Gunpowder Plot, with Harrington himself starring as Catesby.[72]
References
Notes
     "1. The indenture for this marriage is dated 2 March, and notes that he was not then 21 years old.[1]
     "2. Their son was taken to Ashby St Ledgers, and in later years married Thomas Percy's daughter.[1]
     "3. Church Papist was a nickname for those who conformed to the rules of the Protestant Church, but who secretly remained Catholic.[9]
     "4. Comparing relative average earnings of £3,000 in 1601 with 2008.
     "5. Wright might have used the alias Anthony Dutton.[18]
     "6. Philip III made peace with England in August 1604.[1]
     "7. According to Bates's confession.
     "8. Haynes (2005) writes that Tesimond took Thomas Bates' confession.[48]
     "9. Anne Throckmorton was sister to Meriel Throckmorton, Tresham's mother.[54]
     "10. Catesby had heard from Wintour that Prince Henry would not be at the opening of Parliament.[64]
Footnotes
     "1. Nicholls, Mark (2008) [2004], "Catesby, Robert (b. in or after 1572, d. 1605)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, hosted at oxforddnb.com, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4883, retrieved 27 May 2010 (subscription required)
     "2. Horrox, Rosemary (2008) [2004], "Catesby, William (b. in or before 1446, d. 1485)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, hosted at oxforddnb.com, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4884, retrieved 13 July 2010 (subscription required)
     "3. Fraser 2005, p. 110
     "1. Levy, Leonard W. (1969), "The Right Against Self-Incrimination: History and Judicial History", Political Science Quarterly, No. 1, The Academy of Political Science, hosted at jstor.org, 84 (1), p. 5, JSTOR 2147044 (subscription required)
     "5. Fraser 2005, p. 195
     "6. Fraser 2005, pp. 58–59
     "7. Fraser 2005, pp. 111–112
     "8. George Anniss. A History of Wisbech Castle. E A R O.
     "9. Walsham, Alexandra, Church Papists, Boydell Press, ISBN 0-86193-225-0, archived from the original on 30 June 2012, retrieved 15 July 2010
     "10. Sharpe 2005, p. 30
     "11. Bengsten 2005, p. 25
     "12. Officer, Lawrence H. (2009), Purchasing Power of British Pounds from 1264 to Present, measuringworth.com, archived from the original on 24 November 2009, retrieved 3 December 2009
     "13. Fraser 2005, p. xxiv
     "14. Haynes 2005, p. 47
     "15. Northcote Parkinson 1976, pp. 44–46
     "16. Fraser 2005, pp. xxv–xxvi
     "17. Fraser 2005, p. 112
     "18. Nicholls, Mark (2008) [2004], "Wright, John (bap. 1568, d. 1605)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, hosted at oxforddnb.com, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30028, retrieved 16 July 2010 (subscription required)
     "19. Haynes 2005, p. 49
     "20. Marshall 2006, p. 227
     "21. Marshall 2006, p. 228
     "22. Fraser 2005, pp. 41–42
     "23. Haynes, Alan (5 November 2009), The Enduring Memory of the Gunpowder Plot, bbc.co.uk, retrieved 14 July 2010
     "24. Spinks Jr 2005, pp. 24–25
     "25. Haynes 2005, p. 48
     "26. Sharpe 2005, p. 31
     "27. Fraser 2005, pp. 48–50
     "28. Haynes 2005, pp. 49–50
     "29. Fraser 2005, pp. 59–61
     "30. Fraser 2005, p. 93
     "31. Wormald, Jenny (1985), "Gunpower, Treason, and Scots", The Journal of British Studies, No. 2, The University of Chicago Press, hosted at      "32.jstor.org, 24 (2), pp. 141–168, JSTOR 175701 (subscription required)
     "33. Fraser 2005, p. 88
     "34. Fraser 2005, p. 87
     "35. Fraser 2005, pp. 117–119
     "36. Nicholls 1991, p. 39
     "37. Nicholls, Mark (2004), "Winter, Thomas (c. 1571–1606)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, hosted at oxforddnb.com, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29767, ISBN 0-19-865212-7, retrieved 16 November 2009 (subscription required)
     "38. Northcote Parkinson 1976, pp. 46–47
     "39. Fraser 2005, p. 120
     "40. Northcote Parkinson 1976, p. 96
     "41. Fraser 2005, pp. 130–132
     "42. Fraser 2005, pp. 56–57
     "43. Nelthorpe, Sutton (November – December 1935), Twigmore and the Gunpowder Plot, 8, Lincolnshire Magazine, p. 229
     "44. Fraser 2005, pp. 136–137
     "45. Haynes 2005, pp. 55–59
     "46. Fraser 2005, pp. 133–134
     "47. Fraser 2005, p. 154
     "48. Gardiner 1883, pp. 274–275
     "49. Haynes 2005, p. 62
     "50. Fraser 2005, pp. 42–43
     "51. Haynes 2005, pp. 65–67
     "52. Fraser 2005, pp. 146, 159
     "53. Nicholls 1991, p. 41
     "54. Fraser 2005, pp. 170–176
     "55. Nicholls, Mark (2004), "Tresham, Francis (1567?–1605)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, hosted at oxforddnb.com, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27708, retrieved 16 November 2009 (subscription required)
     "56. Fraser 2005, pp. 178–179
     "57. Haynes 2005, pp. 125–126
     "58. Northcote Parkinson 1976, pp. 62–63
     "59. Haynes 2005, p. 82
     "60. Haynes 2005, p. 89
     "61. Fraser 2005, pp. 180–182
     "62. Nicholls 1991, p. 43
     "63. Fraser 2005, pp. 187–189
     "64. Fraser 2005, pp. 197–198
     "65. Nicholls 1991, p. 42
     "66. Fraser 2005, pp. 200, 202–205
     "67. Fraser 2005, pp. 218–222
     "68. Fraser 2005, pp. 205–206
     "69 Fraser 2005, pp. 222–225
     "70. Dixon 1869, p. 190
     "71. Fraser 2005, p. 235
     "72. Haynes 2005, p. 104
     "73 "Kit Harington: My ancestor tried to blow up parliament". bbc.co.uk. 19 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
Bibliography
     "---Bengsten, Fiona (2005), Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower, and the Gunpowder Plot (illustrated ed.), Trafford Publishing, ISBN 1-4120-5541-5
     "---Dixon, William Hepworth (2009) [1869], Her Majesty's Tower, 2, Charleston, South Carolina: BiblioBazaar, LLC, ISBN 1-103-08639-1
     "---Fraser, Antonia (2005) [1996], The Gunpowder Plot, London: Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-1401-3
     "---Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1883), "The Oath of Allegiance", History of England from the accession of James I. to the outbreak of the civil war 1603-1642, London: Longmans, Green, 1
     "---Haynes, Alan (2005) [1994], The Gunpowder Plot: Faith in Rebellion, Sparkford, England: Hayes and Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-4215-0
     "---Marshall, John (2006), John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-65114-1
     "---Nicholls, Mark (1991), Investigating Gunpowder plot, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-3225-3
     "---Northcote Parkinson, C. (1976), Gunpowder Treason and Plot, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-77224-4
     "---Sharpe, J. A. (2005), Remember, remember: a cultural history of Guy Fawkes Day, London: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01935-0
     "---Spinks Jr, Henry Hawkes (2005) [1902], The Gunpowder Plot and Lord Mounteagle's Letter, Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4179-3083-7."2
;
Per Wikipedia:
     "Robert Wintour (1568 – 30 January 1606) and Thomas Wintour (1571 or 1572 – 31 January 1606), also spelt Winter, were members of the Gunpowder Plot, a failed conspiracy to assassinate King James I. Brothers, they were related to other conspirators, such as their cousin, Robert Catesby, and a half-brother, John Wintour, also joined them following the plot's failure. Thomas was an intelligent and educated man, fluent in several languages and trained as a lawyer, but chose instead to become a soldier, fighting for England in the Low Countries, France, and possibly in Central Europe. By 1600, however, he changed his mind and became a fervent Catholic. On several occasions he travelled to the continent and entreated Spain on behalf of England's oppressed Catholics, and suggested that with Spanish support a Catholic rebellion was likely.
     "As momentum was building behind a peace settlement between the two countries, Thomas's pleas fell on deaf ears. Instead, in 1604 he decided to join with Catesby, who planned to restore England to Catholicism by killing the king, and inciting a popular revolt in the Midlands, during which James's daughter, Princess Elizabeth, would be installed as titular queen. Thomas returned to the continent and again failed to elicit Spanish support, but instead met Guy Fawkes, with whom he returned to England. Robert, a devout Catholic who inherited Huddington Court near Worcester, joined the conspiracy the following year.
     "The plot began to unravel following the delivery of an anonymous letter to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, warning him to stay away from Parliament. Thomas and Catesby confronted Monteagle's brother-in-law, the recently recruited Francis Tresham, threatening to kill him, but Tresham managed to convince them of his innocence. At that stage Thomas reportedly asked Catesby to abandon the scheme, to no avail. When Fawkes was captured at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Thomas fled to Robert's house at Huddington. Catesby and most of the others spent two days travelling across the Midlands attempting to incite a rebellion, but with an ever-diminishing group of supporters they eventually settled at Holbeche House in Staffordshire, and waited for government forces to arrive. Thomas, by then reintegrated into the group, chose to remain with them, and in the ensuing firefight was shot in the shoulder, and captured. Robert, who had left before the battle, evaded capture until January 1606.
     "Much of what is written about the plot is based on Thomas's confessions, given in the Tower of London in November 1605. The brothers were tried on 27 January 1606, and hanged, drawn and quartered several days later in London.
Family and life before 1604
     "Robert (b. 1568) and Thomas Wintour (b. 1571–72)[1] were sons of George Wintour of Huddington Court in Worcestershire, and his wife Jane (née Ingleby), daughter of Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle near Knaresborough. A sister, Dorothy, married another conspirator, John Grant.[nb 1] Two agnate half-siblings, John and Elizabeth, resulted from their father's marriage to Elizabeth Bourn, following Jane's death.[3] Their paternal grandparents were Robert Wintour of Cavewell in Gloucestershire, and his wife Catherine, daughter of Sir George Throckmorton of Coughton in Warwickshire. As scions of the Throckmortons, they could therefore claim a kinship with plotters like Robert Catesby and Francis Tresham.[1] Their maternal uncle Francis Ingleby, a Catholic priest, was hanged, drawn and quartered at York in 1586, a fact which in the opinion of historian and author Antonia Fraser, "could hardly have failed to leave a stark impression upon the Wintour family." The Wintours took their name from the Welsh Gwyn Tour (White Tower). 'Wyntour' was sometimes used in signatures, but not 'Winter'[3][4] (as the brothers are commonly named).
     "A faithful Catholic, Robert was married to Gertrude Talbot, daughter of the recusant John Talbot of Grafton. He inherited the Tudor Huddington Court near Worcester, along with a significant fortune with which he was known to be generous. Under Robert, Huddington Court became a known refuge for priests.[5] The proclamation for his capture, issued following the plot's failure, described him as "a man of mean stature, and rather low than otherwise; square made, somewhat stooping; near 40 years of age; his hair and beard brown; his beard not much, and his hair short."[6] The Jesuit John Gerard wrote that he was "esteemed in his life to be one of the wisest and most resolute and sufficient gentlemen in Worcestershire".[7] Gerard's appraisal of Thomas was just as complimentary. He was apparently an intelligent, witty and educated man, who could speak Latin, Italian, Spanish and French. "He was of mean stature, but strong and comely and very valient, about 33 years old or somewhat more."[8] Thomas worked as a servant to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle.[9] He was educated as a lawyer, but following several years of dissipation travelled to Flanders and enrolled in the English army. He fought against Catholic Spain in the Low Countries, France and possibly against the Turks in Central Europe. However, by 1600 his views had changed; citing his belief in the injustice of fighting against the power of Catholic Spain, like his elder brother he became a passionate Catholic. Travelling as 'Mr Winter of Worcestershire', from 24 February 1601 he spent 13 days in Rome for the jubilee,[3] and later that year and into 1602 travelled to Spain, to petition the Council on behalf of the Catholic rebels left leaderless by the execution of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.[nb 2] Father Henry Garnet, perhaps thinking that the purpose behind Thomas's visit was to gain financial support for impoverished English Catholics, sent him to Superior Father Joseph Creswell, who made the introductions to the Spanish.[10] This trip to Spain later became the first of two visits to be dubbed by the English government as the Spanish Treason, but Thomas's timing was unfortunate, coming as it did so soon after Spain's failed attack in Ireland, and he received only vague assurances of their support.[11] In England he met with the Spanish embassy Don Juan de Tassis, who in August 1603 landed at Dover to help negotiate an Anglo-Spanish treaty. Tassis quickly realised that any chance of a successful Catholic rebellion was unlikely, and discounted Thomas's claim that, with funding, "3,000 Catholics" would be available for the cause. After meeting with King James he wrote to Spain emphasising the need to prioritise peace with England over the freedom of her Catholics.[12]
Thomas meets with Robert Catesby and John Wright
     "'I remained with my brother in the country for Allhollantide, in the year of our Lord 1603, the first of the King's reign, about which time, Mr. Catesby sent thither, entreating me to come to London, where he and other friends would be glad to see me. I desired him to excuse me, for I found not myself very well disposed, and (which had happened never to me before) returned the messenger without my company. Shortly I received another letter, in any wise to come. At the second summons I presently came up and found him with Mr. John Wright at Lambeth, where he brake with me how necessary it was not to forsake my country (for he knew I had then a resolution to go over), but to deliver her from the servitude in which she remained, or at least to assist her with our uttermost endeavours. Thomas Wintour[13]
     "According to contemporary accounts late in February 1604 Thomas's cousin, Robert Catesby, invited him to his house in Lambeth, but Thomas was indisposed and could not attend. Catesby sent a second letter that Thomas did respond to,[10] and when he arrived he found his cousin with John Wright, a devout Catholic and a renowned swordsman. Catesby planned to re-establish Catholicism in England by blowing up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament, killing the king. Thomas did not immediately recoil from the idea. As a former soldier he was a practical man,[14] and he agreed with Catesby that should the plot succeed, it would "breed a confusion fit to beget new alterations".[15] He also offered a warning of the price of failure: "the scandal would be so great which the Catholic religion might hereby sustain, as not only our enemies, but our friends also would with good reason condemn us."[15] He nevertheless agreed to join the conspiracy, and as Catesby had not entirely given up hope of foreign support—"because we will leave no peaceable and quiet way untried"[15]—Thomas returned to the continent.[16][17]
     "In Flanders he met Juan Fernández de Velasco, 5th Duke of Frías and Constable of Castile, who was holding court there before his journey to England to conclude the Treaty of London. Thomas again stressed the plight of English Catholics, hoping to influence the forthcoming treaty negotiations due to take place at Somerset House in London.[18] The Constable was "friendly rather than forthcoming".[19] Thomas also met the Welsh spy Hugh Owen, and Sir William Stanley, who were both disparaging of Catesby's hopes of Spanish assistance. Owen did, however, introduce Thomas to Guy Fawkes, a committed Catholic who had served under Stanley as a soldier in the Southern Netherlands. Although at that time the plotters had no detailed plans, Thomas told Fawkes of their ambition to "do somewhat in England", should Spanish support be lacking. In late April therefore the two men returned together to Catesby's lodgings at Lambeth, and told him that despite positive noises from the Spanish, "the deeds would nott answere".[nb 3][20][21][22]..
Robert joins
     "With the addition to the conspiracy of Thomas Percy (John Wright's brother-in-law), the five plotters met at the Duck and Drake inn, in the fashionable Strand district of London, on 20 May 1604.[23] From hereon Thomas Wintour remained at the heart of the conspiracy. The group leased properties in London, one in Lambeth for storing the gunpowder that was rowed across the Thames to its destination.[24][25] His confession has the plotters digging a tunnel toward their target during one of the several prorogations of Parliament,[nb 4] abandoned when the chamber directly beneath the House of Lords became available.[3][26][27]
     "Following the meeting in May Catesby enlisted the aid of several more Catholic men, including Robert Wintour.[nb 5] On the same day he was admitted to the plot, 25 March 1605, the conspirators also purchased the lease to the undercroft they had supposedly tunnelled near. It was into this room that 36 barrels of gunpowder were brought, but when in late August Thomas and Fawkes made an inspection of the gunpowder, they found that it had decayed (separated). Thus, more gunpowder was brought in.[29]
     "Shortly after this, Catesby recruited the last three conspirators, Sir Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. The latter's involvement in the plot has long been the subject of controversy, as on 26 October his brother-in-law William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, received an anonymous letter while at home, warning him to stay away from Parliament.[30] Thomas went with Catesby to confront Tresham on the matter, threatening to "hang him" if he did not exonerate himself. Tresham managed to convince the pair that he was innocent, but Thomas then tried unsuccessfully to persuade Catesby to abandon the plot.[31] His pleas were in vain; Catesby's position was echoed by Percy, who at a meeting of the three in London on Sunday 3 November, said that he was ready to "abide the uttermost trial".[32] On the same day, Robert and three others stayed at the home of John Talbot of Grafton, his father-in-law. His friends were Robert Acton and his two sons, plus servants. The group left the following morning with extra horses supplied by Everard Digby, and travelled to Coventry.[33]
Failure and capture
     "Monteagle had delivered the letter to the English Secretary of State, Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, and on Saturday 2 November (about a week later) the Privy Council decided to undertake a search of Parliament.[34] The following Monday, during the first search, Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, noticed the huge pile of faggots in the corner of the cellar beneath the House of Lords. The king insisted that another search be made, and about midnight another party, this time led by Thomas Knyvet, 1st Baron Knyvet, discovered Fawkes and arrested him.[35]
     "News of Fawkes's capture soon spread throughout London, including the Strand, where Christopher Wright, John Wright's brother, overheard the commotion. He immediately went to Thomas, who was staying at the Duck and Drake inn. As Fawkes had given his name as "John Johnson", servant of Percy, it was for the latter that the government's first arrest warrant was issued. Thomas guessed as much, and told Wright to go to Percy and "bid him begone". As the rest of those conspirators still in London fled the city, undaunted, he went over to Westminster to try and discern what he could. In author Alan Haynes's opinion, this demonstrated an impressive degree of trust in Fawkes's ability to confound his interrogators,[36] but when Thomas heard for himself that the treason had been uncovered, he left for Huddington, stopping at his sister's house in Norbrook along the way.[37]
     "The fugitives reached Catesby's family home of Ashby St Ledgers at about 6:00 pm. Not wanting to implicate his mother, Catesby sent a message to Robert, who had just recently arrived there, asking to meet just outside the town.[nb 6] There he told him that Fawkes had been captured.[38] At Dunchurch they collected Everard Digby and his 'hunting party', which included Robert and Thomas's half-brother, John Wintour. He had been invited to join them on 4 November.[39] The next day the group raided Warwick Castle for supplies, something that Robert strongly objected to as it would create "a great uproar" in the country, and later arrived at Huddington Court, where they met Thomas. Early the next morning Huddington's occupants went to confession and took the Sacrament at Mass—in Fraser's opinion, a sign that none of them thought they had long to live. They collected further arms and munitions from Hewell Grange, but trying to recruit more people to their cause they were met with disdain; while the conspirators considered themselves to stand for "God and country", the men of Hewell Grange replied that they were for "King James as well as God and Country". Late that night, pulling a sodden cart full of weapons and armour behind them, they arrived at Holbeche House, near Kingswinford in Staffordshire. Robert was asked if he would go and see if he could elicit any help from his father-in-law, John Talbot at his mansion at 'Pepperhill'. He refused, and Thomas went instead, with Stephen Littleton.[40] Talbot was, however, loyal to James, and sent them away, claiming that their visit was "as much as his life was worth". While returning to Holbeche, they received a message that Catesby, Rookwood, John Grant and another man were dead, and the rest apparently fled. Tired and desperate, the plotters had attempted to dry their soaked gunpowder in front of the fire, only for a stray spark to ignite it. While Littleton chose to leave, begging his companion to follow his example, Thomas continued on to Holbeche, where he found the remaining plotters alive, but injured.[41][42]
     "While several including Robert and his half-brother John chose to vanish into the night, Catesby, Percy, the Wright brothers, Grant, Rookwood and Thomas remained. Thomas asked them what they intended to do – "We mean here to die". Thomas replied "I will take such part as you do". Richard Walsh, Sheriff of Worcester, arrived with a vigilante force of about 200 men early on 8 November. Thomas was the first to be hit, in the shoulder, while crossing the courtyard. The Wright brothers were next, followed by Rookwood, still injured from the explosion the night before. Catesby and Percy were dropped by a single lucky shot. The sheriff's men then proceeded to strip the defenders of their valuables, but Thomas was saved by the sheriff's assistant.[43] His fine sword, ordered and paid for four months previously, apparently proved too great a temptation for the Sheriff's men, as it was never seen again.[44] He and the others were taken first to Worcester, and then to the Tower of London.[45] Despite a proclamation of 18 November naming them as wanted men, Robert Wintour and Stephen Litteton managed to evade capture until 9 January 1606.[46] They spent about two months hiding out in barns and houses; at one point they were forced to restrain a drunken poacher who happened upon their hiding place. They were eventually discovered at the house of Humphrey Littleton in Hagley, after a cook, John Finwood, informed on them. Humphrey managed to escape, but was captured at Prestwood, in Staffordshire.[47]
Thomas's confession
     "Historically, much of what is written about the Gunpowder Plot is derived from Thomas's confession, signed on 23 November 1605; details of the so-called Spanish Treason were added three days later. One of only two confessions printed in the King's Book (a highly partial contemporary account of the affair),[48] Thomas Wintour's was the only account the government had of a plotter who had been involved from the beginning; Guy Fawkes, weakened by days of torture, may have been at the heart of the group, but he was not at its first meetings. However, Antonia Fraser views the document with suspicion, not least because Thomas's signature, 'Thomas Winter', differs from his normal signature, 'Thomas Wintour' (it was the former that was invariably used by the government). The signature, possibly forged by lieutenant of the Tower of London William Waad, was made only weeks after Thomas had been shot in the shoulder during the siege at Holbeche House. Biographer Mark Nicholls views the difference in signatures as a significant and puzzling lapse, if a "master forger" is presumed to be responsible for the document. He views the handwriting on the confession as "convincingly that of Winter [Wintour]", pointing out that it appears to be the work of an author, not an editor, and written as a draft for the King's Book.[3] This is a view that generally, Alan Haynes agrees with: "no one has ever made a solid and sensible suggestion about why a government-employed forger (say Thomas Phelippes) would deliberately make such an error in a crucial state document".[48]
     "Another of Fraser's concerns is Waad's report to Salisbury on 21 November: "Thomas Winter doth find his hand so strong as after dinner he will settle himself to write that he hath verbally declared to your Lordship adding what he shall remember"[49]—or rather, what he was told to remember. A draft of Thomas's confession, in Coke's handwriting, places extra weight on the involvement of the Jesuits. Thomas's confession also details his account of the mine supposedly dug toward Parliament, not mentioned in Fawkes's first confession.[3][50]
Trial and death
     "A busy urban scene. Medieval buildings surround an open space, in which several men are being dragged by horses. One man hangs from a scaffold. A corpse is being hacked into pieces. Another man is feeding a large cauldron with a dismembered leg. Thousands of people line the streets and look from windows. Children and dogs run freely. Soldiers keep them back.
Print of members of the Gunpowder Plot being hanged, drawn, and quartered
The trial of the eight surviving conspirators began on Monday 27 January. The two brothers were brought with the other plotters by barge from the Tower (Catebsy's servant, Thomas Bates, arrived from the Gatehouse Prison), to Whitehall. They were kept in Star Chamber, before being led into Westminster Hall. Charged with high treason, and with no defence counsel, the outcome was never in doubt. The Spanish Treason was a feature of Attorney General Edward Coke's rhetoric, although the Spanish king was "reverently and respectfully spoken of". The Jesuits, such as Henry Garnet, were condemned. Each of the brothers' confessions were also read aloud. While in the Tower, Robert and Fawkes had shared adjacent cells, and were able to speak to each other. However, their private conversation was secretly recorded, and read aloud during the trial.[51]
     "When asked if he had anything to say, "wherefore judgement of death should not be pronounced", Thomas spoke of his regret at having introduced Robert to the plot, and asked to be hanged on his behalf as well as his own. Robert merely begged for mercy.[51] At the end of the trial, the jury pronounced them all guilty of high treason.[52]
     "Everard Digby, Robert Wintour, John Grant and Thomas Bates were executed on Thursday 30 January 1606. Dragged by horse to Old St Paul's Cathedral, Robert was the second to be executed, praying quietly to himself before he was hanged, drawn and quartered. The following morning, the remaining four were dragged to the Old Palace Yard at Westminster, opposite the building they had planned to destroy. Thomas was the first to mount the scaffold. It was customary to grant the condemned a speech, but Thomas, "a very pale and dead colour", said it was "no time to discourse: he was come to die". He absolved the Jesuits of any involvement in the plot, asked for Catholics to pray for him, and declared his adherence to the Roman religion. He was hanged for only a few seconds, and then taken to the block for the remainder of his grim sentence.[53] Their half-brother John was executed at Red Hill near Worcester, on 7 April.[54]
References
Footnotes
     1. Author Alan Haynes mentions another sister, Anne Winter, married to John Ashfield.[2] No other source used in this article makes this claim.
     2. Essex was executed for staging a failed coup d'état against Queen Elizabeth I.
     3. Philip III made peace with England in August 1604.[20]
     4. The existence of this tunnel is disputed by Antonia Fraser.
     5. Alan Haynes suggests the enlistment was in January 1605.[28]
     6. Robert had collected Stephen and Humphrey Littleton, and extra horsemen along the way, but had left them at some point to head for Catesby's home.[28]
Notes
     1. Fraser 2005, p. 57
     2. Haynes 2005, p. 78
     3. Nicholls, Mark (2008) [2004], "Winter , Thomas (c.1571–1606)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press,      4.doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29767, retrieved 27 October 2010
     5. Fraser 2005, p. 59
     6. Fraser 2005, pp. 59–60
     7. Brydges 1813, p. 21
     8. Gerard 1871, p. 218
     9. Gerard 1871, pp. 58–59
     10. Bengsten 2005, p. 46
     12. Haynes 2005, p. 50
     13. Fraser 2005, pp. 60–63
     14. Fraser 2005, pp. 90–95
     15. Gardiner & Gerard 1897, p. 58
     16. Haynes 2005, p. 52
     17. Gardiner & Gerard 1897, p. 59
     18. Fraser 2005, pp. 117–118
     19. Northcote Parkinson 1976, pp. 44–46
     20. Haynes 2005, p. 42
     21. Fraser 2005, p. 118
     22. Nicholls, Mark (2008) [2004], "Catesby, Robert (b. in or after 1572, d. 1605)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, hosted at oxforddnb.com, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4883, retrieved 27 May 2010(subscription required)
     23. Nicholls 1991, p. 39
     24. Fraser 2005, pp. 118–119
     25. Fraser 2005, pp. 117, 119
     26. Northcote Parkinson 1976, p. 52
     27. Haynes 2005, pp. 54–55
     28. Fraser 2005, pp. 133–134
     29. Haynes 2005, pp. 55–59
     30. Haynes 2005, p. 57
     31. Fraser 2005, pp. 144, 146, 170
     32. Haynes 2005, p. 89
     33. Fraser 2005, pp. 171–175, 179–180, 182, 189
     34. Fraser 2005, p. 197
     35. Haynes 2005, pp. 96–97
     36. Haynes 2005, pp. 89, 196–197
     37. Fraser 2005, pp. 201–203
     38. Haynes 2005, p. 96
     39. Fraser 2005, pp. 203–205
     40. Fraser 2005, p. 205
     41. Fraser 2005, p. 199
     42. Haynes 2005, p. 100
     43. Fraser 2005, pp. 218, 220–223
     44. Nicholls 1991, pp. 19–20
     46. Fraser 2005, pp. 218–225
     47. Haynes 2005, pp. 160–161
     48. Fraser 2005, p. 235
     49. Nicholls 1991, p. 24
     50. Fraser 2005, p. 256
     51. Haynes 2005, p. 106
     52. Gardiner & Gerard 1897, p. 70
     53. Fraser 2005, pp. 242–246
     54. Fraser 2005, pp. 263–271
     55. Fraser 2005, p. 273
     56. Fraser 2005, pp. 277–282
     57. Fraser 2005, p. 315
Bibliography
     ---Bengsten, Fiona (2005), Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower, and the Gunpowder Plot (illustrated ed.), Trafford Publishing, ISBN 1-4120-5541-5
     ---Brydges, Sir Egerton (1813), "Restituta: or, Titles, extracts, and characters of old books in English literature, revived", Restituta, Printed by T. Bensley for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 2
     ---Fraser, Antonia (2005) [1996], The Gunpowder Plot, London: Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-1401-3
     ---Gardiner, Samuel Rawson; Gerard, John (1897), What gunpowder plot was, London: Longmans
     ---Gerard, John (1871), John Morris (ed.), The condition of Catholics under James I : Father Gerard's narrative of the Gunpowder Plot, 1, London: Longmans, Green
     ---Haynes, Alan (2005) [1994], The Gunpowder Plot: Faith in Rebellion, Sparkford, England: Hayes and Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-4215-0
     ---Nicholls, Mark (1991), Investigating Gunpowder plot, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-3225-3
     ---Northcote Parkinson, C. (1976), Gunpowder Treason and Plot, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-77224-4.

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Robert Catesby: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00568644&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Catesby. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.

Muriel Throckmorton1

F, #92017, b. 1550, d. 1615
FatherSir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire1 b. 1507, d. 12 Feb 1581
MotherHon. Elizabeth Hussey1 b. 1514, d. 23 Jan 1554
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Muriel Throckmorton was born in 1550 at Coughton, Warwickshire, England.1 She married Sir Thomas Tresham of Rushton in 1568 at Rushton, Northamptonshire, England.2
Muriel Throckmorton died in 1615.1
     ;
Per Genealogics: "Muriel was one of the eight daughters of Sir Robert Throckmorton and his second wife Elizabeth Hussey. In 1566 she married Sir Thomas Tresham. Her son Francis was one of the conspirators in the Gunpowder plot in 1605. News of the failure of the plot was brought to her at Coughton Court on the morning of 6 November 1605. After the death of her husband and eldest son, she tried to restore the fortunes of the family's estates at Rushton and Lyvedem. However Lewis, the next heir, was as reckless as his elder brother Francis had been and the debts increased."1

Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1938. Page 2416
     2. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies 1841 .
     3. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1970.
     4. A Genealogical and Historical Account of the Throckmorton Family. 1930 , Throckmorton, C. Wickliffe. 121
     5. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1963 . 2404.1

Family

Sir Thomas Tresham of Rushton b. Sep 1543, d. 11 Sep 1605

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Muriel Throckmorton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00021598&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Thomas Tresham, of Rushton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00021597&tree=LEO

Sir Thomas Tresham of Rushton1

M, #92018, b. September 1543, d. 11 September 1605
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Sir Thomas Tresham of Rushton was born in September 1543 at Rushton, Northamptonshire, England.1 He married Muriel Throckmorton, daughter of Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire and Hon. Elizabeth Hussey, in 1568 at Rushton, Northamptonshire, England.1
Sir Thomas Tresham of Rushton died on 11 September 1605 at Rushton, Northamptonshire, England.1
     ;
Per Genealogics:
     "He was described as 'zealous in the Roman Persuasion which afterwards cost him a long confinement in Wisbich Castle'. The Treshams were one of the leading recusant families of the time. His ancestors had come to Northants from Gloucestershire and the family acquired large estates in Northants, including Lyveden and Rushton. Thomas inherited these from his grandfather in 1559 when he was only fifteen.
     "He was clever and well educated and was acquainted with Sir Christopher Hatton, the Lord Chancellor, who secured valuable positions at court for the Treshams. In spite of his Catholic background, he was knighted by Elizabeth I on 16 July 1575 during her 'progress' at Kenilworth. Although he was a ruthless and efficient farmer, he enjoyed an expensive and lavish lifestyle. He also had to pay penalties of just under 8000 pounds as a recusant. He was also seized as a hostage whenever the machinations of Catholics abroad seemed to threaten the safety of the country and spent nearly 25 years in custody. As a result on his death, he left reduced estates and debts of over 11,000 pounds."1

Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Complete Peerage, 1936 , Doubleday, H.A. & Lord Howard de Walden. III 13
     2. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1938. Pages 86, 2416
     3. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies 1841 .
     4. The Complete Peerage, 1936 , Doubleday, H.A. & Lord Howard de Walden. Morley
     5. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , Sellar, W. D. H.
     6. Visitations of Northamptonshire in 1564 and 1618-19 , Metcalfe, Walter. 202
     7. Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.
     8. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies . 532.1

Family

Muriel Throckmorton b. 1550, d. 1615

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Thomas Tresham, of Rushton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00021597&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Elizabeth Throckmorton1

F, #92019, b. 1552
FatherSir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire1 b. 1507, d. 12 Feb 1581
MotherHon. Elizabeth Hussey1 b. 1514, d. 23 Jan 1554
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Elizabeth Throckmorton married Sir Anthony Tyringham of Tyringham.2 Elizabeth Throckmorton was born in 1552 at Coughton, Warwickshire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1938. Pages 86, 2416
     2. Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.1

Family

Sir Anthony Tyringham of Tyringham

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elizabeth Throckmorton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344735&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Anthony Tyringham, of Tyringham: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344734&tree=LEO

Frances Throckmorton1

F, #92021, b. 1554
FatherSir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire1 b. 1507, d. 12 Feb 1581
MotherHon. Elizabeth Hussey1 b. 1514, d. 23 Jan 1554
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Frances Throckmorton was born in 1554 at Coughton, Warwickshire, England.1 She married Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas, son of Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas and Mary Griffith, in 1566 at Malpas, Cheshire, England (now).2,1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1938. Pages 86, 2416
     2. A Genealogical and Historical Account of the Throckmorton Family. 1930 , Throckmorton, C. Wickliffe. 124.1

;
Per Genealogics: "her first name is not Temperance, Visitation of Cheshire 1580."1

Family

Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas b. 1546, d. 8 May 1611

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Frances Throckmorton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344737&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Randall Brereton, of Malpas: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344736&tree=LEO

Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas1

M, #92022, b. 1521
FatherSir Randall Brereton of Malpas1 d. 10 Nov 1533
MotherIsabel Butler of Tyringham1
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas married Mary Griffith, daughter of Sir William Griffith Knt., KB, of Penrhyn, Caernarvonshire and Jane Puleston;
Her 1st husband.2 Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas was born in 1521.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants to the American Colonies of the United States; Baltimore, 2004, Roberts, Gary Boyd. Page 244
     2. The History of the County Palatine and City of Chester 2nd Edition, Ormerod, George & Thomas Helsby. 2:687.1

Family

Mary Griffith d. b 21 Oct 1588
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Randle Brereton, of Malpas: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00479638&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mary Griffith: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00479639&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Randall Brereton, of Malpas: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344736&tree=LEO

Mary Griffith1

F, #92023, d. before 21 October 1588
FatherSir William Griffith Knt., KB, of Penrhyn, Caernarvonshire1,2 b. c 1480
MotherJane Puleston2,1
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Mary Griffith married Sir Hugh Cholmondeley of Cholmondeley, son of Richard Cholmondeley of Cholmondeley and Elizabeth Brereton;
Her 2nd husband; his 2nd wife.3,1 Mary Griffith married Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas, son of Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas and Isabel Butler of Tyringham;
Her 1st husband.1
Mary Griffith died before 21 October 1588.1
Mary Griffith was buried on 21 October 1588 at St. Oswald Church, Malpas, Cheshire, England.1


     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants to the American Colonies of the United States; Baltimore, 2004, Roberts, Gary Boyd. Page 244
     2. Pedigrees of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire 1914 , Griffith, John Edwards. 185
     3. Welsh Genealogies 300-1400. 8 vols. , Bartrum, Peter C. Marchudd 6(B4)
     4. The Welsh Families of Penrhyn. 1985 , Pennant, E.H. Douglas. 20.1

Family 1

Sir Hugh Cholmondeley of Cholmondeley b. c 1513, d. 6 Jan 1597

Family 2

Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas b. 1521
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mary Griffith: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00479639&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir William, Jr. Griffith, of Penrhyn Castle: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00249259&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Hugh Cholmondeley, of Cholmondeley: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00523364&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Randall Brereton, of Malpas: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344736&tree=LEO

Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas1

M, #92024, b. 1546, d. 8 May 1611
FatherSir Randall Brereton of Malpas1 b. 1521
MotherMary Griffith1 d. b 21 Oct 1588
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas was born in 1546 at Malpas, Cheshire, England (now).1 He married Frances Throckmorton, daughter of Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton Court, Warwickshire and Hon. Elizabeth Hussey, in 1566 at Malpas, Cheshire, England (now).1,2
Sir Randall Brereton of Malpas died on 8 May 1611 at Malpas, Cheshire, England (now).1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1938. page 2416
     2.The History of the County Palatine and City of Chester 2nd Edition, Ormerod, George & Thomas Helsby. 2:687
     3.Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.
     4.Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies . 645.1

Family

Frances Throckmorton b. 1554

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Randall Brereton, of Malpas: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344736&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Frances Throckmorton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00344737&tree=LEO

Susan Danvers of Culworth1

F, #92025, d. 22 March 1527
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Susan Danvers of Culworth married Walter Hungerford Lord Hungerford, of Heytesbury, son of Sir Edward Hungerford of Heytesbury and Jane La Zouche;
His 1st wife.1
Susan Danvers of Culworth died on 22 March 1527.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. N 14382
     2. The Family of Dalmahoy of Dalmahoy, Ratho, County of Edinburgh. 1870 , Falconer, Thomas. 279.1

Family

Walter Hungerford Lord Hungerford, of Heytesbury b. 1502, d. 28 Jul 1540

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Susan Danvers, of Culworth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00109555&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Sir Edward Hungerford of Heytesbury1

M, #92026, d. 24 January 1522
FatherSir Walter Hungerford PC, of Farley1 b. c 1445, d. b 29 May 1516
MotherJane Bulstrode1
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Sir Edward Hungerford of Heytesbury married Jane La Zouche, daughter of John La Zouche 7th Lord Zouche of Haryngworth and Joan Dinham.2
Sir Edward Hungerford of Heytesbury died on 24 January 1522.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. O 28761
     2. A Genealogical History of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited and extinct peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866, Burke, Sir Bernard. 292
     3. History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset , Hutchins, John. 4:175.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Edward Hungerford, of Heytesbury: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00109556&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Jane La Zouche: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00109557&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Walter Hungerford, Lord Hungerford, of Heytesbury: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00109554&tree=LEO

Jane La Zouche1

F, #92027
FatherJohn La Zouche 7th Lord Zouche of Haryngworth1 b. 1459, d. c Mar 1526
MotherJoan Dinham1 b. c 1458, d. a 1507
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Jane La Zouche married Sir Edward Hungerford of Heytesbury, son of Sir Walter Hungerford PC, of Farley and Jane Bulstrode.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. O 28762
     2. A Genealogical History of the dormant, abeyant, forfeited and extinct peerages of the British Empire, London, 1866, Burke, Sir Bernard. 292.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Jane La Zouche: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00109557&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Walter Hungerford, Lord Hungerford, of Heytesbury: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00109554&tree=LEO

Anthony Cave of Chicheley1

M, #92028, d. 9 September 1558
FatherRichard Cave Esq., of Stanford-on-Avon, co. Northampton1 b. c 1465, d. 23 Apr 1538
MotherMargaret Saxby1 b. c 1475, d. bt Mar 1531 - 1532
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Anthony Cave of Chicheley married Elizabeth Lovett;
Her 1st husband.2
Anthony Cave of Chicheley died on 9 September 1558.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Cave of Stanford 1998 , O'Connor, Robert.
     2. The Genealogical History of the Croke Family 1823, Croke, Sir Alexander. table 22
     3. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 1999 . 525
     4. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies . 111.1

Family

Elizabeth Lovett b. 1519, d. Aug 1577

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Anthony Cave, of Chicheley: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00310588&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elizabeth Lovett: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00639196&tree=LEO

Elizabeth Lovett1

F, #92029, b. 1519, d. August 1577
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Elizabeth Lovett married Anthony Cave of Chicheley, son of Richard Cave Esq., of Stanford-on-Avon, co. Northampton and Margaret Saxby;
Her 1st husband.1 Elizabeth Lovett was born in 1519 at Ashwell, Northamptonshire, England.1
Elizabeth Lovett died in August 1577 at Chicheley, Buckinghamshire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. Visitations of Northamptonshire in 1564 and 1618-19 , Metcalfe, Walter. 34
     2. Genealogical memoirs of the Extinct Family of Chester of Chicheley London, 1878, Waters, Robert Edmond Chester. 49
     3. Descendants of John Neville Esquire 2014 , Bradley, Hal.
     4. Burke's Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies . 324n
     5. Stemmata Shirleiana. Westminster, 1873 , Shirley, Evelyn Philip. 75.1

Family

Anthony Cave of Chicheley d. 9 Sep 1558

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elizabeth Lovett: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00639196&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Prudence Cave1

F, #92030
FatherRichard Cave Esq., of Stanford-on-Avon, co. Northampton1 b. c 1465, d. 23 Apr 1538
MotherMargaret Saxby1 b. c 1475, d. bt Mar 1531 - 1532
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Prudence Cave married John Croke circa 1529.2
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. P 60125
     2. The Genealogical History of the Croke Family 1823, Croke, Sir Alexander. table 22.1

Family

John Croke

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Prudence Cave: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00219467&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, John Croke: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00219466&tree=LEO

John Croke1

M, #92031
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     John Croke married Prudence Cave, daughter of Richard Cave Esq., of Stanford-on-Avon, co. Northampton and Margaret Saxby, circa 1529.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. P 60125
     2. The History and Antiquities of the County of Buckingham , Lipscomb, Dr. George. 1:131.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, John Croke: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00219466&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Edward Cave1

M, #92032, b. 1533, d. 1578
FatherBrian Cave1 b. 1507, d. 12 Sep 1592
MotherMargaret Throckmorton1 b. 1513, d. 1541
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Edward Cave was born in 1533 at Ingarsby, Leicestershire, England.1 He married Barbara Devereux, daughter of Sir William Devereux of Mirevale Abbey, Warwickshire and Jane Scudamore, in 1570 at Merevale, Warwickshire, England;
Her 2nd husband.2,1,3
Edward Cave died in 1578 at Ingarsby, Leicestershire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.1

Family

Barbara Devereux b. 1554, d. a 26 Dec 1618

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Cave: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00651291&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Barbara Devereux: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00651292&tree=LEO
  3. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Hereford Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.

Mary Cave1

F, #92033, b. 1535
FatherBrian Cave1 b. 1507, d. 12 Sep 1592
MotherMargaret Throckmorton1 b. 1513, d. 1541
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Mary Cave was born in 1535 at Ingarsby, Leicestershire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mary Cave: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00651293&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Henry Cave1

M, #92034, b. 1537
FatherBrian Cave1 b. 1507, d. 12 Sep 1592
MotherMargaret Throckmorton1 b. 1513, d. 1541
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Henry Cave was born in 1537 at Ingarsby, Leicestershire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Henry Cave: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00651294&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Francis Cave1

M, #92035, b. 1540
FatherBrian Cave1 b. 1507, d. 12 Sep 1592
MotherMargaret Throckmorton1 b. 1513, d. 1541
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Francis Cave was born in 1540 at Ingarsby, Leicestershire, England.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Some Descendants of William Marrow, Lord Mayor of London 2014, Bradley, Hal.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Francis Cave: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00651295&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle1

M, #92036, b. circa 1519, d. before 23 February 1579
FatherWilliam Ingleby of Ripley1 b. b 1503, d. b 20 Sep 1528
MotherCecily Tailboys1
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle married Anne Mallory, daughter of Sir William Mallory Knt., of Studley, Yorkshire and Jane Norton.2,1 Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle was born circa 1519.1
Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle died before 23 February 1579.1
Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle was buried between 23 February 1578 and 1579.1


     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Ancestors and Relatives of William Addams Reitwiesner 2002, 2010, Reitwiesner, William Addams.
     2. The Complete Baronetage, London, Microprint 1983. , Cokayne, George Edward. II 175
     3. Basil Thomas Fitzherbert his descents from King Edward III 2014, Verity, Brad.
     4. The Genealogist [of London] new series . 21:92
     5. Surtees Society, Publication Series . 36:30.1

Family

Anne Mallory d. b 20 Feb 1587/88
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir William Ingleby, of Ripley Castle: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00382075&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Anne Mallory: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00382076&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Jane Ingleby: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00716531&tree=LEO

Anne Mallory1

F, #92037, d. before 20 February 1587/88
FatherSir William Mallory Knt., of Studley, Yorkshire1 b. c 1497, d. 1547
MotherJane Norton1
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Anne Mallory married Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle, son of William Ingleby of Ripley and Cecily Tailboys.1,2
Anne Mallory died before 20 February 1587/88.1
Anne Mallory was buried on 20 February 1587/88.1


     Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Ancestors and Relatives of William Addams Reitwiesner 2002, 2010, Reitwiesner, William Addams. 13352
     2. Surtees Society, Publication Series . 67:2:320
     3. Genealogies of Virginia Families (reprints from Virginia Magazine of History and Biography). 4:256-7.1

Family

Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle b. c 1519, d. b 23 Feb 1579
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Anne Mallory: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00382076&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir William Ingleby, of Ripley Castle: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00382075&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Jane Ingleby: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00716531&tree=LEO

Jane Ingleby1

F, #92038
FatherSir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle1 b. c 1519, d. b 23 Feb 1579
MotherAnne Mallory1 d. b 20 Feb 1587/88
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Jane Ingleby married George Wintour, son of Thomas Winter and Katherine Throckmorton.1,2

Family

George Wintour
Children

Robert Wintour1

M, #92039, b. 1568, d. 30 January 1606
FatherGeorge Wintour1
MotherJane Ingleby1
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Robert Wintour married Gertrude Talbot, daughter of Sir John Talbot of Grafton, Worcestershire and Catherine Petre.2 Robert Wintour was born in 1568.1
Robert Wintour died on 30 January 1606; Hanged, drawn and quartered for his role in the Gunpowder Plot.1,2
     ;
Per Wikipedia:
     "Robert Wintour (1568 – 30 January 1606) and Thomas Wintour (1571 or 1572 – 31 January 1606), also spelt Winter, were members of the Gunpowder Plot, a failed conspiracy to assassinate King James I. Brothers, they were related to other conspirators, such as their cousin, Robert Catesby, and a half-brother, John Wintour, also joined them following the plot's failure. Thomas was an intelligent and educated man, fluent in several languages and trained as a lawyer, but chose instead to become a soldier, fighting for England in the Low Countries, France, and possibly in Central Europe. By 1600, however, he changed his mind and became a fervent Catholic. On several occasions he travelled to the continent and entreated Spain on behalf of England's oppressed Catholics, and suggested that with Spanish support a Catholic rebellion was likely.
     "As momentum was building behind a peace settlement between the two countries, Thomas's pleas fell on deaf ears. Instead, in 1604 he decided to join with Catesby, who planned to restore England to Catholicism by killing the king, and inciting a popular revolt in the Midlands, during which James's daughter, Princess Elizabeth, would be installed as titular queen. Thomas returned to the continent and again failed to elicit Spanish support, but instead met Guy Fawkes, with whom he returned to England. Robert, a devout Catholic who inherited Huddington Court near Worcester, joined the conspiracy the following year.
     "The plot began to unravel following the delivery of an anonymous letter to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, warning him to stay away from Parliament. Thomas and Catesby confronted Monteagle's brother-in-law, the recently recruited Francis Tresham, threatening to kill him, but Tresham managed to convince them of his innocence. At that stage Thomas reportedly asked Catesby to abandon the scheme, to no avail. When Fawkes was captured at about midnight on 4 November 1605, Thomas fled to Robert's house at Huddington. Catesby and most of the others spent two days travelling across the Midlands attempting to incite a rebellion, but with an ever-diminishing group of supporters they eventually settled at Holbeche House in Staffordshire, and waited for government forces to arrive. Thomas, by then reintegrated into the group, chose to remain with them, and in the ensuing firefight was shot in the shoulder, and captured. Robert, who had left before the battle, evaded capture until January 1606.
     "Much of what is written about the plot is based on Thomas's confessions, given in the Tower of London in November 1605. The brothers were tried on 27 January 1606, and hanged, drawn and quartered several days later in London.
Family and life before 1604
     "Robert (b. 1568) and Thomas Wintour (b. 1571–72)[1] were sons of George Wintour of Huddington Court in Worcestershire, and his wife Jane (née Ingleby), daughter of Sir William Ingleby of Ripley Castle near Knaresborough. A sister, Dorothy, married another conspirator, John Grant.[nb 1] Two agnate half-siblings, John and Elizabeth, resulted from their father's marriage to Elizabeth Bourn, following Jane's death.[3] Their paternal grandparents were Robert Wintour of Cavewell in Gloucestershire, and his wife Catherine, daughter of Sir George Throckmorton of Coughton in Warwickshire. As scions of the Throckmortons, they could therefore claim a kinship with plotters like Robert Catesby and Francis Tresham.[1] Their maternal uncle Francis Ingleby, a Catholic priest, was hanged, drawn and quartered at York in 1586, a fact which in the opinion of historian and author Antonia Fraser, "could hardly have failed to leave a stark impression upon the Wintour family." The Wintours took their name from the Welsh Gwyn Tour (White Tower). 'Wyntour' was sometimes used in signatures, but not 'Winter'[3][4] (as the brothers are commonly named).
     "A faithful Catholic, Robert was married to Gertrude Talbot, daughter of the recusant John Talbot of Grafton. He inherited the Tudor Huddington Court near Worcester, along with a significant fortune with which he was known to be generous. Under Robert, Huddington Court became a known refuge for priests.[5] The proclamation for his capture, issued following the plot's failure, described him as "a man of mean stature, and rather low than otherwise; square made, somewhat stooping; near 40 years of age; his hair and beard brown; his beard not much, and his hair short."[6] The Jesuit John Gerard wrote that he was "esteemed in his life to be one of the wisest and most resolute and sufficient gentlemen in Worcestershire".[7] Gerard's appraisal of Thomas was just as complimentary. He was apparently an intelligent, witty and educated man, who could speak Latin, Italian, Spanish and French. "He was of mean stature, but strong and comely and very valient, about 33 years old or somewhat more."[8] Thomas worked as a servant to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle.[9] He was educated as a lawyer, but following several years of dissipation travelled to Flanders and enrolled in the English army. He fought against Catholic Spain in the Low Countries, France and possibly against the Turks in Central Europe. However, by 1600 his views had changed; citing his belief in the injustice of fighting against the power of Catholic Spain, like his elder brother he became a passionate Catholic. Travelling as 'Mr Winter of Worcestershire', from 24 February 1601 he spent 13 days in Rome for the jubilee,[3] and later that year and into 1602 travelled to Spain, to petition the Council on behalf of the Catholic rebels left leaderless by the execution of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.[nb 2] Father Henry Garnet, perhaps thinking that the purpose behind Thomas's visit was to gain financial support for impoverished English Catholics, sent him to Superior Father Joseph Creswell, who made the introductions to the Spanish.[10] This trip to Spain later became the first of two visits to be dubbed by the English government as the Spanish Treason, but Thomas's timing was unfortunate, coming as it did so soon after Spain's failed attack in Ireland, and he received only vague assurances of their support.[11] In England he met with the Spanish embassy Don Juan de Tassis, who in August 1603 landed at Dover to help negotiate an Anglo-Spanish treaty. Tassis quickly realised that any chance of a successful Catholic rebellion was unlikely, and discounted Thomas's claim that, with funding, "3,000 Catholics" would be available for the cause. After meeting with King James he wrote to Spain emphasising the need to prioritise peace with England over the freedom of her Catholics.[12]
Thomas meets with Robert Catesby and John Wright
     "'I remained with my brother in the country for Allhollantide, in the year of our Lord 1603, the first of the King's reign, about which time, Mr. Catesby sent thither, entreating me to come to London, where he and other friends would be glad to see me. I desired him to excuse me, for I found not myself very well disposed, and (which had happened never to me before) returned the messenger without my company. Shortly I received another letter, in any wise to come. At the second summons I presently came up and found him with Mr. John Wright at Lambeth, where he brake with me how necessary it was not to forsake my country (for he knew I had then a resolution to go over), but to deliver her from the servitude in which she remained, or at least to assist her with our uttermost endeavours. Thomas Wintour[13]
     "According to contemporary accounts late in February 1604 Thomas's cousin, Robert Catesby, invited him to his house in Lambeth, but Thomas was indisposed and could not attend. Catesby sent a second letter that Thomas did respond to,[10] and when he arrived he found his cousin with John Wright, a devout Catholic and a renowned swordsman. Catesby planned to re-establish Catholicism in England by blowing up the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament, killing the king. Thomas did not immediately recoil from the idea. As a former soldier he was a practical man,[14] and he agreed with Catesby that should the plot succeed, it would "breed a confusion fit to beget new alterations".[15] He also offered a warning of the price of failure: "the scandal would be so great which the Catholic religion might hereby sustain, as not only our enemies, but our friends also would with good reason condemn us."[15] He nevertheless agreed to join the conspiracy, and as Catesby had not entirely given up hope of foreign support—"because we will leave no peaceable and quiet way untried"[15]—Thomas returned to the continent.[16][17]
     "In Flanders he met Juan Fernández de Velasco, 5th Duke of Frías and Constable of Castile, who was holding court there before his journey to England to conclude the Treaty of London. Thomas again stressed the plight of English Catholics, hoping to influence the forthcoming treaty negotiations due to take place at Somerset House in London.[18] The Constable was "friendly rather than forthcoming".[19] Thomas also met the Welsh spy Hugh Owen, and Sir William Stanley, who were both disparaging of Catesby's hopes of Spanish assistance. Owen did, however, introduce Thomas to Guy Fawkes, a committed Catholic who had served under Stanley as a soldier in the Southern Netherlands. Although at that time the plotters had no detailed plans, Thomas told Fawkes of their ambition to "do somewhat in England", should Spanish support be lacking. In late April therefore the two men returned together to Catesby's lodgings at Lambeth, and told him that despite positive noises from the Spanish, "the deeds would nott answere".[nb 3][20][21][22]..
Robert joins
     "With the addition to the conspiracy of Thomas Percy (John Wright's brother-in-law), the five plotters met at the Duck and Drake inn, in the fashionable Strand district of London, on 20 May 1604.[23] From hereon Thomas Wintour remained at the heart of the conspiracy. The group leased properties in London, one in Lambeth for storing the gunpowder that was rowed across the Thames to its destination.[24][25] His confession has the plotters digging a tunnel toward their target during one of the several prorogations of Parliament,[nb 4] abandoned when the chamber directly beneath the House of Lords became available.[3][26][27]
     "Following the meeting in May Catesby enlisted the aid of several more Catholic men, including Robert Wintour.[nb 5] On the same day he was admitted to the plot, 25 March 1605, the conspirators also purchased the lease to the undercroft they had supposedly tunnelled near. It was into this room that 36 barrels of gunpowder were brought, but when in late August Thomas and Fawkes made an inspection of the gunpowder, they found that it had decayed (separated). Thus, more gunpowder was brought in.[29]
     "Shortly after this, Catesby recruited the last three conspirators, Sir Ambrose Rookwood, Sir Everard Digby and Francis Tresham. The latter's involvement in the plot has long been the subject of controversy, as on 26 October his brother-in-law William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, received an anonymous letter while at home, warning him to stay away from Parliament.[30] Thomas went with Catesby to confront Tresham on the matter, threatening to "hang him" if he did not exonerate himself. Tresham managed to convince the pair that he was innocent, but Thomas then tried unsuccessfully to persuade Catesby to abandon the plot.[31] His pleas were in vain; Catesby's position was echoed by Percy, who at a meeting of the three in London on Sunday 3 November, said that he was ready to "abide the uttermost trial".[32] On the same day, Robert and three others stayed at the home of John Talbot of Grafton, his father-in-law. His friends were Robert Acton and his two sons, plus servants. The group left the following morning with extra horses supplied by Everard Digby, and travelled to Coventry.[33]
Failure and capture
     "Monteagle had delivered the letter to the English Secretary of State, Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, and on Saturday 2 November (about a week later) the Privy Council decided to undertake a search of Parliament.[34] The following Monday, during the first search, Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, noticed the huge pile of faggots in the corner of the cellar beneath the House of Lords. The king insisted that another search be made, and about midnight another party, this time led by Thomas Knyvet, 1st Baron Knyvet, discovered Fawkes and arrested him.[35]
     "News of Fawkes's capture soon spread throughout London, including the Strand, where Christopher Wright, John Wright's brother, overheard the commotion. He immediately went to Thomas, who was staying at the Duck and Drake inn. As Fawkes had given his name as "John Johnson", servant of Percy, it was for the latter that the government's first arrest warrant was issued. Thomas guessed as much, and told Wright to go to Percy and "bid him begone". As the rest of those conspirators still in London fled the city, undaunted, he went over to Westminster to try and discern what he could. In author Alan Haynes's opinion, this demonstrated an impressive degree of trust in Fawkes's ability to confound his interrogators,[36] but when Thomas heard for himself that the treason had been uncovered, he left for Huddington, stopping at his sister's house in Norbrook along the way.[37]
     "The fugitives reached Catesby's family home of Ashby St Ledgers at about 6:00 pm. Not wanting to implicate his mother, Catesby sent a message to Robert, who had just recently arrived there, asking to meet just outside the town.[nb 6] There he told him that Fawkes had been captured.[38] At Dunchurch they collected Everard Digby and his 'hunting party', which included Robert and Thomas's half-brother, John Wintour. He had been invited to join them on 4 November.[39] The next day the group raided Warwick Castle for supplies, something that Robert strongly objected to as it would create "a great uproar" in the country, and later arrived at Huddington Court, where they met Thomas. Early the next morning Huddington's occupants went to confession and took the Sacrament at Mass—in Fraser's opinion, a sign that none of them thought they had long to live. They collected further arms and munitions from Hewell Grange, but trying to recruit more people to their cause they were met with disdain; while the conspirators considered themselves to stand for "God and country", the men of Hewell Grange replied that they were for "King James as well as God and Country". Late that night, pulling a sodden cart full of weapons and armour behind them, they arrived at Holbeche House, near Kingswinford in Staffordshire. Robert was asked if he would go and see if he could elicit any help from his father-in-law, John Talbot at his mansion at 'Pepperhill'. He refused, and Thomas went instead, with Stephen Littleton.[40] Talbot was, however, loyal to James, and sent them away, claiming that their visit was "as much as his life was worth". While returning to Holbeche, they received a message that Catesby, Rookwood, John Grant and another man were dead, and the rest apparently fled. Tired and desperate, the plotters had attempted to dry their soaked gunpowder in front of the fire, only for a stray spark to ignite it. While Littleton chose to leave, begging his companion to follow his example, Thomas continued on to Holbeche, where he found the remaining plotters alive, but injured.[41][42]
     "While several including Robert and his half-brother John chose to vanish into the night, Catesby, Percy, the Wright brothers, Grant, Rookwood and Thomas remained. Thomas asked them what they intended to do – "We mean here to die". Thomas replied "I will take such part as you do". Richard Walsh, Sheriff of Worcester, arrived with a vigilante force of about 200 men early on 8 November. Thomas was the first to be hit, in the shoulder, while crossing the courtyard. The Wright brothers were next, followed by Rookwood, still injured from the explosion the night before. Catesby and Percy were dropped by a single lucky shot. The sheriff's men then proceeded to strip the defenders of their valuables, but Thomas was saved by the sheriff's assistant.[43] His fine sword, ordered and paid for four months previously, apparently proved too great a temptation for the Sheriff's men, as it was never seen again.[44] He and the others were taken first to Worcester, and then to the Tower of London.[45] Despite a proclamation of 18 November naming them as wanted men, Robert Wintour and Stephen Litteton managed to evade capture until 9 January 1606.[46] They spent about two months hiding out in barns and houses; at one point they were forced to restrain a drunken poacher who happened upon their hiding place. They were eventually discovered at the house of Humphrey Littleton in Hagley, after a cook, John Finwood, informed on them. Humphrey managed to escape, but was captured at Prestwood, in Staffordshire.[47]
Thomas's confession
     "Historically, much of what is written about the Gunpowder Plot is derived from Thomas's confession, signed on 23 November 1605; details of the so-called Spanish Treason were added three days later. One of only two confessions printed in the King's Book (a highly partial contemporary account of the affair),[48] Thomas Wintour's was the only account the government had of a plotter who had been involved from the beginning; Guy Fawkes, weakened by days of torture, may have been at the heart of the group, but he was not at its first meetings. However, Antonia Fraser views the document with suspicion, not least because Thomas's signature, 'Thomas Winter', differs from his normal signature, 'Thomas Wintour' (it was the former that was invariably used by the government). The signature, possibly forged by lieutenant of the Tower of London William Waad, was made only weeks after Thomas had been shot in the shoulder during the siege at Holbeche House. Biographer Mark Nicholls views the difference in signatures as a significant and puzzling lapse, if a "master forger" is presumed to be responsible for the document. He views the handwriting on the confession as "convincingly that of Winter [Wintour]", pointing out that it appears to be the work of an author, not an editor, and written as a draft for the King's Book.[3] This is a view that generally, Alan Haynes agrees with: "no one has ever made a solid and sensible suggestion about why a government-employed forger (say Thomas Phelippes) would deliberately make such an error in a crucial state document".[48]
     "Another of Fraser's concerns is Waad's report to Salisbury on 21 November: "Thomas Winter doth find his hand so strong as after dinner he will settle himself to write that he hath verbally declared to your Lordship adding what he shall remember"[49]—or rather, what he was told to remember. A draft of Thomas's confession, in Coke's handwriting, places extra weight on the involvement of the Jesuits. Thomas's confession also details his account of the mine supposedly dug toward Parliament, not mentioned in Fawkes's first confession.[3][50]
Trial and death
     "A busy urban scene. Medieval buildings surround an open space, in which several men are being dragged by horses. One man hangs from a scaffold. A corpse is being hacked into pieces. Another man is feeding a large cauldron with a dismembered leg. Thousands of people line the streets and look from windows. Children and dogs run freely. Soldiers keep them back.
Print of members of the Gunpowder Plot being hanged, drawn, and quartered
The trial of the eight surviving conspirators began on Monday 27 January. The two brothers were brought with the other plotters by barge from the Tower (Catebsy's servant, Thomas Bates, arrived from the Gatehouse Prison), to Whitehall. They were kept in Star Chamber, before being led into Westminster Hall. Charged with high treason, and with no defence counsel, the outcome was never in doubt. The Spanish Treason was a feature of Attorney General Edward Coke's rhetoric, although the Spanish king was "reverently and respectfully spoken of". The Jesuits, such as Henry Garnet, were condemned. Each of the brothers' confessions were also read aloud. While in the Tower, Robert and Fawkes had shared adjacent cells, and were able to speak to each other. However, their private conversation was secretly recorded, and read aloud during the trial.[51]
     "When asked if he had anything to say, "wherefore judgement of death should not be pronounced", Thomas spoke of his regret at having introduced Robert to the plot, and asked to be hanged on his behalf as well as his own. Robert merely begged for mercy.[51] At the end of the trial, the jury pronounced them all guilty of high treason.[52]
     "Everard Digby, Robert Wintour, John Grant and Thomas Bates were executed on Thursday 30 January 1606. Dragged by horse to Old St Paul's Cathedral, Robert was the second to be executed, praying quietly to himself before he was hanged, drawn and quartered. The following morning, the remaining four were dragged to the Old Palace Yard at Westminster, opposite the building they had planned to destroy. Thomas was the first to mount the scaffold. It was customary to grant the condemned a speech, but Thomas, "a very pale and dead colour", said it was "no time to discourse: he was come to die". He absolved the Jesuits of any involvement in the plot, asked for Catholics to pray for him, and declared his adherence to the Roman religion. He was hanged for only a few seconds, and then taken to the block for the remainder of his grim sentence.[53] Their half-brother John was executed at Red Hill near Worcester, on 7 April.[54]
References
Footnotes
     1. Author Alan Haynes mentions another sister, Anne Winter, married to John Ashfield.[2] No other source used in this article makes this claim.
     2. Essex was executed for staging a failed coup d'état against Queen Elizabeth I.
     3. Philip III made peace with England in August 1604.[20]
     4. The existence of this tunnel is disputed by Antonia Fraser.
     5. Alan Haynes suggests the enlistment was in January 1605.[28]
     6. Robert had collected Stephen and Humphrey Littleton, and extra horsemen along the way, but had left them at some point to head for Catesby's home.[28]
Notes
     1. Fraser 2005, p. 57
     2. Haynes 2005, p. 78
     3. Nicholls, Mark (2008) [2004], "Winter , Thomas (c.1571–1606)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press,      4.doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29767, retrieved 27 October 2010
     5. Fraser 2005, p. 59
     6. Fraser 2005, pp. 59–60
     7. Brydges 1813, p. 21
     8. Gerard 1871, p. 218
     9. Gerard 1871, pp. 58–59
     10. Bengsten 2005, p. 46
     12. Haynes 2005, p. 50
     13. Fraser 2005, pp. 60–63
     14. Fraser 2005, pp. 90–95
     15. Gardiner & Gerard 1897, p. 58
     16. Haynes 2005, p. 52
     17. Gardiner & Gerard 1897, p. 59
     18. Fraser 2005, pp. 117–118
     19. Northcote Parkinson 1976, pp. 44–46
     20. Haynes 2005, p. 42
     21. Fraser 2005, p. 118
     22. Nicholls, Mark (2008) [2004], "Catesby, Robert (b. in or after 1572, d. 1605)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, hosted at oxforddnb.com, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4883, retrieved 27 May 2010(subscription required)
     23. Nicholls 1991, p. 39
     24. Fraser 2005, pp. 118–119
     25. Fraser 2005, pp. 117, 119
     26. Northcote Parkinson 1976, p. 52
     27. Haynes 2005, pp. 54–55
     28. Fraser 2005, pp. 133–134
     29. Haynes 2005, pp. 55–59
     30. Haynes 2005, p. 57
     31. Fraser 2005, pp. 144, 146, 170
     32. Haynes 2005, p. 89
     33. Fraser 2005, pp. 171–175, 179–180, 182, 189
     34. Fraser 2005, p. 197
     35. Haynes 2005, pp. 96–97
     36. Haynes 2005, pp. 89, 196–197
     37. Fraser 2005, pp. 201–203
     38. Haynes 2005, p. 96
     39. Fraser 2005, pp. 203–205
     40. Fraser 2005, p. 205
     41. Fraser 2005, p. 199
     42. Haynes 2005, p. 100
     43. Fraser 2005, pp. 218, 220–223
     44. Nicholls 1991, pp. 19–20
     46. Fraser 2005, pp. 218–225
     47. Haynes 2005, pp. 160–161
     48. Fraser 2005, p. 235
     49. Nicholls 1991, p. 24
     50. Fraser 2005, p. 256
     51. Haynes 2005, p. 106
     52. Gardiner & Gerard 1897, p. 70
     53. Fraser 2005, pp. 242–246
     54. Fraser 2005, pp. 263–271
     55. Fraser 2005, p. 273
     56. Fraser 2005, pp. 277–282
     57. Fraser 2005, p. 315
Bibliography
     ---Bengsten, Fiona (2005), Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower, and the Gunpowder Plot (illustrated ed.), Trafford Publishing, ISBN 1-4120-5541-5
     ---Brydges, Sir Egerton (1813), "Restituta: or, Titles, extracts, and characters of old books in English literature, revived", Restituta, Printed by T. Bensley for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 2
     ---Fraser, Antonia (2005) [1996], The Gunpowder Plot, London: Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-1401-3
     ---Gardiner, Samuel Rawson; Gerard, John (1897), What gunpowder plot was, London: Longmans
     ---Gerard, John (1871), John Morris (ed.), The condition of Catholics under James I : Father Gerard's narrative of the Gunpowder Plot, 1, London: Longmans, Green
     ---Haynes, Alan (2005) [1994], The Gunpowder Plot: Faith in Rebellion, Sparkford, England: Hayes and Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-4215-0
     ---Nicholls, Mark (1991), Investigating Gunpowder plot, Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-3225-3
     ---Northcote Parkinson, C. (1976), Gunpowder Treason and Plot, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-77224-4.

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Robert Wintour: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00716089&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_and_Thomas_Wintour. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.

Sir John Talbot of Grafton, Worcestershire1

M, #92040, b. 1545, d. 26 January 1611
(c) Ingestre Hall Residential Arts Centre; Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation
FatherSir John Talbot of Grafton and Albrighton, Salop1,2 d. 6 Jun 1555
MotherFrances Giffard1,2
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Sir John Talbot of Grafton, Worcestershire married Catherine Petre;
His 1st wife.3,2 Sir John Talbot of Grafton, Worcestershire was born in 1545.1
Sir John Talbot of Grafton, Worcestershire died on 26 January 1611.1
     ;
Per Wikipedia:
     "Sir John Talbot of Grafton, Worcestershire (1545 – 28 January 1611[1]) was a prominent recusant English Catholic layman of the reigns of Elizabeth I of England and James I of England. He was connected by marriage to one of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators, and by acquaintance or family ties to other important Catholic figures. He fell often under suspicion from the English government.
Life
     "It was when passing through Smithfield, London, in July 1580, with Mr. and Mrs. Talbot, that Robert Johnson, the Catholic martyr, was recognized by Sledd, the informer. Robert Persons calls Robert Johnson "Mr. Talbot's priest", though, as it appears, he was, rather, Lady Petre's. Talbot was committed to the custody of the Dean of Westminster, 24 August 1580, and afterwards removed to the house of his brother-in-law, Sir John Petre, in Aldersgate Street. On 1 October 1581, the plague being then rife in the City, he was moved to some other house within ten or twelve miles of London.[4]
     "In 1583 the priest, Hugh Hall, confessed that he had in past years been entertained by him. Later Talbot was restricted to the house of one Henry Whitney, at Mitcham, Surrey, and two miles round it. In 1588 he was imprisoned in Wisbech Castle for having heard Mass contrary to the provisions of the statute 23 Eliz. c. i. From 9 Dec., 1588, to about 13 May 1589, he was liberated on bail, owing to his own and his wife's bad health. He then seems to have been restricted to his house in Clerkenwell.[4]
     "On 12 March 1589-90, he was ordered into confinement at the house of Richard Fiennes at Broughton, Oxfordshire, whence he was released on bail for a fortnight on 24 May 1590. He was again allowed out on bail on 20 December 1590, and 22 July 1591. In 1592 he was at "Bickslie" (Bexley or Bickley?) Kent. On 27 August 1592, the recusants formerly imprisoned at Ely, Banbury, and Broughton were ordered back to their respective prisons; but an exception was made (17 September 1592) in favor of John Talbot. However, next year we find him in Ely gaol. Thence he was liberated on bail for a considerable period to act as umpire in a family dispute.[4]
     "Later on he was allowed to take "the Bathes", presumably at Bath, on account of his health. Between Michaelmas, 1593, and 10 March following, he paid £120 in fines for recusancy. Afterwards he was imprisoned in Banbury Castle, whence he was released on bail for two months, 27 February 1596-7, his leave being subsequently extended on 29 April 1597, and 6 Nov., 1597.
     "In 1601 he was living in Worcestershire and pressure was brought to bear on him to secure his influence to promote the candidature of Sir Thomas Leighton as one of the parliamentary representatives of the shire. In 1604 he was paying £20 a month in fines for his recusancy, the benefit of which was on 26 August granted to Sir William Anstruther, who on 13 October in the same year obtained his pardon. On the following 8 December a warrant was issued for the release to him of £160, due from him to the Crown in fines for recusancy.
     "In 1605 he was suspected of complicity with the conspirators of the Gunpowder Plot, one of whom, Robert Wintour, of Huddington near Droitwich, had married his daughter Gertrude. Robert Wintour, however, declared that he had said nothing on the subject to his father-in-law, knowing that he would not join the plot under any circumstances. Indeed, he had actually driven the fugitive conspirators from his door when they arrived at his manor at Pepperhill. Talbot was, nevertheless, arrested, and on 4 December 1605, examined. On 26 September 1606, the value of his recusancy was granted to Lord Hay.
     "He probably died in 1607, or on 28 January 1611.[1]
Family
He was the only son and heir of Sir John Talbot, of Grafton, Worcestershire, and of Albrighton, Shropshire (died 6 June 1555), and wife Frances Giffard, daughter of Sir John Giffard, and grandson of Sir John Talbot of Albrighton, Shropshire (died 10 September 1549) by second wife Margaret Troutbeck, daughter of Adam Troutbeck of Mobberley, Chester, in turn a son of Sir Gilbert Talbot by second wife Etheldreda, called Audrey, Cotton, daughter of William Landwade Cotton of Landwade, Cambridgeshire.[5]
     "He was the father, by Katherine Petre, daughter of Sir William Petre and his second wife, Anne Browne, daughter of Sir William Browne, Lord Mayor of London, of:
     "---Anne Talbot, married 18 November 1585 Thomas Hanmer (died 18 April 1619), and had issue, including Sir John Hanmer, 1st Baronet
     "---George Talbot, 9th Earl of Shrewsbury, a Catholic priest
     "---John Talbot of Longford, Market Drayton, Shropshire (died London, 1607 or c. 1607), married Eleanor Baskerville, daughter of Sir Thomas Baskerville of Wolvershill, Herefordshire, and of Brinsop, Herefordshire, and had one son: John Talbot, 10th Earl of Shrewsbury
References
     1. "TALBOT, John (1545-611), of Grafton, Worcs". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
     2. Rec. of Hon. Soc. of Lincoln's Inn, Admissions, I (London, 1896), 62.
     3. Treadway Russell Nash, History and Antiquities of the County of Worcester I (1782), introduction, xxxii.
     4. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: John Talbot". www.newadvent.org.
     5. Collins, Arthur and Brydges, Egerton. Collins's Peerage of England; Genealogical, Biographical, and Historical, Vol.3, F. C. and J. Rivington, Otridge and son, 1812
Attribution
     " This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "John Talbot" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. The entry cites:
     "---Calendars of State Papers, Domestic, for 1581 to 1610;
     "---Dasent, Acts of the Privy Council (London, 1890–1907);
     "---John Strype, Life and Acts of John Whitgift, I (Oxford, 1822), 529;
     "---____, Annals of the Reform in England, IV (Oxford, 1824), 276;
     "---Hist. MSS. Commission, Cal. of Cecil MSS., IV, 268;
     "---Cokayne, Complete Peerage (London, 1887–1898.)1

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, London, 1938. 2237.2

Family

Catherine Petre b. 1545
Child

Citations

  1. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Talbot_of_Grafton. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir John Talbot, of Grafton: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00104865&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Catherine Petre: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00104866&tree=LEO
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_and_Thomas_Wintour