unknown (?) of Rum1,2,3

F, #58831
FatherSultan Mas'ud (?) of Rum1,2
Last Edited20 Feb 2020
     Unknown (?) of Rum married Ioannes Dukas Comnenus Tzelepes Protobestiarios, son of Isaakios/Isaac Comnenus and Eirene (?), in 1140; his 2nd wife.1,2,3
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "---. Ioannes Komnenos deserted to the Turks, converted to Islam in 1140, married the daughter of the Seljuk Sultan as his second wife[85], and became a noted scholar. Niketas Choniates records the marriage of "Iohannes Isaacii sebastocratoris filius" and "Masuti filiam"[86].
     "m (1140) as his second wife, IOANNES Komnenos Tzelepes, son of ISAAKIOS Komnenos caesar, & his wife --- (after 1114-[1145])."
Med Lands cites:
[85] Runciman (1978), Vol. 2, p. 219.
[86] Niketas Choniates, Rerum a Manuele Comneno Gestarum, Liber 1, 8, p. 72.2


; a dau. of Sultan Mas'ud of Rum.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 1 page (The Komnenos family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/TURKS.htm#dauMasudIMIoannesKomnenos. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM%2010571204.htm#IoannesKTzelepesdied1145
  4. [S1671] Count W. H. Rüdt-Collenberg, The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans: The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (11, Rude de Lille, Paris 7e, France: Librairie C. Klincksieck for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Armenian Libraryn (Lisbon), 1963), Chart XII (Com.): The House of Comnenos. Hereinafter cited as Rudt-Collenberg: The Rupenides, etc.

Sultan Mas'ud (?) of Rum1

M, #58832
Last Edited20 Feb 2020

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 1 page (The Komnenos family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/TURKS.htm#dauMasudIMIoannesKomnenos. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

(?) Palaiologina1

F, #58833
Last Edited27 Sep 2004
     (?) Palaiologina married Andronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium, son of Isaakios/Isaac Comnenus and Eirene (?); his 1st wife.1
     ; Rdut-Collenberg says she was a sister of George III, King of Georgia.2

Family

Andronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium b. 1110, d. 12 Sep 1185
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 1 page (The Komnenos family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html
  2. [S1671] Count W. H. Rüdt-Collenberg, The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans: The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (11, Rude de Lille, Paris 7e, France: Librairie C. Klincksieck for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Armenian Libraryn (Lisbon), 1963), Chart XII (Com.): The House of Comnenos. Hereinafter cited as Rudt-Collenberg: The Rupenides, etc.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK

Rusudan (?) of Georgia1,2

F, #58834
FatherGiorgi III (?) King of Georgia2 d. 6 Apr 1184
MotherBurudukan (?) of Ossetia2
Last Edited27 Sep 2004
     Rusudan (?) of Georgia married Manuel Komnenos, son of Andronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium and (?) Palaiologina; for their descendants see http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant2.html.1
     ; a dau. of King David IV of Georgia according to Rudt-Collenberg, but Byzant 1 page has more recently shown her to be a great granddau. of David IV (dau. of his g.son Giorgi III.1,3

Family

Manuel Komnenos b. b 1152
Child

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Bagrat 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/georgia/bagrat2.html
  3. [S1671] Count W. H. Rüdt-Collenberg, The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans: The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (11, Rude de Lille, Paris 7e, France: Librairie C. Klincksieck for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Armenian Libraryn (Lisbon), 1963), Chart XII (Com.): The House of Comnenos. Hereinafter cited as Rudt-Collenberg: The Rupenides, etc.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant2.html

Ioannes Comnenus1

M, #58835, b. between 1158 and 1159, d. 1185
FatherAndronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium1,2 b. 1110, d. 12 Sep 1185
Mother(?) Palaiologina1,2
Last Edited27 Sep 2004
     Ioannes Comnenus was born between 1158 and 1159.1,2
Ioannes Comnenus died in 1185; murdered.1,2
     Ioannes Comnenus was also known as Ioannes Komnenos.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S1671] Count W. H. Rüdt-Collenberg, The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans: The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (11, Rude de Lille, Paris 7e, France: Librairie C. Klincksieck for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Armenian Libraryn (Lisbon), 1963), Chart XII (Com.): The House of Comnenos. Hereinafter cited as Rudt-Collenberg: The Rupenides, etc.

Maria Comnena1,2

F, #58836, b. before 1160
FatherAndronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium1,2 b. 1110, d. 12 Sep 1185
Mother(?) Palaiologina1,2
Last Edited27 Sep 2004
     Maria Comnena was born before 1160.1,2 She married Theodoros Synadenos after 1184.1,2
     Maria Comnena was also known as Maria Komnene.

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S1671] Count W. H. Rüdt-Collenberg, The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans: The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (11, Rude de Lille, Paris 7e, France: Librairie C. Klincksieck for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Armenian Libraryn (Lisbon), 1963), Chart XII (Com.): The House of Comnenos. Hereinafter cited as Rudt-Collenberg: The Rupenides, etc.

Theodoros Synadenos1

M, #58837
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     Theodoros Synadenos married Maria Comnena, daughter of Andronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium and (?) Palaiologina, after 1184.1,2

Family

Maria Comnena b. b 1160

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S1671] Count W. H. Rüdt-Collenberg, The Rupenides, Hethumides and Lusignans: The Structure of the Armeno-Cilician Dynasties (11, Rude de Lille, Paris 7e, France: Librairie C. Klincksieck for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Armenian Libraryn (Lisbon), 1963), Chart XII (Com.): The House of Comnenos. Hereinafter cited as Rudt-Collenberg: The Rupenides, etc.

Alexios Comnenus1

M, #58838
FatherAndronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium1 b. 1110, d. 12 Sep 1185
MotherEudokia Comnena1
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     ; illegitimate by Eudokia, dau.of Andronikos Komnenos.1 Alexios Comnenus was also known as Alexios Komnenos.1

; fled Constantinople.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK

Eirene Comnena1

F, #58841
FatherAndronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium1 b. 1110, d. 12 Sep 1185
MotherEudokia Comnena1
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     Eirene Comnena married Nikephoros Palaiologos.1
     ; illegitimate by Eudokia, dau.of Andronikos Komnenos.1 Eirene Comnena was also known as Eirene Komnene.1

Family

Nikephoros Palaiologos

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK

Alexios Comnenus1

M, #58843, b. 1170
FatherAndronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium1 b. 1110, d. 12 Sep 1185
MotherTheodora Kalusine Comnena1 b. bt 1145 - 1146, d. c 1182
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     Alexios Comnenus was born in 1170.1
     ; illegitimate by Theodora Kalusine Komnene.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK

(?) Comnena1

F, #58844
FatherAndronicus I Comnenus Emperor of Byzantium1 b. 1110, d. 12 Sep 1185
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     (?) Comnena married Romanos (?) Duke of Durazzo.1
     ; [illegitimate] a daughter; m. Romanos, Duke of Durazzo.1

Family

Romanos (?) Duke of Durazzo

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK

Maria Comnena1

F, #58846
FatherIsaakios/Isaac Comnenus1,2 b. a 16 Jan 1093, d. a 1152
MotherEirene (?)2
Last Edited20 Feb 2020
     Maria Comnena married Ioseph Bryennios before 1166.1,2
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "[[MARIA] Komnene. Her husband is recorded as gambros of Emperor Manuel I, but his wife could have been the daughter either of Andronikos or Isaakios, brothers of Emperor Ioannes II[248]. On balance, it is more probable that she was the daughter of Isaakios. The death of Andronikos's daughter named Maria is recorded in the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family, and it appears that this list does not include the names of married female members of the family, except for direct ancestors and the wives of males in the family. The primary source which confirms her name has not been identified.
     "m IOSEPHOS Bryennios, son of --- (-after 1166). Monomachos, pansebastos.]"
Med Lands cites: [248] MB, in a private email to the author dated 8 Nov 2006.2 Maria Comnena was also known as Maria Komnene.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM%2010571204.htm#MariaKMIosephosBryennios. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

Ioseph Bryennios1

M, #58847
Last Edited20 Feb 2020
     Ioseph Bryennios married Maria Comnena, daughter of Isaakios/Isaac Comnenus and Eirene (?), before 1166.1,2

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM%2010571204.htm#MariaKMIosephosBryennios. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

Anna Komnene1,2

F, #58848
FatherIsaakios/Isaac Comnenus1 b. a 16 Jan 1093, d. a 1152
MotherEirene (?)2
Last Edited20 Feb 2020
     Anna Komnene married Ioannes Arbantenos before October 1136.1,2
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "ANNA Komnene . Stiernon analyses the relationships between the imperial family and individuals who are recorded as gambros of the emperor and concludes that, in the case of Ioannes Arbantenos who is recorded as gambros of Emperor Manuel I, his wife could n[ot have been the niece of the emperor but must have been the daughter of a sebastokrator, one of the emperor’s paternal uncles Andronikos or Isaakios[243]. On balance, it is more probable that she was the daughter of Isaakios. The death of Andronikos's daughter named Anna is recorded in the list of obituaries of Empress Eirene Doukas's family, and it appears that this list does not include the names of married female members of the family, except for direct ancestors and the wives of males in the family. Stiernon concludes that “il y a...grande vraisemblance que Jean Arbantenos ait épousé une fille du sebastokrator Isaac”[244]. A poem of Nikolaos Kallikles names her “Anne”[245]. If the wife of Ioannes Arbantenos was the daughter of Isaakios, her marriage date shows that she must have been one of his older children. Her husband is the only named “gambros” of the emperor who is named in the obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator, his name following those of the children of the emperor’s son Manuel. This suggests that none of the other nieces of the emperor was married at the time.
     "m (before Oct 1136) IOANNES Arbantenos, son of --- (-after 1166). The obituary of the typikon of the Pantocrator (dated Oct 1136) records (among the list of living persons) “o ep avepsia gambros tis basileias mou, o pansebastos sebastos kyris Ioannes o Arbantinos”[246]. The record of the synod of 6 Mar 1166 records the presence of “...pansebasto sebasto et genero...regis nostri Joanne Arbantino...”[247]. Pansebastos.]"
Med Lands cites:
[243] Stiernon, L. ‘Notes de titulature et de prosopographie byzantines. Sébaste et Gambros’, Revue des études byzantines, Tome 23 (1965), p. 239, available at (21 Dec 2012).
[244] Stiernon ‘Sébaste et Gambros’ (1965), p. 240.
[245] Stiernon ‘Sébaste et Gambros’ (1965), p. 239, citing Neos Hellenomnemon, Tome VIII (1911), p. 139 [not yet consulted].
[246] Gautier ‘Obituaire du typikon du Pantokrator’ (1969), p. 241.
[247] Patrologia Graeca, Vol. 140, Nicetæ Choniatæ Thesaurarii, Lib. XXV, Actio TertiaI, 1, col. 254.2
Anna Komnene was also known as Anna Comnena.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM%2010571204.htm#IoannesKTzelepesdied1145. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

Ioannes Arbantenos1

M, #58849
Last Edited20 Feb 2020
     Ioannes Arbantenos married Anna Komnene, daughter of Isaakios/Isaac Comnenus and Eirene (?), before October 1136.1,2

Family

Anna Komnene

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM%2010571204.htm#IoannesKTzelepesdied1145. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

Eudokia Comnena1

F, #58850
FatherIsaakios/Isaac Comnenus1 b. a 16 Jan 1093, d. a 1152
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     Eudokia Comnena married Konstantinos Palaiologos; may have married.1
     Eudokia Comnena was also known as Eudokia Komnene.1

Family

Konstantinos Palaiologos

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK

Helene/Olga Comnena1

F, #58852, d. 1183
FatherIsaakios/Isaac Comnenus1 b. a 16 Jan 1093, d. a 1152
Last Edited15 Oct 2004
     Helene/Olga Comnena married Yuri I Dolguruki "Longarm" (?) Prince of Rostow & Suzdal, Grand Duke of Kiev, son of Vladimir II Vsevolodich "Monomachus" (?) Grand Prince of Kiev and Unknown (?), circa 1152; may have married.1,2
Helene/Olga Comnena died in 1183.1
     ; Helene Komnene, +1183; may have m. Yuri I, Great Pr of Kiev (+1158.)1

; Olga, dau.of Emperor of Byzantium.2

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Rurik 8 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/russia/rurik8.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Youry Dolgoruki: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00081443&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wsewolod III: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00081444&tree=LEO

Alexios Comnenus1

M, #58853
FatherIsaakios/Isaac Comnenus1 b. a 16 Jan 1093, d. a 1152
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     ; illegitimate.1 Alexios Comnenus was also known as Alexios Komnenos.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 1 page ("The Komnenos family"): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant1.html#TKK

Konstantinos Dalassenos1

M, #58854
Last Edited26 May 2020

Family

Child
  • NN Dalassena2

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 3 page (The Dukas family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant3.html
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 3 page (The Dukas family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant3.html

Hélène/Hermine de Ponthieu1

F, #58855
FatherJean I (?) Comte de Ponthieu1,2 b. 1140
MotherBéatrix de St. Pol1 b. c 1160, d. a 1204
Last Edited3 Jun 2020
     Hélène/Hermine de Ponthieu married Guillaume d'Estouteville Seigneur d’Estoutemont, son of Nicolas I d'Estouteville seigneur d’Estouteville et de Valmont, baron de Cleuville and Julienne/Juliette de Thourotte.3,1
     ; Per Racines et Histoire: "Guillaume d’Estouteville + avant 1210 chevalier, seigneur d’Estoutemont
     ép. Hélène (alias Hermine) de Ponthieu (fille de Jean 1er, comte de Ponthieu, et de Béatrix de Saint-Pol.)3"

; Per Racines et Histoire: "3) Hélène (alias Hermine) de Bellême (Ponthieu/Montgomery)
     ép. 1209 Guillaume d’Estouteville, seigneur d’Estoutemont + avant 1210."1

Citations

  1. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Comtes de Ponthieu, & Montreuil, Saint-Pol, p. 8: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Ponthieu.pdf. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/nfraamp.htm#JeanIPonthieudied1191. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Maison d’ Estouteville, p. 3: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Estouteville.pdf

Bagrat IV (?) King of Georgia1,2

M, #58856, b. circa 1020, d. 1072
FatherGiorgi I (?) King of Georgia2 d. 1027
MotherMeriam/Mariam (?) of Vaspourakan, Regent of Georgia2,3
Last Edited22 Aug 2020
     Bagrat IV (?) King of Georgia married Helena Argyrosa (?); his 1st wife.2 Bagrat IV (?) King of Georgia married Borena (?) of Ossetia; his 2nd wife.2 Bagrat IV (?) King of Georgia was born circa 1020.2
Bagrat IV (?) King of Georgia died in 1072.2
     ; [1m.] Bagrat IV, King of Georgia (1027-72), *ca 1020, +1072; 1m: Helena Argyrosa, niece of Emperor Romanos III of byzantium; 2m: Borena of Ossetia.2 He was King of Georgia between 1027 and 1072.2

Family 1

Helena Argyrosa (?)

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 3 page (The Dukas family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant3.html
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Bagrat 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/georgia/bagrat2.html
  3. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Mariam Arçrouni: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariam_Ar%C3%A7rouni. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GEORGIA.htm#MariaMMikhaelVIIByzantium. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

(?) Ducas1

M, #58857, d. after 24 November 1059
FatherKonstantinos/Constantine X Ducas Emperor of Byzantium1 d. 1067
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     (?) Ducas died after 24 November 1059.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 3 page (The Dukas family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant3.html

Anna Ducaena1

F, #58858, b. before 1057, d. after 1075
FatherKonstantinos/Constantine X Ducas Emperor of Byzantium1 d. 1067
Last Edited26 Aug 2003
     Anna Ducaena was born before 1057.1
Anna Ducaena died after 1075.1
     ; a nun.1 Anna Ducaena was also known as Anna Dukaina.1

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 3 page (The Dukas family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant3.html

Domenico Silvio Doge of Venice1,2

M, #58859, d. after 1084
Last Edited2 Aug 2020
     Domenico Silvio Doge of Venice married Theodora Ducaena, daughter of Konstantinos/Constantine X Ducas Emperor of Byzantium and Evdokia Makrembolites, after 1071.1
Domenico Silvio Doge of Venice died after 1084.2
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "DOMENICO Silvio (-after 1084). Andrea Dandulo´s Chronicon Venetum records the succession of "Dominicus Sylvo dux" in 1071[135]. Andrea Navagiero´s Storia della Repubblica Veneziana records that "Domenico Selvo" was elected Doge in 1069[136]. Doge of Venice 1071-1084 deposed. The Normans attacked northern Dalmatia in 1074, making themselves overlords in Split, Trogir, Biograd and Zadar, but were expelled by the Venetians over the following three years. The Doge once more assumed the title dux of Dalmatia, on the basis of the 998 grant by Emperor Basilios II[137]. "Dominicus Sylvius…dux…Petrus filius Petri Michaeli, Vitalis frater eius" witnessed the charter dated Apr 1075 which records the sale of property by the abbot of SS. Ilario e Benedetto to "Iohannes Signolo"[138]. A charter dated Jul 1079 records a judgment against the abbey of Cluny and in favour of the monastery of SS. Trinità e S. Michele di Brondolo relating to property at Fogolana, names "dominus noster Dominicus Silvius…dux et imperialis prothophendius…Dominicum Silvium filium suum", recalls sales of property by "Anna comitissa relicta domini Vidonis comitis" to "Petrum ducem Venetiarum filium bonum [memorie] Petrus dux" and by "Vitalis et Aichelda filii boni [memorie] Petr ducis" to "fratrum eorum Petrum ducem Venetiarum", as well as donations by "Vitalis patriarcha sancte Gradensis ecclesie filius boni [memorie] Petri ducis Candianum" to "Marinam olim ducissam relictam boni [memorie] Tribuni Memi ducis et Mauritio Memo filio suo", by "Otho dux" to "Mauritium filium boni [memorie] Tribuni Memi ducis" and by "Mauritius filius quondam Mauritii Memi de Rivoalto" to the monastery[139]. In return for defeating the Norman fleet in 1081, Byzantium granted Venice duty-free trade throughout the Empire, and the right to establish colonies under its own administration[140]. Andrea Dandulo´s Chronicon Venetum records the expulsion of "[Dominicus Sylvo]…dux Venetis" after ruling for 12 years[141].
     "[m firstly ---. No direct evidence has yet been found of this supposed first marriage. However, there is no indication in the charter dated Jul 1079, quoted below, that Domenico´s son Domenico was under age, which suggests that he could not have been born from his father´s known marriage to Theodora Dukaina.]
m [secondly] (after 1071) THEODORA Dukaina, daughter of Emperor KONSTANTINOS X & his second wife Evdokia Makrembolitissa (before 1059-after 1075)."
Med Lands cites:
[135] Andreæ Danduli Chronicon Venetum, Liber IX, Cap. VIII, RIS XII, col. 247.
[136] Storia della Repubblica Veneziana scritta da Andrea Navagiero, RIS XXIII, col. 961.
[137] Fine (1991), p. 281.
[138] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 224, p. 251.
[139] Codice Diplomatico Padovano, 257, p. 282.
[140] Fine (1991), p. 282.
[141] Andreæ Danduli Chronicon Venetum, Liber IX, Cap. VIII, Pars XI, RIS XII, col. 249.2

Family

Theodora Ducaena b. b 1059, d. a 1075
Child

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 3 page (The Dukas family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant3.html
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/VENICE.htm#DomencioIISilvio. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

Iwan Wladislaw (?) Tsar of the Bulgarians1

M, #58860, b. circa 975, d. 1018
FatherAaron (?) ruler of Western Bulgaria1,2,3 d. bt 14 Jul 987 - 988
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited17 Apr 2020
     Iwan Wladislaw (?) Tsar of the Bulgarians married Marija (?)1,3 Iwan Wladislaw (?) Tsar of the Bulgarians was born circa 975.3
Iwan Wladislaw (?) Tsar of the Bulgarians died in 1018 at Durazzo; killed at Durazzo, after which Bulgaria became a Byzantine province.1,3
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:168.
2. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia. biographical details.3


; Per Med Lands:
     "IVAN VLADISLAV, son of AARON [Kometopoulos] & his wife --- (-killed in battle Durazzo Feb 1018). Zonaras records that "fratrem Aaronem cum omni familia" was killed by Samuil, with the exception of "uno…filio…Joannes Sphandosthlavus"[161]. Lupus Protospatarius records that "Samuel rex" died in 1015 and was succeeded by his son, who was killed in 1016 by "suo consobrino filio Aronis" who reigned in his place[162]. Zonaras records that "Gabrielem filium, qui et Romanus dicebatur" succeeded Samuil in "principatu Bulgarorum" but one year later was killed by "frater patruelis, Aaronis filius Uladisthlavus Joannis"[163]. Cedrenus records that "filius Gabrielus qui et Romanus dicebatur" succeeded Samuil but was poisoned by "Joanne, qui et Bladisthlabus, filio Aaronis" after ruling for one year[164]. He succeeded in 1015 as IVAN VLADISLAV Tsar of the Bulgarians. He reconquered Duklja in 1016 after murdering Knez Ivan Vladimir[165]. Cedrenus records that "Thessalonicensium duce Constantino Diogene" defeated "Joannis et eius patruelem" 9 Jan "indictione 15" and that Ivan was killed while attempting to recapture Durazzo[166]. Cedrenus records that "frater et filius…Cracræ" delivered Adrianople to Emperor Basileios and that they and "Cracram" were created patrikios, that "Dragomuzus" yielded "Strumpitzam" and was made patrikios, and that "Bogdanus interiorum castellorum dominus" submitted and was also created patrikios, while "Davidum patricium Arianitum" left "Scopia" and retired to "castella Stypeium et Prosacum", and that the emperor appointed "Nicephoro patricio Pegonita" as governor of Durazzo[167]. The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa records that “en l’année 460 [19 Mar 1011/17 Mar 1012]” Emperor Basileios II defeated the Bulgarians and poisoned “le vaillant Alusianus, leur souverain” and took his wife and children to Constantinople[168], which would appear to refer more probably to the death of Tsar Ivan Vladislav than to his son Alusian. Cedrenus records that Emperor Basileios entered "Ionium…apud Eilisson castellum…caput…totius Bulgariæ", appointed "Eustathium patricium Daphnomelum" as governor, and received the submission of "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus et duas filias Radomeri, filii Samueli, ac filios quinque" (of whom one had been blinded by "Joanne")[169]. Bulgaria was divided into three themes[170].
     "m MARIJA, daughter of --- (-after [1029/31]). Zonaras names "Maria…Joannis Uladisthlavi uxor" and adds that the couple had three sons and six daughters[171]. Cedrenus records that "Joannis Bladisthlabi viduam cum filiis tribus et sex filiabus…" submitted to Emperor Basileios II (in 1018), adding that the couple had three other sons, of whom two had escaped "in montem Tmuroum"[172]. Cedrenus records that "Mariam Joannis quondam uxorem" was sent to Constantinople "cum filiis suis" with gifts[173]. She settled in Constantinople where she adopted the name ZOE and became patrikia in 1019. Cedrenus records that "Prusianus Bulgarus magister…mater eius" was exiled by Emperor Romanos Argyros, dated to [1029/31][174]."
Med Lands cites:
[161] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, VI, col. 154.
[162] Lupus Protospatarius 1017, MGH SS V, p. 57.
[163] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, IX, col. 166.
[164] Cedrenus II, col. 191.
[165] Fine (1991), p. 198.
[166] Cedrenus II, col. 199.
[167] Cedrenus II, col. 199.
[168] Dulaurier, E. (trans.) (1858) Chronique de Matthieu d’Edesse avec la continuation de Grégoire le Prêtre (Paris), I, XXXVI, p. 40.
[169] Cedrenus II, col. 202.
[170] Fine (1991), pp. 199-200.
[171] Zonaras II, Liber XVII, IX, col. 166.
[172] Cedrenus II, col. 202.
[173] Cedrenus II, col. 207.
[174] Cedrenus II, col. 219.4


; Per Wikipedia:
     "Ivan Vladislav (Church Slavonic: ?????? ?????????? Bulgarian: ???? ?????????) ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from August or September 1015 to February 1018. The year of his birth is unknown; he was born at least a decade before 987, but probably not much earlier than that.
     "Saved from death by his cousin Gavril Radomir, the Bulgarian Emperor, in 976, Ivan Vladislav murdered him in October 1015 and seized the Bulgarian throne. Due to the desperate situation of the country following the decades-long war with the Byzantine Empire, and in an attempt to consolidate his position, he tried to negotiate truce with the Byzantine emperor Basil II. After the failure of the negotiations he continued the resistance, attempting unsuccessfully to push the Byzantines back. During his period of rule, Ivan Vladislav tried to strengthen the Bulgarian army, reconstructed many Bulgarian fortresses and even carried out a counter-offensive, but he died at the Battle of Dyrrhachium in 1018. After his death his widow, Empress Maria, the Patriarch and most of the nobility finally surrendered to Basil II, who soon suppressed the last remnants of resistance and brought about the end of the First Bulgarian Empire.
     "Ivan Vladislav left a mixed heritage, varying from a reputation of being a ruthless murderer to a hero defending his country as best as he could. The descendants of Ivan Vladislav entered the Byzantine nobility and rose to the highest ranks of the hierarchy. Two women of his family became empresses of the Byzantine Empire and others became military commanders or high-ranking officials. He was an ancestor of the Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos.
Biography
Early life
     "Ivan Vladislav was the son of Aron, the brother of Emperor Samuel (r. 997–1014) of the Cometopuli dynasty. In 976 or 987 Samuel ordered his brother Aron executed for treason together with his entire family near Razmetanitsa. Ivan Vladislav was the only survivor, being spared through the intercession of his cousin, Samuel's son Gavril Radomir.[1][2] His life during the subsequent decades and until his accession is unknown.
Assumption of power
     "By 1015, Bulgaria had been embroiled in almost thirty years of war with the Byzantine Empire, and Gavril Radomir had succeeded Samuel, who died on 6 October 1014 after the disastrous Battle of Kleidion. However, from the outset Radomir's position was insecure: Ivan Vladislav, as a son of the elder of the Cometopouli brothers, could lay claim on the throne based on seniority.[3] During that time the Byzantine Emperor Basil II campaigned deep into Bulgarian territory. He retook the previously lost town of Voden (Edessa) and laid siege to the massive fortress of Maglen, situated to the north-west. Gavril Radomir did not have enough forces and was unable to interfere and could only watch the course of the events from the nearby Lake Ostrovo. His inability to cope with the Byzantine threat aroused discontent among the nobility and Ivan Vladislav became their chosen leader. The fall of Maglen sealed Gavril Radomir's fate—in the late summer of 1015, while hunting near Ostrovo (Arnissa), he was murdered by his cousin,[4] perhaps at the behest of Byzantine agents.[1] Ivan Vladislav then seized the Bulgarian throne and took steps to ensure his position against potential rivals.[5]
First months of reign
     "After assuming the throne, Ivan Vladislav immediately sent a delegation to Basil II, which arrived five days after the fall of Maglen. In his letter, Ivan Vladislav notified Basil that he had personally murdered Gavril Radomir and had seized all the power in the country and promised Basil deep humility and obedience,[6][7] an act of submission which some in the nobility supported. After Ivan Vladislav firmly secured his hold on the throne, however, he openly declared to be against any kind of compromise with the Byzantines and quickly began to follow the determined policy of his predecessors against the ongoing Byzantine conquest. Basil II soon understood that Ivan Vladislav's letter was a ruse and plotted a retaliatory action, bribing the kavkhan Theodore, who was in Byzantine captivity, to murder the Bulgarian ruler. Theodore in turn paid a trusted man in Ivan Vladislav's employ to commit the murder, but in the event the assassin actually killed Theodore himself.[6] In the meantime Basil II continued his march, forcing the Bulgarian emperor to retreat to the Albanian mountains, and advanced into the heart of the Bulgarian state. The Byzantines took the capital Ohrid and burned the imperial palaces; news, however, arrived that Ivan Vladislav had laid siege to Dyrrhachium and that to the south the Bulgarian general Ibatzes had defeated the Byzantine rear army near Bitola.[8] With his supply routes cut, Basil II had to retreat back to Thessalonica leaving a small garrison in Ohrid, which was swiftly retaken by the Bulgarians. Back in his base at Mosynopolis, Basil divided the Byzantine army to harass the areas of Strumitsa and Sofia. In January 1016 the Byzantine emperor returned to Constantinople.[9]
Consolidation
     "Meanwhile, Ivan Vladislav consolidated his positions in the mountains of Albania and Macedonia. As early as October 1015 he began the reconstruction of many strongholds destroyed during the war, including the fortress at Bitola[10] (as testified in the Bitola inscription). In 1016 he invited his vassal Prince Jovan Vladimir of Doclea, who was married to Gabriel Radomir's sister Theodora Kosara, to come to his court.[1] The emperor probably desired to seize the prince and so secure his western flank. The Prince was determined to attend the invitation of Tsar, but his wife Theodora Kosara did not trust the murderer of her brother, and fearing for her husband's life persuaded him not to go. Ivan Vladislav however vowed not to threaten his vassal's life, and sent him a golden cross as a proof of good will. Jovan Vladimir still hesitated, saying that God was nailed to a wooden not golden cross,[11] but Ivan Vladislav repeated his vow and gave him a guarantee of safe-conduct, also guaranteed by the Bulgarian patriarch David. Eventually Jovan Vladimir travelled to the court of the Tsar in Prespa, but upon his arrival on 22 May, he was immediately beheaded, and the emperor refused to allow the burial of his body. It was not until a number of miraculous events related to the corpse of the prince were observed that Vladislav returned the body to Kosara.[12]
     "In the spring of 1016 Basil II led his armies along the Struma valley and besieged the strong fortress of Pernik. The fort's defence was headed by the capable commander Krakra, who remained loyal to the Bulgarian cause. As all the previous attempts against Pernik, the 88-day siege was a failure, costing the Byzantines many casualties before they were forced to retreat south and regroup at Mosynopolis.[9]
Fighting in 1017
     "In the early days of 1017 the Byzantine emperor renewed his campaigns. He sent David Arianites and Constantine Diogenes to pillage along the River Vardar and captured the castle of Longos. After that he marched south and besieged Kastoria. Under the walls of the town Basil II received messages from Tzitzikios, the Byzantine strategos of Dorostolon (Silistra), that Ivan Vladislav had sent Krakra to negotiate assistance from the Pechenegs[13] and that they were crossing the Danube. The Byzantine emperor immediately abandoned the siege and hurried northwards, but in the vicinity of Lake Ostrovo he learned that the Pechenegs were unwilling to risk war. Returning south, Basil II captured Setina, where Samuel used to have a palace and acquired for himself the large amount of provisions that were stored there. Ivan Vladislav, who was closely monitoring the Byzantine movements, ambushed the troops who were under the command of Constantine Diogenes, who would have perished had not Basil II come to relieve him. According to John Skylitzes, the Emperor charged alone in front of his army to Diogenes' rescue. When the Bulgarians saw him, they shouted "Run, the Emperor" ("??????? ???????") and retreated in panic.[13] Contented with their victory, the Byzantines moved on to Voden and returned to Constantinople.[9]
Death
     "In the early 1018 Ivan Vladislav besieged Dyrrhachium, but in February he was killed under the walls of the city.[1] The accounts of his death are contradictory. According to some he became victim of a plot and was killed by his servants; according to others, he perished in battle. The Bulgarian additions to the Skylitzes Chronicle are more detailed, saying that Ivan Vladislav dueled with the strategos of Dyrrhachium, the patrikios Niketas Pegonites, on horseback, and while fighting, two Byzantine infantrymen from the audience rushed to the emperor and wounded him mortally in the belly. A later Byzantine historian claimed that the duel was fair and Pegonites stabbed Ivan Vladislav in the chest with his spear, killing him instantly.[13] The Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja reports an altogether different story: while having a meal in his camp, the emperor was attacked by an unknown soldier, in whom Ivan Vladislav seemed to have recognized the murdered Jovan Vladimir. Terrified, he cried for help but no one rushed to his rescue and the unknown soldier mortally wounded the Bulgarian ruler.[14]
     "His death marked the effective end of the Bulgarian Empire. Ivan Vladislav's sons were young and inexperienced, and even the strongest Bulgarian leaders doubted the advisability of further resistance. Upon learning of the death of the Tsar, Basil II left Constantinople. In Adrianople he was met by the brother of Krakra who acknowledged Byzantine authority. His example was followed by the larger part of the Bulgarian nobility who pledged loyalty to Basil II, giving up their fortresses. In Serres, Krakra along with the commanders of 35 castles met the emperor and surrendered, and in Strumitsa he received a message sent by the Empress-dowager Maria to negotiate the surrender of the capital and the country.[15] Basil II richly awarded those who surrendered, allowing them to keep their lands, wealth and titles. Short-lived resistance continued under Ivan Vladislav's eldest son Presian and his brothers, but they also surrendered by the end of 1018.[16]
Legacy
     "Living more than one hundred years after Ivan Vladislav, the historian known as the Priest of Duklja, who wrote from a Dukljan perspective, was outraged by the murder of Jovan Vladimir, and wrote that after the Tsar died, he was "forever connected with the angels of Satan".[18] Many modern Bulgarian historians, including Vasil Zlatarski, also criticize the emperor, claiming that his actions hastened the fall of Bulgaria and that instead of raising the morale of the nation he turned into a murderer and was unable to cope with the intrigues and the corruption in court.[19] Steven Runciman is also critical of the emperor, noting that his assassination of Gavril Radomir unleashed a general confusion where each noble started looking out for his own personal interests, but nevertheless credits him with "a considerable ruthless energy".[12] Jordan Andreev is more favourable to Ivan Vladislav, noting that he had reasons for his acts—he had to revenge the murder of his family according to the old Bulgarian pagan beliefs, but he only killed Gavril Radomir and his wife without harming the rest of Gavril Radomir's family. He had to cope with Jovan Vladimir who, as a husband of one of Samuel's daughters, was a threat to his position, and had also attempted a compromise with the Byzantines.[11] According to Andreev, Ivan Vladislav's struggle to defend the Bulgarian state and his heroic death serve to mitigate his ill deeds. He cites a Byzantine historian at an unknown age who claimed that during Ivan Vladislav's reign the Byzantine state "hanged in the balance, because that barbarian like Goliath resisted the Romans and they were all despaired by that invincible foe."[20] The Polish historian Kazimierz Zakrzewski also writes with sympathy for the last ruler of the First Empire, in light of the fact that Ivan Vladislav managed to sustain a guerilla war which he skilfully ran until his death.[21]
     "Ivan Vladislav Point on Rugged Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Ivan Vladislav of Bulgaria.[22]
Family
     "Ivan Vladislav married Maria, possibly the daughter of Tsar Boris II of Bulgaria and a Byzantine noblewoman,[23] by whom he left progeny. Maria was named zoste patrikia by Basil II, and the descendants of Ivan Vladislav entered Byzantine service, becoming part of the Byzantine nobility and forming close ties with the Komnenos clan in particular.[24] Both his daughter Catherine and an unnamed (possibly Anna) granddaughter married (future) Byzantine emperors.[25] His second son Alusian took part in the Uprising of Petar Delyan against Byzantine rule but eventually betrayed the Bulgarian cause.
     "Maria and Ivan Vladislav had several children, including:[24]
1. Presian, later Byzantine magistros
2. Alusian, Byzantine patrikios in 1019, strategos of Theodosiopolis in Anatolia, briefly emperor of Bulgaria in 1041[26]
3. Aaron, Byzantine general
4. Trayan / Troianus, father of Maria of Bulgaria, who married Andronikos Doukas.
5. Catherine (Ekaterina), who married the future Byzantine Emperor Isaac I Komnenos

Notes
^ a: Andreev does not specify in the book the name the Byzantine historian he has cited.
References
1. Kazhdan, p. 1071
2. Wasilewski, p. 71
3. Zlatarski, p. 705
4. Runciman, pp. 242–244
5. Zlatarski, p. 713
6. Andreev, p. 132
7. Zlatarski, p. 709
8. Zlatarski, p. 717
9. Runciman, pp. 245–248
10. Gyuzelev, p. 57
11. Andreev, p. 134
12. Runciman, p. 245
13. Andreev, p. 133
14. Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, p. 266
15. Runciman, pp. 248–249
16. Zlatarski, pp. 736–737
17. Andreev, p. 135
18. Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, ch. XXXVI, p. 341. Paul Stephenson, Chronicle of the priest of Duklja Archived 2012-04-18 at the Wayback Machine
19. Zlatarski, p. 718
20. Andreev, pp. 134–135
21. Zakrzewski, History of Byzantium, p. 229
22. L.L. Ivanov. Ivan Vladislav Point SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica
23. Settipani 2006, pp. 282-283.
24. Kazhdan, p. 1
25. "BULGARIA". fmg.ac. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
26. "BULGARIA". fmg.ac. Retrieved 2016-05-07.
27. Wasilewski, T. History of Bulgaria (in Polish). p. 290.
28. Runciman, pp. 226, 232–233, 250
29. Zlatarski, Appendix 19
Sources
** Andreev, Jordan; Milcho Lalkov (1996). The Bulgarian Khans and Tsars (in Bulgarian). Abagar. ISBN 954-427-216-X.
** Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994), The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0-472-08260-5
** Gyuzelev, Vasil (1986). The Middle Ages in Bulgaria (in Polish) (Polish ed.) Warsaw: Ksi??ka i Wiedza. ISBN 83-05-11583-6.
** Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. (1991). The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
** Runciman, Steven (1930). "The End of an Empire". A History of the First Bulgarian Empire. London: George Bell & Sons. OCLC 832687.
** Stawowy-Kawka, Irena (2000). History of Macedonia (in Polish). Wroc?aw: Ossolineum. ISBN 83-04-04549-4.
** Settipani, Christian (2006), Continuité des élites à Byzance durant les siècles obscurs. Les princes caucasiens et l'Empire du VIe au IXe siècle, Paris: De Boccard.
** Wasilewski, Tadeusz (1988). History of Bulgaria (in Polish). Wroc?aw: Ossolineum. ISBN 83-04-02466-7.
** Zlatarski, Vasil (1971) [1927]. ??????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ??????. ??? I. ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????, ???? II. ?? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? (852—1018) [History of Bulgaria in the Middle Ages. Vol. 1. History of the First Bulgarian Empire, Part 2.From the Slavicization of the state to the fall of the First Empire (852—1018)]. Sofia: Nauka i izkustvo. OCLC 67080314."5

; Per Genealogics:
     "Iwan was the son of Aaron, lord of West Bulgaria, the half-brother of Samuil Kometopulos, tsar of Bulgaria, who died in 1014 after the crushing defeat of his army on 29 July 1014 by the Byzantine emperor Basilius II in the Battle of Belasita.
     "Iwan and his wife Marija had 11 children, of whom Trajan and Alusian would have progeny.
     "Iwan had been saved from death in 987 by his cousin Gavril Radomir, who succeeded his father Samuil in October 1014. However Iwan murdered Gavril in October 1015 and seized the Bulgarian throne. Due to the desperate situation of the country following the decades-long war with the Byzantine empire and in an attempt to consolidate his position, he tried to negotiate a truce with the Byzantine emperor Basilius II. After the failure of the negotiations he continued the resistance, attempting unsuccessfully to push the Byzantines back, During his period of rule, Iwan tried to strengthen the Bulgarian army, reconstructed many Bulgarian fortresses and even carried out a counter-offensive.
     "Iwan died in February 1018 in an unsuccessful attempt to capture the Byzantine-held city of Dyrrhachium (Durrës/Durazzo) and establish his power on the southeastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. After his death his widow Marija, the Patriarch and most of the nobility finally surrendered to Basilius II, who soon suppressed the last remnants of resistance and brought about the effective end of the First Bulgarian Empire, though his eldest son Presian II succeeded Iwan as tsar of Bulgaria for a short time in 1018."3 GAV-29 EDV-29. Iwan Wladislaw (?) Tsar of the Bulgarians was also known as Ivan Vladislav (?)2 He was Tsar of the Bulgarians between 1015 and 1018.1,5

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Balkan 8 page (The Tsars of the first Bulgarian Empire in Ochrida): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/balkan/balkan8.html
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BULGARIA.htm#_Toc359577756. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Iwan Wladislaw: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00141472&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BULGARIA.htm#IvanVladislavdied1018B
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Vladislav_of_Bulgaria. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Trajan (Troianos) of Bulgaria: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00141474&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alusian of Bulgaria: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00399704&tree=LEO