Margaret de Gatesden

F, #21001, d. before January 1311
FatherSir John de Gatesden1,2,3 b. 1218
MotherHawise de Courtenay4 b. c 1222, d. b 8 Apr 1269
ReferenceGAV23
Last Edited13 Nov 2019
     Margaret de Gatesden married Sir John de Camoys, son of Sir Ralph de Camoys, circa 1279.2,5,6 Margaret de Gatesden married Sir William Paynel before July 1301.2,5
Margaret de Gatesden died before January 1311.2,5
     Reference: Genealogics cites: The Complete Peerage, 1936, Doubleday, H. A. & Lord Howard de Walden, Reference: II 506.5 GAV-23.

Family 1

Sir John de Camoys b. c 1247, d. b 4 Jun 1298
Children

Citations

  1. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I47522
  2. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Camoys Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir John de Gatesden: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00177836&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I47523
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Margaret de Gatesden: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00177835&tree=LEO
  6. [S4718] The History of Parliament, online <http://www.historyofparliamentonline.org/>, Sir John de Camoys: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00177834&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as History of Parliament Website.
  7. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Le Strange of Hunstanton Family Page.

Sir Ralph de Camoys1

M, #21002, b. 1214, d. between 11 March 1276 and 1277
FatherRalph de Camoys2 b. 1188, d. 1259
MotherAsceline Torpel2 b. 1190
ReferenceGAV24 EDV21
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Sir Ralph de Camoys was born in 1214 at Bourne, Cambridgeshire, England.2
Sir Ralph de Camoys died between 11 March 1276 and 1277.2
     GAV-24 EDV-21.

; RALPH de CAMOYS; b c 1214; Constable Pevensey Castle 18 July 1264, called by writ to Simon de Montfort's assembly 24 Dec 1264 (now not recognised as a bona fide Parl, although the Ho of Lds on two occasions validated peerage claims based on writs of summons to it); d by 11 March 1276/7.2

Family

Children

Citations

  1. [S1971] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 3 Oct 2005: "Ancestry of the Lords Fauconberg: Thomas fitz Richard de Cuckney"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 3 Oct 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 3 Oct 2005."
  2. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Camoys Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.

Ralph de Camoys

M, #21003, b. 1188, d. 1259
ReferenceGAV25 EDV22
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Ralph de Camoys married Asceline Torpel. Ralph de Camoys was born in 1188 at Flockthorpe, Hardingham, England.
Ralph de Camoys died in 1259.1
     GAV-25 EDV-22.

Family

Asceline Torpel b. 1190
Child

Citations

  1. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Camoys Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.

Asceline Torpel

F, #21004, b. 1190
ReferenceGAV25 EDV22
Last Edited27 Aug 2019
     Asceline Torpel married Ralph de Camoys. Asceline Torpel was born in 1190 at Bourne, Cambridgeshire, England.
     GAV-25 EDV-22.

; heiress of Torpel, Northants.1

Family

Ralph de Camoys b. 1188, d. 1259
Child

Citations

  1. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Camoys Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.

Margaret Foliot

F, #21005, b. between 1313 and 1314
FatherSir Richard Foliot 2nd Lord Foliot1 b. 25 Dec 1283, d. b 23 Jul 1317
MotherJoan de Braose2,3 b. c 1285, d. b 23 Jun 1324
Last Edited21 Jun 2006
     Margaret Foliot was born between 1313 and 1314 at Trotton, co. Sussex, England.

Citations

  1. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Camoys Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Richard Foliot: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00398101&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Margaret Foliot: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00398111&tree=LEO

Sir John de Gatesden1,2,3

M, #21006, b. 1218
ReferenceGAV24
Last Edited13 Nov 2019
     Sir John de Gatesden married Hawise de Courtenay, daughter of Sir Robert de Courtenay Lord of Okehampton and Mary de Vernon (de Reviers); Leo van de Pas cites: Europaische Stammtafeln, J. A. stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.), Reference: III 629.4,2 Sir John de Gatesden was born in 1218 at Okehampton, Devonshire, England.1
     GAV-24.

Family

Hawise de Courtenay b. c 1222, d. b 8 Apr 1269
Child

Citations

  1. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I47522
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir John de Gatesden: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00076200&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir John de Gatesden: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00177836&tree=LEO
  4. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I47523
  5. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Camoys Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.

Hawise de Courtenay1

F, #21007, b. circa 1222, d. before 8 April 1269
FatherSir Robert de Courtenay Lord of Okehampton2 b. c 1183, d. c 27 Jul 1242
MotherMary de Vernon (de Reviers)2 b. bt 1164 - 1203, d. bt 1197 - 1258
ReferenceGAV24
Last Edited13 Nov 2019
     Hawise de Courtenay married Sir John de Gatesden; Leo van de Pas cites: Europaische Stammtafeln, J. A. stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.), Reference: III 629.1,3 Hawise de Courtenay was born circa 1222 at Okehampton, Devonshire, England.1
Hawise de Courtenay died before 8 April 1269.1
     GAV-24.

Family

Sir John de Gatesden b. 1218
Child

Citations

  1. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I47523
  2. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I2112
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir John de Gatesden: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00076200&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Sir Andrew Stewart1

M, #21008
FatherWalter Stewart 6th Great Steward of Scotland1 b. 1292, d. 9 Apr 1327
MotherIsabel Graham1,2
Last Edited5 Jul 2006

Citations

  1. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Stuart Earls of Moray Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Isabel Graham: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00006194&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Gualtier (?) Sire de la Guerche

M, #21009, d. circa 1094
FatherGeoffroy (?) Sire de la Guerche
ReferenceGAV25 EDV26
Last Edited14 Jan 2003
     Gualtier (?) Sire de la Guerche married Basilie (?)
Gualtier (?) Sire de la Guerche died circa 1094.
     GAV-25 EDV-26 GKJ-25.

Family

Basilie (?) d. c 1094
Child

Basilie (?)

F, #21010, d. circa 1094
ReferenceGAV25 EDV26
Last Edited14 Jan 2003
     Basilie (?) married Gualtier (?) Sire de la Guerche, son of Geoffroy (?) Sire de la Guerche.
Basilie (?) died circa 1094.
     GAV-25 EDV-26 GKJ-25.

Geoffroy (?) Sire de la Guerche

M, #21011
FatherSilvestre (?) Sire de la Guerche d. 1096
ReferenceGAV26 EDV27
Last Edited14 Jan 2003
     GAV-26 EDV-27 GKJ-26.

Family

Child

Silvestre (?) Sire de la Guerche

M, #21012, d. 1096
FatherManguene (?) Sire de la Guerche
ReferenceGAV27 EDV28
Last Edited14 Jan 2003
     Silvestre (?) Sire de la Guerche died in 1096.
     GAV-27 EDV-28 GKJ-27.

Manguene (?) Sire de la Guerche

M, #21013
FatherThibault (?) Baron of Rennes
MotherGenargaud (?)
ReferenceGAV28 EDV29
Last Edited14 Jan 2003
     GAV-28 EDV-29 GKJ-28.

Family

Child

Thibault (?) Baron of Rennes

M, #21014
FatherLoscoran (?)
ReferenceGAV29 EDV30
Last Edited14 Jan 2003
     Thibault (?) Baron of Rennes married Genargaud (?)
     GAV-29 EDV-30 GKJ-29.

Genargaud (?)

F, #21015
ReferenceGAV29 EDV30
Last Edited14 Jan 2003
     Genargaud (?) married Thibault (?) Baron of Rennes, son of Loscoran (?).
     GAV-29 EDV-30 GKJ-29.

Loscoran (?)

M, #21016
ReferenceGAV30 EDV31
Last Edited14 Jan 2003
     GAV-30 EDV-31 GKJ-30.

Robert II fitz Hugh de Grandmesnil1,2

M, #21017, b. before 1060, d. 1 June 1136
FatherHugh I de Grandmesnil Count of Grentmesnil, seigneur de Brokesborne3,4,5 b. 1030, d. 22 Feb 1098
MotherAdelaide/Aelis de Beaumont-sur-Oise6,4,5 b. c 1040, d. 11 Jul 1091
ReferenceGAV24 EDV25
Last Edited9 Jun 2020
     Robert II fitz Hugh de Grandmesnil married Agnès (?) de Bayeux, daughter of Ranulph III "the Young" (?) de Meschine, 1st Earl of Chester, vicomte de Bayeux et du Bessin and Lucia (?) of Alkborough;
His 3rd wife per Med Lands.7,8,9 Robert II fitz Hugh de Grandmesnil married Lucy (?), daughter of Saveric fitz Cane and Muriel de Bohun;
His 2nd wife.10,4 Robert II fitz Hugh de Grandmesnil married Emma d'Estouteville, daughter of Robert I "Grandbois" d'Estouteville seigneur d’Estouteville and Béatrix/Beatrice (?);
Her 2nd(?) husband; his 1st wife. Med Lands mentions as possible a 1st marriage to Errand d'Harcourt, but Genealogics does not mention it.11,12,4,13,5 Robert II fitz Hugh de Grandmesnil was born before 1060.4
Robert II fitz Hugh de Grandmesnil died on 1 June 1136.4
Robert II fitz Hugh de Grandmesnil was buried after 1 June 1136 at Abbey of St. Evroult, Saint-Evroult-Notre-Dame-du-Bois, Departement de l'Orne, Basse-Normandie, France.4


     GAV-24 EDV-25 GKJ-24.

Reference: Genealogics cites: The de Stuteville Family, 2012 , Ravilious, John.5

; Per Med Lands:
     "ROBERT de Grantmesnil ([before 1060]-1 Jun [1136], bur Ouche Saint-Evroul). Orderic Vitalis names “Rodbertum, Guillelmum, Hugonem, Ivonem, Albericum” as the sons of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife “Adelidem filiam Ivonis comitis de Bellomonte”[353]. Considering that Robert's younger brother Guillaume was considered of marriageable age before [1081] (see below), it is unlikely that Robert was born later than [1060], although this would mean that he was probably in his fifties at the time of his first marriage (considering the estimated birth date range of his first wife) which seems surprising. “…Rotberti de Grentemaisnillo, Ivonis de Grentemaisnillo…” witnessed the charter dated Sep 1093 under which William II King of England donated property to Lincoln cathedral[354]. "…Robert de Grentone-Maisnil…" witnessed the undated charter under which Robert III Duke of Normandy donated property to Saint-Etienne de Caen[355]. "Robert de Grantemsnil et Robert de sancto Serenico" confirmed donations of property to the abbey of Saint-Evroul made by "their progenitors Hugh and Robert de Grentemesnil" by charter dated to [1127/28][356]. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil died “Kal Jun” 38 years after his father and was buried at Ouche “cum duabus uxoribus suis: Agnete et Emma”[357].
     "m [firstly] [as her second husband,] EMMA d’Estouteville, [widow of ERRAND Seigneur d'Harcourt[358],] daughter of ROBERT [I] d'Estouteville & his wife [Beatrix ---] (-bur Ouche Saint-Evroul). Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil, son of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife, married secondly “Emmam Rodberti de Stotevilla filiam”[359]. The chronology of these families suggests that Emma must have been Robert’s first wife not his second. The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Robertus de Stuteville, Beatrix uxor eius, Robertus, Graulfus, Willelmus filii eorum, Emma Robertus…" and in a later passage the same names with the last two replaced by "Emme uxor Rodberti, Rodbertus filius eius…"[360]. La Roque states that “une généalogie de la maison d’Estouteville” names Errand’s wife as “Emme et la comprend entre ceux du sang...[de] Robert d’Estouteville”, suggesting that she was the same person who later married “Hugues de Grentesmesnil”[361]. The passage is somewhat garbled and in any case La Roque does not provide a citation reference to the source in question or quote it in his “Preuves”. It is suggested that, until further documentation comes to light, this supposed marriage of Errand should be treated with caution. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil died “Kal Jun” 38 years after his father and was buried at Ouche “cum duabus uxoribus suis: Agnete et Emma”[362].
     "m [secondly] LUCY, daughter of SAVARY de Beaumont-au-Maine & his wife Muriel de Bohun. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil, son of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife, married thirdly “Luciam Savarici filii Cani filiam”[363]. Given the likely chronology of Robert’s wife Agnes, it is probable that Lucy was his second rather than his third wife.
     "m [thirdly] AGNES [Aveline], daughter of RANULF "le Meschin" Vicomte du Bessin [Bayeux] [later Earl of Chester] & his wife Lucy --- ([1098/1105]-bur Ouche Saint-Evroul). Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil, son of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife, married firstly “Agnetem Ranulfi Bajocensis filiam”[364]. Her birth date range is estimated from the likely marriage date of her parents. If that range is correct, it is more likely that Agnes was Robert’s third wife than his first. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil died “Kal Jun” 38 years after his father and was buried at Ouche “cum duabus uxoribus suis: Agnete et Emma”[365]."
Med Lands cites:
[353] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 359.
[354] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Lincoln Cathedral, IV, p. 1271.
[355] Calvados (Anisy), Vol. I, Saint-Etienne de Caen, 9, p. 271.
[356] Round (1899) 623, p. 218.
[357] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXVIII, p. 455.
[358] ES III 697.
[359] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 360.
[360] Durham Liber Vitæ, folio 44, p. 60, and folio 47b, p. 68.
[361] La Roque (1662), Tome I, p. 302.
[362] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXVIII, p. 455.
[363] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 360.
[364] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 359.
[365] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXVIII, p. 455.4


; Per Med Lands:
     "AGNES ([1098/1105]-bur Ouche Saint-Evroul). Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil, son of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife, married firstly “Agnetem Ranulfi Bajocensis filiam”[80]. Her birth date range is estimated from the likely marriage date of her parents. If that range is correct, it is more likely that Agnes was Robert’s third wife than his first. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil died “Kal Jun” 38 years after his father and was buried at Ouche “cum duabus uxoribus suis: Agnete et Emma”[81].
     "m as his [third] wife, ROBERT de Grantmesnil, son of HUGUES de Grantmesnil & his wife Adelisa [Aelis] de Beaumont-sur-Oise (-1 Jun [1136], bur Ouche Saint-Evroul)."
Med Lands cites:
[80] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 359.
[81] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXVIII, p. 455.9


; Per Med Lands:
     "EMMA d’Estouteville (-bur Ouche Saint-Evroul). The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Robertus de Stuteville, Beatrix uxor eius, Robertus, Graulfus, Willelmus filii eorum, Emma Robertus…" and in a later passage the same names with the last two replaced by "Emme uxor Rodberti, Rodbertus filius eius…"[250]. The chronology of her marriages suggests that she must have been considerably older than her brother Robert, maybe born from an earlier marriage of their father. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil, son of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife, married secondly “Emmam Rodberti de Stotevilla filiam”[251]. The chronology of these families suggests that Emma must have been Robert’s first wife not his second. La Roque states that “une généalogie de la maison d’Estouteville” names Errand’s wife as “Emme et la comprend entre ceux du sang...[de] Robert d’Estouteville”, suggesting that she was the same person who later married “Hugues de Grentesmesnil”[252]. The passage is somewhat garbled and in any case La Roque does not provide a citation reference to the source in question or quote it in his “Preuves”. It is suggested that, until further documentation comes to light, this supposed marriage of Errand should be treated with caution. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil died “Kal Jun” 38 years after his father and was buried at Ouche “cum duabus uxoribus suis: Agnete et Emma”[253].
     "[m firstly ERRAND Seigneur d'Harcourt, son of ANSCHETIL d’Harcourt & his wife --- (-after 1078).]
     "m [secondly] as his [first] wife, ROBERT de Grantmesnil, son of HUGUES de Grantmesnil & his wife Adelise de Beaumont-sur-Oise ([before 1060]-1 Jun [1136], bur Ouche Saint-Evroul)."
Med Lands cites:
[250] Durham Liber Vitæ, folio 44, p. 60, and folio 47b, p. 68.
[251] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 360.
[252] La Roque (1662), Tome I, p. 302.
[253] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXVIII, p. 455.12

Citations

  1. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I44601
  2. [S4766] Et al Rosie Bevan, ""Ancestry of Margery de Stuteville, wife of Sir Richard Foliot" (30 posts by 9 authors)," e-mail message from (https://groups.google.com/forum/print/msg/soc.genealogy.medieval/TZJlpxTzthU/mgH3_rtA8SAJ?ctz=5490243_72_76_104100_72_446760) to Email chain on soc.genealogy.medieval mail list, 31 Aug 2002. Hereinafter cited as "Soc.Gen.Med: Ancestry of Margery de Stuteville."
  3. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I3094
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY%20NOBILITY.htm#HuguesGrantmesnildied1098. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Robert de Grandmesnil: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00601799&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I30286
  7. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Avranches.pdf, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY%20NOBILITY.htm#RobertGrantmesnildied1136
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL.htm#AvelineChesterMRobertGrantmesnil
  10. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I44602
  11. [S4767] Et al Rosie Bevan, ""Stuteville of Cottingham"," e-mail message from (https://groups.google.com/forum/print/msg/soc.genealogy.medieval/TZJlpxTzthU/mgH3_rtA8SAJ?ctz=5490243_72_76_104100_72_446760) to Email chain on soc.genealogy.medieval mail list, 31 Aug 2002, https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/soc.genealogy.medieval/TZJlpxTzthU. Hereinafter cited as "Soc.Gen.Med: Ancestry of Margery de Stuteville."
  12. [S2230] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 10 Feb 2008: "Re: Elizabeth la Ware, wife of Sir Edmund Bacon"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 10 Feb 2008, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/normacre.htm#EmmaStutevilleM2RobertGrantmesnil. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 10 Feb 2008."
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Emma d'Estouteville: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00601722&tree=LEO

Lucy (?)1

F, #21018, b. circa 1078
FatherSaveric fitz Cane2 b. bt 1065 - 1070
MotherMuriel de Bohun2
ReferenceGAV24 EDV25
Last Edited9 Jun 2020
     Lucy (?) married Robert II fitz Hugh de Grandmesnil, son of Hugh I de Grandmesnil Count of Grentmesnil, seigneur de Brokesborne and Adelaide/Aelis de Beaumont-sur-Oise;
His 2nd wife.1,3 Lucy (?) was born circa 1078.1
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "ROBERT de Grantmesnil ([before 1060]-1 Jun [1136], bur Ouche Saint-Evroul). Orderic Vitalis names “Rodbertum, Guillelmum, Hugonem, Ivonem, Albericum” as the sons of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife “Adelidem filiam Ivonis comitis de Bellomonte”[353]. Considering that Robert's younger brother Guillaume was considered of marriageable age before [1081] (see below), it is unlikely that Robert was born later than [1060], although this would mean that he was probably in his fifties at the time of his first marriage (considering the estimated birth date range of his first wife) which seems surprising. “…Rotberti de Grentemaisnillo, Ivonis de Grentemaisnillo…” witnessed the charter dated Sep 1093 under which William II King of England donated property to Lincoln cathedral[354]. "…Robert de Grentone-Maisnil…" witnessed the undated charter under which Robert III Duke of Normandy donated property to Saint-Etienne de Caen[355]. "Robert de Grantemsnil et Robert de sancto Serenico" confirmed donations of property to the abbey of Saint-Evroul made by "their progenitors Hugh and Robert de Grentemesnil" by charter dated to [1127/28][356]. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil died “Kal Jun” 38 years after his father and was buried at Ouche “cum duabus uxoribus suis: Agnete et Emma”[357].
     "m [firstly] [as her second husband,] EMMA d’Estouteville, [widow of ERRAND Seigneur d'Harcourt[358],] daughter of ROBERT [I] d'Estouteville & his wife [Beatrix ---] (-bur Ouche Saint-Evroul). Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil, son of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife, married secondly “Emmam Rodberti de Stotevilla filiam”[359]. The chronology of these families suggests that Emma must have been Robert’s first wife not his second. The Liber Vitæ of Durham names "Robertus de Stuteville, Beatrix uxor eius, Robertus, Graulfus, Willelmus filii eorum, Emma Robertus…" and in a later passage the same names with the last two replaced by "Emme uxor Rodberti, Rodbertus filius eius…"[360]. La Roque states that “une généalogie de la maison d’Estouteville” names Errand’s wife as “Emme et la comprend entre ceux du sang...[de] Robert d’Estouteville”, suggesting that she was the same person who later married “Hugues de Grentesmesnil”[361]. The passage is somewhat garbled and in any case La Roque does not provide a citation reference to the source in question or quote it in his “Preuves”. It is suggested that, until further documentation comes to light, this supposed marriage of Errand should be treated with caution. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil died “Kal Jun” 38 years after his father and was buried at Ouche “cum duabus uxoribus suis: Agnete et Emma”[362].
     "m [secondly] LUCY, daughter of SAVARY de Beaumont-au-Maine & his wife Muriel de Bohun. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil, son of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife, married thirdly “Luciam Savarici filii Cani filiam”[363]. Given the likely chronology of Robert’s wife Agnes, it is probable that Lucy was his second rather than his third wife.
     "m [thirdly] AGNES [Aveline], daughter of RANULF "le Meschin" Vicomte du Bessin [Bayeux] [later Earl of Chester] & his wife Lucy --- ([1098/1105]-bur Ouche Saint-Evroul). Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil, son of “Hugo de Grentemaisnilio” and his wife, married firstly “Agnetem Ranulfi Bajocensis filiam”[364]. Her birth date range is estimated from the likely marriage date of her parents. If that range is correct, it is more likely that Agnes was Robert’s third wife than his first. Orderic Vitalis records that Robert de Grantmesnil died “Kal Jun” 38 years after his father and was buried at Ouche “cum duabus uxoribus suis: Agnete et Emma”[365]."
Med Lands cites:
[353] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 359.
[354] Dugdale Monasticon IV, Lincoln Cathedral, IV, p. 1271.
[355] Calvados (Anisy), Vol. I, Saint-Etienne de Caen, 9, p. 271.
[356] Round (1899) 623, p. 218.
[357] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXVIII, p. 455.
[358] ES III 697.
[359] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 360.
[360] Durham Liber Vitæ, folio 44, p. 60, and folio 47b, p. 68.
[361] La Roque (1662), Tome I, p. 302.
[362] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXVIII, p. 455.
[363] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 360.
[364] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XVI, p. 359.
[365] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXVIII, p. 455.3
GAV-24 EDV-25 GKJ-24.

Citations

  1. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I44602
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MAINE.htm#SavariMMurielMery. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY%20NOBILITY.htm#HuguesGrantmesnildied1098

Raoul (?) Vcte de Montevrault et de Lude1

M, #21019
FatherRaoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine1 b. c 1010, d. b 1062
Last Edited7 Aug 2003
     Raoul (?) Vcte de Montevrault et de Lude married Agathe (?), daughter of Foulcques (?) Cte de Vendome, before 1071.1

Family

Agathe (?)

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html

Emma de Montrevault Dame de Lude1

F, #21020, b. circa 1010, d. 12 September 1058
FatherEtienne de Montrevault1
ReferenceGAV25
Last Edited9 Aug 2009
     Emma de Montrevault Dame de Lude married Tesselin de Montevrault; her 1st husband.2 Emma de Montrevault Dame de Lude was born circa 1010. She married Raoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine, son of Raoul/Ralph IV (?) Vicomte de Maine and Eremburgis (?), before 3 March 1048; his 1st wife.1
Emma de Montrevault Dame de Lude died on 12 September 1058.1
     GAV-25.

Family 1

Tesselin de Montevrault

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html
  2. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Bellême.pdf, p. 3. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.

Isabel Mac Duff Countess of Fife1,2,3

F, #21021, b. before 1322
FatherDuncan mac Duff 10th Earl of Fife4,2 b. c 1285, d. 1353
MotherMary de Monthermer2,4 b. c 1298
Last Edited19 Jan 2009
     Isabel Mac Duff Countess of Fife married John de Dunbar Earl of Fife jure uxoris; her 4th husband.2 Isabel Mac Duff Countess of Fife was born before 1322.2 She married William de Felton Knt., of Edlingham, Northumberland before 1341; her 1st husband.2 Isabel Mac Duff Countess of Fife married Walter Stewart Earl of Fife jure uxoris, son of Robert II Stewart King of the Scots and Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan, after 1359; her 2nd husband.1,2 Isabel Mac Duff Countess of Fife married Sir Thomas Biset Knt., of Upsetlington, Earl of Fife jure uxoris between 10 January 1362 and 1363; her 3rd husband.2
     Isabel Mac Duff Countess of Fife was In 1353 she succeeded her father as Countess of Fife. She resigned the Earldom of Fife to Robert Stewart, Earl of Menteith, on 30 March 1371. between 1353 and 1371.3 She was living on 12 August 1389.3,2

Family 2

William de Felton Knt., of Edlingham, Northumberland b. c 1299, d. b 24 Feb 1359
Child

Family 3

Walter Stewart Earl of Fife jure uxoris d. a 14 Aug 1362

Citations

  1. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Stuart Earls of Moray Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  2. [S2261] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 1st edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 2004), Montagu 6.i.a: p. 507. Hereinafter cited as Richardson PA.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Isabel MacDuff: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00276080&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2261] Douglas Richardson, Richardson PA, Montagu 6.i: p. 507.

Saveric fitz Cane

M, #21022, b. between 1065 and 1070
FatherRaoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine b. c 1010, d. b 1062
MotherCana (?) of Fougeres b. c 1031
ReferenceGAV25 EDV26
Last Edited18 Apr 2020
     Saveric fitz Cane married Muriel de Bohun, daughter of Richard (?) sn de Bohon et de Lucie and Lucie (?).1,2,3 Saveric fitz Cane was born between 1065 and 1070.4
     ; Per Genealogy.EU: "Savari de Beaumont, moved to England; m.Muriel de Mery, dau.of Richard, sn de Bohon et de Lucie; from them descended a family named "de Bohun", not to be confused with the much more famous family of that name."3

; Per Med Lands:
     "SAVARY FitzCana ([1065/70]-). He is named as son of Cana by Orderic Vitalis[308]. "…Savaricus filius vicecomitis Radulfi…" witnessed a charter dated to [1067/80] relating to the donation by "Johannes de Guirchia" of "ecclesia sancti Cornelli de Banniolo" to the church of Saint-Vincent du Mans[309]. "Savericus filius Cane…" witnessed a charter dated to [1087/94] under which Robert son of William I King of England donated property to Holy Trinity, Caen[310]. Of Midhurst and Easebourne, Sussex.
     "m MURIEL de Bohun, daughter of RICHARD de Méry Seigneur de Bohun & his wife Lucie ---. Domesday Descendants states that Savary de Beaumont married "Muriel daughter of Richard de Meri, the Norman heir of Humphrey de Bohun" but does not cite the corresponding primary source[311]. Her family origin is indicated by a charter of King Richard I dated 31 Mar 1190 confirming "Ford, Climpling, Rustinton, Presteton and Lovinto…in the county of Sussex" to "Francus de Bohun", to hold in the same way as "Savaric son of Savaric, heir of Enjulger de Bohon" had held[312]. "Savaric son of Cana and Muriel his wife" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Martin, Sees by charter dated to [1105], witnessed by "…Radulfus et Savarico filii ipsius Savarici"[313]. Savari & his wife had four children"
Med Lands cites:
[308] Orderic Vitalis (Chibnall), Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 231.
[309] Le Mans Saint-Vincent, Liber primus, 115, p. 77.
[310] Round (1899), 423, p. 142.
[311] Domesday Descendants, p. 876.
[312] Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniæ, Vol. II, p. xxxii.
[313] Round (1899) 669, p. 237.4
GAV-25 EDV-26 GKJ-25. Saveric fitz Cane was also known as Savaric/Savary Fitz Cana de Beaumont.1,4

Family

Muriel de Bohun
Children

Citations

  1. [S1217] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=:1590432, Sue Cary (unknown location), downloaded updated 25 Aug 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:1590432&id=I14459
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL.htm#MurielBohunMSavariBeaumont. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html
  4. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MAINE.htm#SavariMMurielMery

Muriel de Bohun1

F, #21023
FatherRichard (?) sn de Bohon et de Lucie2
MotherLucie (?)3
ReferenceGAV25 EDV26
Last Edited10 Mar 2020
     Muriel de Bohun married Saveric fitz Cane, son of Raoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine and Cana (?) of Fougeres.4,3,2
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "MURIEL de Bohun . Domesday Descendants states that Savari de Beaumont married "Muriel daughter of Richard de Meri, the Norman heir of Humphrey de Bohun" but does not cite the corresponding primary source[449]. Her family origin is indicated by a charter of King Richard I dated 31 Mar 1190 confirming "Ford, Climpling, Rustinton, Presteton and Lovinto…in the county of Sussex" to "Francus de Bohun", to hold in the same way as "Savaric son of Savaric, heir of Enjulger de Bohon" had held[450]. "Savaric son of Cana and Muriel his wife" donated property to the abbey of Saint-Martin, Sees by charter dated to [1105], witnessed by "…Radulfus et Savarico filii ipsius Savarici"[451].
     "m SAVARY FitzCana, son of RAOUL [IV] Vicomte du Maine & his second wife Cana --- ."
Med Lands cites:
[449] Domesday Descendants, p. 876.
[450] Rotuli Scaccarii Normanniæ, Vol. II, p. xxxii.
[451] Round (1899) 669, p. 237.3
Muriel de Bohun was also known as Muriel of Mery.2 GAV-25 EDV-26 GKJ-25.

Family

Saveric fitz Cane b. bt 1065 - 1070
Children

Citations

  1. [S1217] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=:1590432, Sue Cary (unknown location), downloaded updated 25 Aug 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:1590432&id=I14458
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL.htm#MurielBohunMSavariBeaumont. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1217] e-mail address, updated 25 Aug 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:1590432&id=I14459
  5. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MAINE.htm#SavariMMurielMery

Raoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine1

M, #21024, b. circa 1010, d. before 1062
FatherRaoul/Ralph IV (?) Vicomte de Maine1 b. c 980, d. 1040
MotherEremburgis (?)1 b. c 985, d. b 1049
ReferenceGAV25
Last Edited10 Mar 2020
     Raoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine was born circa 1010. He married Emma de Montrevault Dame de Lude, daughter of Etienne de Montrevault, before 3 March 1048; his 1st wife.1 Raoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine married Cana (?) of Fougeres, daughter of Gelduin (?) sn de Pontlevoie and Chana (?); his 2nd wife.1
Raoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine died before 1062.
     GAV-25 EDV-27 GKJ-26.

; Vcte Raoul V de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine; 1m: before 3.3.1048 Emme, Dame de Lude (+12.9.1058, bur St-Serge, Angers) dau.of Etienne de Montevrault; 2m: Cana, dau.of Gelduin, sn de Pontlevoie.1

Family 2

Emma de Montrevault Dame de Lude b. c 1010, d. 12 Sep 1058
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html
  2. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Bellême.pdf, p. 3. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.

Cana (?) of Fougeres

F, #21025, b. circa 1031
FatherGelduin (?) sn de Pontlevoie1
MotherChana (?) b. c 1001
ReferenceGAV26 EDV27
Last Edited8 Jan 2003
     Cana (?) of Fougeres was born circa 1031. She married Raoul/Ralph V (?) Vicomte de Beaumont-sur-Sarthe et du Maine, son of Raoul/Ralph IV (?) Vicomte de Maine and Eremburgis (?); his 2nd wife.1
     GAV-26 EDV-27 GKJ-26.

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html

Chana (?)

F, #21026, b. circa 1001
ReferenceGAV27 EDV28
Last Edited15 Feb 2003
     Chana (?) was born circa 1001.
     GAV-27 EDV-28 GKJ-27.

Raoul/Ralph IV (?) Vicomte de Maine1

M, #21027, b. circa 980, d. 1040
FatherRaoul/Ralph III de Beaumont Vicomte du Maine et du Mans1 b. c 950, d. a 997
MotherGodeheut de Bellême1 b. c 950
ReferenceGAV27 EDV28
Last Edited9 Aug 2009
     Raoul/Ralph IV (?) Vicomte de Maine was born circa 980. He married Eremburgis (?), daughter of Ives (?), after 997.1
Raoul/Ralph IV (?) Vicomte de Maine died in 1040.1
     GAV-27 EDV-28 GKJ-27.

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html

Eremburgis (?)

F, #21028, b. circa 985, d. before 1049
FatherIves (?) b. c 955
ReferenceGAV27 EDV28
Last Edited7 Aug 2003
     Eremburgis (?) was born circa 985. She married Raoul/Ralph IV (?) Vicomte de Maine, son of Raoul/Ralph III de Beaumont Vicomte du Maine et du Mans and Godeheut de Bellême, after 997.1
Eremburgis (?) died before 1049.
     GAV-27 EDV-28 GKJ-27.

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html

Ives (?)

M, #21029, b. circa 955
ReferenceGAV28 EDV29
Last Edited8 Jan 2003
     Ives (?) married an unknown person. He was born circa 955.
     GAV-28 EDV-29 GKJ-28.

Family

Child

Raoul/Ralph III de Beaumont Vicomte du Maine et du Mans1,2

M, #21030, b. circa 950, d. after 997
ReferenceGAV28 EDV29
Last Edited18 Aug 2020
     Raoul/Ralph III de Beaumont Vicomte du Maine et du Mans was born circa 950. He married Godeheut de Bellême, daughter of Yves I (Ivo) de Creil seigneur de Bellême and Godeheut/Godehildis/Goheu (?), circa 980;
Her 2nd husband.1,2
Raoul/Ralph III de Beaumont Vicomte du Maine et du Mans died after 997.2
     GAV-28 EDV-29 GKJ-28.

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Beaumont 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/beaumont/beaumont4.html
  2. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Bellême.pdf, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.