Agnes de Faucigny Dame de Faucigny1,2

F, #48901, d. 11 August 1268
FatherAymon II (?) Sire de Faucigny1,2,3 d. Sep 1253
MotherBeatrix (?) d'Auxonne-Bourgogne1,4,5 d. 11 Apr 1260
Last Edited15 Jun 2020
     Agnes de Faucigny Dame de Faucigny was buried

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown
     DEATH     11 Aug 1268
     Family Members
     Parents
          Beatrix d'Auxonne unknown–1261
     Spouse
          Pierre II of Savoy 1203–1268
     Siblings
          Geoffrey de Geneville unknown–1314
     Children
          Beatrice de Faucigny 1237–1310
     BURIAL     Abbaye de Contamine-sur-Arve, Contamine-sur-Arve, Departement de la Haute-Savoie, Rhône-Alpes, France
     Created by: Lutetia
     Added: 18 May 2014
     Find A Grave Memorial 130027901.6 She married Pietro II "il Piccolo Carlo Magno" (?) Count of Savoy, Aosta and Moriana, Earl of Richmond, son of Tommaso I (?) Count of Savoy, Aosta and Moriana and Béatrice (?) de Genève, after 25 June 1236.1,7,2,8
Agnes de Faucigny Dame de Faucigny died on 11 August 1268.1,2
     ; See Wikipedia and Med Lands entries for more information.9,10

; Leo van de Pas cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: II 190.1 She was Countess of Savoy between 1263 and 1268.9

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Agnes de Faucigny: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00141241&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Savoy 1 page - The House of Savoy: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/savoy/savoy1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aymon II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00048709&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Beatrice d'Auxonne-Bourgogne: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00026598&tree=LEO
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/burgkgenev.htm#AimonFaucignydied1253. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 15 December 2019), memorial page for Agnes de Faucigny (unknown–11 Aug 1268), Find A Grave Memorial no. 130027901, citing Abbaye de Contamine-sur-Arve, Contamine-sur-Arve, Departement de la Haute-Savoie, Rhône-Alpes, France ; Maintained by Lutetia (contributor 46580078), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/130027901/agnes-de_faucigny. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Peter II de Savoie: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00141240&tree=LEO
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAVOY.htm#PierreIIdied1268
  9. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnes_of_Faucigny. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  10. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/burgkgenev.htm#AgnesFaucignydied1268
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Beatrix de Savoie: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00141238&tree=LEO

Vittoria Feltria della Rovere1,2

F, #48902, b. 7 June 1622, d. 6 March 1694
FatherFederico Ubaldo della Rovere Hereditary Duke of Urbino and Gubbio3,2 b. 16 May 1605, d. 28 Jun 1623
MotherClaudia de Medici1,2 b. 4 Jun 1604, d. 25 Dec 1648
Last Edited12 Aug 2004
     Vittoria Feltria della Rovere was born on 7 June 1622 at Urbino, Italy (now).2 She married Ferdinando II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, son of Cosimo II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany and Maria Magdalena (?) Archduchess of Austria, on 26 September 1633.1,4,2
Vittoria Feltria della Rovere died on 6 March 1694 at Pisa, Italy (now), at age 71.2

Family

Ferdinando II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany b. 14 Jul 1610, d. 23 May 1670
Child

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Rovere page (della Rovere family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/rovere.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Federico Ubaldo della Rovere: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00202795&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cosimo III de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010972&tree=LEO

Cosimo II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany1,2,3,4

M, #48903, b. 12 May 1590, d. 28 February 1621
FatherFerdinando I de Medici Cardinal, Grand Duke of Tuscany3,4 b. 30 Jul 1549, d. 17 Feb 1609
MotherChrétienne (?) de Lorraine3,5,4 b. 16 Aug 1565, d. 19 Dec 1637
Last Edited12 Aug 2004
     Cosimo II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany was born on 12 May 1590 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).2,4 He married Maria Magdalena (?) Archduchess of Austria, daughter of Karl (?) Duke von Steyer, Archduke of Austria and Maria Anna (?) of Bavaria, on 19 October 1608 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).1,2,3,6,7,8,4
Cosimo II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany died on 28 February 1621 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now), at age 30.3,4,2
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. The Rise and Fall of the House of Medici London, 1974 , Christopher Hibbert, Reference: 281,282 bio
2. Genealogie der Graven van Holland Zaltbommel, 1969. , Dr. A. W. E. Dek, Reference: page 133
3. Cahiers de Saint Louis Magazine. , Jacques Dupont, Jacques Saillot, Reference: page 1222.
4. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 120.7

; In 1609 he succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Tuscany but, on 19 October 1608 in Florence, he increased the family's reputation for lavish entertainments when marrying Archduchess Magdalena of Austria, sister of the Emperor Ferdinand II. These were so spectacular a display on the river Arno that observers claimed nothing like it had been seen ever before. The stage was the whole stretch of river between the Ponte alla Carraia and the Ponte Santa Trinita embellished with statues for the occasion. The audience, sitting in immense grandstands erected on the Lugarni, were treated to a performance by gigantic artificially constructed dolphins, lobsters and fire-spitting hydra, sailed round an artificial island, captured the Golden Fleece. Finally, the Archduchess was presented with six red apples symbolic of the Medicean 'palle'.

Cosimo II also shared his father's taste for building. He extended the Palazzo Pitti and reconstructed yet another villa for his family, the villa of Poggio Imperiale near Arcetri. Here he set up a telescope which Galileo Galilei had brought with him to Florence and where Galileo himself was offered sanctuary.

On 28 February 1621 in Florence, Cosimo II died, aged only thirty, having achieved very little worthy of recording. 'The Rise and Fall of The House of Medici', by Christopher Hibbert.7 He was Duke of Florence between 1609 and 1621.3 He was Grand Duke of Tuscany between 1609 and 1621.2,4

Family

Maria Magdalena (?) Archduchess of Austria b. 7 Oct 1589, d. 1 Nov 1631
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 301. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 75: Austria, Bohemia and Hungary - Hapsburgs in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  3. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 257.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Chrétienne de Lorraine: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010948&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Archduchess Maria Magdalena of Austria: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00001338&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cosimo II de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00001586&tree=LEO
  8. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Habsburg 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg4.html
  9. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html

Karl IX (?) King of Sweden1,2

M, #48904, b. 4 October 1550, d. 30 October 1611
FatherGustaf I Eriksson (?) King of Sweden1,2 b. 12 May 1496, d. 29 Sep 1560
MotherMargaretha Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud1,2 b. 1 Jan 1514, d. 26 Aug 1551
Last Edited25 Nov 2004
     Karl IX (?) King of Sweden was born on 4 October 1550 at Stockholm, Sweden.1,2 He married Anna Marie (?) von Simmern, Pfgfn von der Pfalz, daughter of Ludwig VI (?) Kfst von der Pfalz and Elisabeth (?) von Hesse, on 3 May 1579 at Heidelberg, Bavaria, Germany (now); his 1st wife.3,1,2,4 Karl IX (?) King of Sweden married Christine (?) Princess von Holstein-Gottorp, daughter of Adolf (?) Duke of Holstein-Gottorp and Christine (?) Landgrafin von Hessen, on 27 August 1592 at Nyköping, Sweden; his 2nd wife.5,6,2
Karl IX (?) King of Sweden died on 30 October 1611 at Nyköping, Sweden, at age 61.1,2
Karl IX (?) King of Sweden was buried after 30 October 1611 at Uppsala, Sweden.2


     ; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: vol II page 79
2. Ancestors Juliana, Q. of The Netherlands Jaarboek Centraal Bureau Genealogie Den Haag, Reference: ancestor 2350.
3. 'Svenska attartal' V.Ornberg 1889-90 Stockholm, Reference: page 8.1

; CARL IX, Regent of Sweden (1599-1603), King of Sweden (1604-11), *Stockholm 4.10.1550, +Nyköping 30.10.1611, bur Uppsala Domkyrka; 1m: Heidelberg 11.5.1579 Pfgfn Anna Maria von Simmern (*24.7.1561, +29.7.1589); 2m: 27.8.1592 Christine of Holstein-Gottorp (*Kiel 12.4.1573, +Nyköping 8.12.1625.)2 Karl IX (?) King of Sweden was also known as Carl IX (?) King of Sweden.2 He was Regent of Sweden between 1599 and 1603.2 He was King of Sweden between 1604 and 1611.1,2

Family 1

Anna Marie (?) von Simmern, Pfgfn von der Pfalz b. 24 Jul 1561, d. 29 Jul 1589

Family 2

Christine (?) Princess von Holstein-Gottorp b. 13 Apr 1573, d. 8 Dec 1625
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Carl IX: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00008500&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Vasa page - The House of Vasa: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/vasa/vasa.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Princess Anna Marie von der Pfalz: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010388&tree=LEO
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Wittel 3 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/wittel/wittel3.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Princess Christine von Holstein-Gottorp: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00007303&tree=LEO
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Oldenburg 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/oldenburg/oldenburg2.html
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gustaf II Adolph: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00008501&tree=LEO

Ferdinando II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany1,2

M, #48905, b. 14 July 1610, d. 23 May 1670
FatherCosimo II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany1,3,2 b. 12 May 1590, d. 28 Feb 1621
MotherMaria Magdalena (?) Archduchess of Austria1,2 b. 7 Oct 1589, d. 1 Nov 1631
Last Edited12 Aug 2004
     Ferdinando II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany was born on 14 July 1610 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).2 He married Vittoria Feltria della Rovere, daughter of Federico Ubaldo della Rovere Hereditary Duke of Urbino and Gubbio and Claudia de Medici, on 26 September 1633.1,2,4
Ferdinando II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany died on 23 May 1670 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now), at age 59.1,2
Ferdinando II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany was buried after 23 May 1670 at San Lorenzo, Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).2


     He was Grand Duke of Tuscany between 1621 and 1670 at Tuscany, Italy (now).2 He was Duke of Florence between 1621 and 1670.1

Family

Vittoria Feltria della Rovere b. 7 Jun 1622, d. 6 Mar 1694
Child

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cosimo II de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00001586&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Rovere page (della Rovere family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/rovere.html
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cosimo III de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010972&tree=LEO

Cosimo III de Medici Duke of Florence1,2,3

M, #48906, b. 14 August 1642, d. 31 October 1723
FatherFerdinando II de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany1,2,3 b. 14 Jul 1610, d. 23 May 1670
MotherVittoria Feltria della Rovere1,2,3 b. 7 Jun 1622, d. 6 Mar 1694
Last Edited27 Nov 2004
     Cosimo III de Medici Duke of Florence was born on 14 August 1642.4,2,3 He married Marguerite Louise de Bourbon, daughter of Gaston (?) Duc d'Orléans, de Chartes, d'Anjou, de Valois et d'Alencon and Princess Marguerite (?) de Lorraine, on 20 June 1661 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).4,5,2,3 Cosimo III de Medici Duke of Florence and Marguerite Louise de Bourbon were divorced in 1675.4,5
Cosimo III de Medici Duke of Florence died on 31 October 1723 at age 81.4,2,1,3
     ; Gr Duke Cosimo III of Tuscany (1670-1723), *14.8.1642, +31.10.1723; m.Florence 20.6.1661 Marguerite-Louise d'Orléans (*28.7.1645 +17.9.1721.)6

; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: vol II page 120
2. Cahiers de Saint Louis Magazine. , Jacques Dupont, Jacques Saillot, Reference: page 1223.3 He was Duke of Florence between 1670 and 1723.1 He was Grand Duke of Tuscany between 1670 and 1723.4,2

Family

Marguerite Louise de Bourbon b. 28 Jul 1645, d. 17 Sep 1721
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cosimo III de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010972&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 65: France - House of Bourbon. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Capet 40 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/capet/capet40.html
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ferdinando III de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010974&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giovanni Gastone de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010973&tree=LEO

Gian Gastone de Medici Duke of Florence1,2,3

M, #48907, b. 24 May 1671, d. 9 July 1737
FatherCosimo III de Medici Duke of Florence1,2,4,3 b. 14 Aug 1642, d. 31 Oct 1723
MotherMarguerite Louise de Bourbon5,3 b. 28 Jul 1645, d. 17 Sep 1721
Last Edited7 Dec 2004
     Gian Gastone de Medici Duke of Florence was born on 24 May 1671 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).2,3,6 He married Anna Marie Franziska (?) Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg, Duchess of Saxony, daughter of Julius Franz (?) Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, Duke of Saxony and Maria Hedwig Auguste (?) Pfalzgräfin von Sulzbach, on 2 July 1697 at Dusseldorf, Germany (now); her 2nd husband.7,6
Gian Gastone de Medici Duke of Florence died on 9 July 1737 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now), at age 66.1,2,3,6
     ; Gian Gastone Grand Duke of Tuscany (1723-37), *Florence 24.5.1671, +Florence 9.7.1737 - last male member of the family; m.Düsseldorf 2.7.1697 Dss Anna Marie Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg (*13.6.1672 +Reichstadt 15.10.1741.)2

; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Graf Johann der Mittlere von Nassau- Siegen und seine 25 kinder Rijswijk, 1962, Dr. A. W. E. Dek
2. Cahiers de Saint Louis Magazine. , Jacques Dupont, Jacques Saillot, Reference: page 1223.3 He was Duke of Florence between 1723 and 1737.1 He was Grand Duke of Tuscany between 1723 and 1737.2,3

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giovanni Gastone de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010973&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cosimo III de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010972&tree=LEO
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 3 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici3.html
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Ascan 3 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/ascania/ascan3.html
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Duchess Anna Marie Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00051323&tree=LEO

Piero "il Gottoso" de Medici Duke of Florence1,2,3

M, #48908, b. 1416, d. 2 December 1469
FatherCosimo "il Vecchio" de Medici1,2,3 b. 27 Sep 1389, d. 1 Aug 1464
MotherContessina de' Bardi1,2,3 d. 1473
Last Edited11 Aug 2004
     Piero "il Gottoso" de Medici Duke of Florence was born in 1416 at Florence.2,3 He married Lucrezia Tornabuoni, daughter of Francesco Tornabuoni and Marianna Guiccialdini, on 3 June 1444 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).1,2,3
Piero "il Gottoso" de Medici Duke of Florence died on 2 December 1469 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).1,3
     ; Piero detto "il Gottoso" (* Firenze 1416 + ivi 8-12-1469), dei Priori delle Arti nel 1448, ambasciatore a Milano nel 1450 e a Venezia nel 1454, Gonfaloniere di Giustizia della Repubblica di Firenze dal 1461; alla morte del padre succede come "dominus" della repubblica fiorentina; creato Consigliere (carica onorifica) da Luigi XI Re di Francia e viene autorizzato ad aggiungere i gigli regi nello stemma.
= Firenze 3-6-1444 Lucrezia, figlia di Francesco Tornabuoni (* 1425 + Firenze 28-3-1482) (v.)2


; Pietro I "il Gottoso", Ruler of Florence (1464-69), *Florence 1416, +Florence 2.12.1469; m.3.6.1444 Lucrezia Tornabuoni (*1425, +25.3.1482), dau.of Francesco Tornabuoni and Selvaggia Alessandri.4 He was Duke of Florence between 1464 and 1469.1

Family

Lucrezia Tornabuoni
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, De'Medici: http://www.sardimpex.com/medici2.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html

Lucrezia Tornabuoni1

F, #48909
FatherFrancesco Tornabuoni2 b. c 1380, d. 1437
MotherMarianna Guiccialdini3
Last Edited22 Apr 2006
     Lucrezia Tornabuoni married Piero "il Gottoso" de Medici Duke of Florence, son of Cosimo "il Vecchio" de Medici and Contessina de' Bardi, on 3 June 1444 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).1,4,2

Family

Piero "il Gottoso" de Medici Duke of Florence b. 1416, d. 2 Dec 1469
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  3. [S1877] Hugh Tornabene, "Tornabene email 9 Feb 2005: "Marianna Guiccialdini not Selvagia degli Alessandri"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 9 Feb 2005, Tornabene cites: Eleonora Plebani, I Tornabuoni, Una familiglia fiorentina alla fine del Medioevo. Hereinafter cited as "Tornabene email 9 Feb 2005."
  4. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, De'Medici: http://www.sardimpex.com/medici2.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.

Lorenzo "the Magnificent" de Medici Duke of Florence1,2,3

M, #48910, b. 1 January 1449, d. 8 April 1492
FatherPiero "il Gottoso" de Medici Duke of Florence1,4,3 b. 1416, d. 2 Dec 1469
MotherLucrezia Tornabuoni1,4,3
Last Edited11 Aug 2004
     Lorenzo "the Magnificent" de Medici Duke of Florence was born on 1 January 1449 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).3,2 He married Clarice Orsini, daughter of Giacomo Orsini di Monterotondo, on 28 December 1469 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).5,3,2
Lorenzo "the Magnificent" de Medici Duke of Florence died on 8 April 1492 at Carregi (near Florence), Tuscany, Italy (now), at age 43.1,2
     ; Lorenzo detto "il Magnifico" (* Firenze 1-1-1449 + villa di Careggi 8-4-1492), alla morte del padre subentra nel controllo della repubblica fiorentina senza detenere cariche ufficiali; celebre uomo politico, poeta e mecenate; in occasione del suo matrimonio venne armato Cavaliere dal suocero.
= Firenze 28-12-1469 Clarice Orsini (* 1453 + Firenze 8-1488) (v.)3


; Lorenzo I "il Magnifico", a banker, Ruler of Florence (1469-92), *Florence 1.1.1449, +Careggi 8.4.1492; m.4.6./28.12.1469 "Leo" Clarice Orsini (*ca 1450, +30.7.1488), dau.of Giacomo Orsini di Monterotondo.2 He was Duke of Florence: Lorenzo de' Medici (the Magnificent). Lorenzo continued the general policy of Cosimo. He enjoyed the power and prestige of a prince, though he had neither the title nor the office. His marriage to Clarice Orsini was the first princely marriage of the Medici.

1471: Lorenzo's effort to conciliate Pope Sixtus IV netted him a confirmation of the Medici banking privileges and an appointment as receiver of the papal revenues.

1474: Pope Sixtus and Ferrante of Naples were asked to join the alliance of Florence, Venice, and Milan (concluded in 1474), but Ferrante, feeling isolated, and Sixtus, angered at Lorenzo's opposition to his nephews, the Riarios, drew together. Italy became divided into two camps. The Pazzi family, rivals of the Medici, were given the lucrative position of receiver of the papal revenues.

1478: The Pazzi conspiracy. The Riarios plotted to have Lorenzo and Giuliano assassinated in the cathedral at Easter Mass. Giuliano was killed, Lorenzo wounded. The Medici almost exterminated the Pazzi and hounded the fugitives all over Italy. Sixtus laid an interdict on Florence and excommunicated Lorenzo; Alfonso of Calabria invaded Tuscany. Ferrante engineered a Milanese revolt; the Turks diverted Venice at Scutari; plague broke out. Desperate, Lorenzo visited Ferrante (the cruelest and most cynical despot in Italy), and through his charm and the threat of a revival of Angevin claims, arranged (1480) a peace. Florence suffered considerable losses, but Lorenzo was a popular hero and succeeded in establishing the council of seventy, a completely Medici organ, the instrument of de facto despotism, but a source of real stability in government.

The princely court. In the 15th century, political power and elite culture were centered in the princely courts of despots and oligarchs such as the Medici. “A court was the space and personnel around a prince as he made laws, received ambassadors, made appointments, took his meals and proceeded through the streets,” in the words of Lauro Martines. At his court, a prince flaunted his patronage of learning and the arts through lavish gifts to writers, artists, philosophers. The princely court gave the ruler the opportunity to display his wealth, in ceremonies such as baptisms, marriages, funerals, and triumphal entries into the city. Ritual and pageantry were used to display wealth and power.

Lorenzo's brilliant foreign policy was costly; he had neglected the family business and apparently used some of the state money for Medici purposes; he also debased the coinage. Florentine prosperity, under the pressure of rivals, heavy taxation, and business depression, declined. Nonetheless, Lorenzo, the leading statesman of his day, brought a 12-year calm to Italy, resuming the Medici alliance with Naples and Milan to balance the papacy and Venice, and to keep a united front against alien invasion. Florence, on good terms with Charles VIII, regained most of her Tuscan losses. Savonarola, prior of San Marco (1491), had begun his denunciations of Florentine corruption and his attacks on Lorenzo between 1478 and 1492.5

Family

Clarice Orsini b. c 1450, d. 30 Jul 1488
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  3. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, De'Medici: http://www.sardimpex.com/medici2.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  5. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., pp. 257-258.
  6. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Leo X at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09162a.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giuliano de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00353616&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Clarice Orsini1

F, #48911, b. circa 1450, d. 30 July 1488
FatherGiacomo Orsini di Monterotondo2
Last Edited11 Aug 2004
     Clarice Orsini was born circa 1450.2 She married Lorenzo "the Magnificent" de Medici Duke of Florence, son of Piero "il Gottoso" de Medici Duke of Florence and Lucrezia Tornabuoni, on 28 December 1469 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).1,3,2
Clarice Orsini died on 30 July 1488.2
     ; "Leo" Clarice Orsini (*ca 1450, +30.7.1488), dau.of Giacomo Orsini di Monterotondo.2

Family

Lorenzo "the Magnificent" de Medici Duke of Florence b. 1 Jan 1449, d. 8 Apr 1492
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), pp. 257-258. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  3. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, De'Medici: http://www.sardimpex.com/medici2.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  4. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 257.
  5. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Leo X at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09162a.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giuliano de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00353616&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Giuliano de Medici Duke of Florence1,2

M, #48912, b. 1453, d. 26 April 1478
FatherPiero "il Gottoso" de Medici Duke of Florence1,3,2 b. 1416, d. 2 Dec 1469
MotherLucrezia Tornabuoni1,2,3
Last Edited11 Aug 2004
     Giuliano de Medici Duke of Florence was born in 1453.2
Giuliano de Medici Duke of Florence died on 26 April 1478; murdered.1,2
     He was Duke of Florence, co-ruler of Florence between 1469 and 1478 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).1,2

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  3. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, De'Medici: http://www.sardimpex.com/medici2.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.

Giulio/Giuliano de Medici Cardinal1,2,3

M, #48913, b. 6 March 1478, d. 25 September 1534
FatherGiuliano de Medici Duke of Florence1,3 b. 1453, d. 26 Apr 1478
Last Edited11 Aug 2004
     Giulio/Giuliano de Medici Cardinal was born on 6 March 1478.2,3
Giulio/Giuliano de Medici Cardinal died on 25 September 1534 at age 56.2,3
     ; illegitimate son of Giuliano de Medici.1,3 Giulio/Giuliano de Medici Cardinal was also known as Pope Clement VII.1,2

; Pope Clement VII - (GIULIO DE’ MEDICI) - Born 1478; died 25 September, 1534. Giulio de' Medici was born a few months after the death of his father, Giuliano, who was slain at Florence in the disturbances which followed the Pazzi conspiracy. Although his parents had not been properly married, they had, it was alleged, been betrothed per sponsalia de presenti, and Giulio, in virtue of a well-known principle of canon law, was subsequently declared legitimate. The youth was educated by his uncle, Lorenzo the Magnificent. He was made a Knight of Rhodes and Grand Prior of Capua, and, upon the election of his cousin Giovanni de' Medici to the papacy as Leo X, he at once became a person of great consequence. On 28 September, 1513, he was made cardinal, and he had the credit of being the prime mover of the papal policy during the whole of Leo's pontificate. He was one of the most favoured candidates in the protracted conclave which resulted in the election of Adrian VI; neither did the Cardinal de' Medici, in spite of his close connection with the luxurious regime of Leo X, altogether lose influence under his austere successor. Giulio, in the words of a modern historian, was "learned, clever, respectable and industrious, though he had little enterprise and less decision" (Armstrong, Charles V., I, 166). After Adrian's death (14 September, 1523) the Cardinal de' Medici was eventually chosen pope, 18 November, 1523, and his election was hailed at Rome with enthusiastic rejoicing. But the temper of the Roman people was only one element in the complex problem which Clement VII had to face. The whole political and religious situation was one of extreme delicacy, and it may be doubted if there was one man in ten thousand who would have succeeded by natural tact and human prudence in guiding the Bark of Peter through such tempestuous waters. Clement was certainly not such a man. He had unfortunately been brought up in all the bad traditions of Italian diplomacy, and over and above this a certain fatal irresolution of character seemed to impel him, when any decision had been arrived at, to hark back upon the course agreed on and to try to make terms with the other side.

The early years of his pontificate were occupied with the negotiations which culminated in the League of Cognac. When Clement was crowned, Francis I and the Emperor Charles V were at war. Charles had supported Clement's candidature and hoped much from his friendship with the Medici, but barely a year had elapsed after his election before the new pope concluded a secret treaty with France. The pitched battle which was fought between Francis and the imperial commanders at Pavia in February, 1525, ending in the defeat and captivity of the French king, put into Charles' hands the means of avenging himself. Still he used his victory with moderation. The terms of the Treaty of Madrid (14 January, 1526) were not really extravagant, but Francis seems to have signed with the deliberate intention of breaking his promises, though confirmed by the most solemn of oaths. That Clement, instead of accepting Charles' overtures, should have made himself a party to the French king's perfidy and should have organized a league with France, Venice, and Florence, signed at Cognac, 22 May, 1526, must certainly have been regarded by the emperor as almost unpardonable provocation. No doubt Clement was moved by genuine patriotism in his distrust of imperial influence in Italy and especially by anxiety for his native Florence. Moreover, he chafed under dictation which seemed to him to threaten the freedom of the Church. But though he probably feared that the bonds might be drawn tighter, it is hard to see that he had at that time any serious ground of complaint. We cannot be much surprised at what followed. Charles' envoys, obtaining no satisfaction from the pope, allied themselves with the disaffected Colonna who had been raiding the papal territory. These last peretended reconciliation until the papal commanders were lulled into a sense of security. Then the Colonna made a sudden attack upon Rome and shut up Clement in the Castle of Sant’ Angelo while their followers plundered the Vatican (20 September, 1526). Charles disavowed the action of the Colonna but took advantage of the situation created by their success. A period of vacillation followed. At one time Clement concluded a truce with the emperor, at another he turned again despairingly to the League, at another, under the encouragement of a slight success, he broke off negotiations with the imperial representatives and resumed active hostilities, and then again, still later, he signed a truce with Charles for eight months, promising the immediate payment of an indemnity of 60,000 ducats.

In the mean time the German mercenaries in the north of Italy were fast being reduced to the last extremities for lack of provisions and pay. On hearing of the indemnity of 60,000 ducats they threatened mutiny, and the imperial commissioners extracted from the pope the payment of 100,000 ducats instead of the sum first agreed upon. But the sacrifice was ineffectual. It seems probable that the Landsknechte, a very large proportion of whom were Lutherans, had really got completely out of hand, and that they practically forced the Constable Bourbon, now in supreme command, to lead them against Rome. On the 5th of May they reached the walls, which, owing to the pope's confidence in the truce he had concluded, were almost undefended. Clement had barely time to take refuge in the Castle of Sant’ Angelo, and for eight days the "Sack of Rome" continued amid horrors almost unexampled in the history of war. "The Lutherans", says an impartial authority, "rejoiced to burn and to defile what all the world had adored. Churches were desecrated, women, even the religious, violated, ambassadors pillaged, cardinals put to ransom, ecclesiastical dignitaries and ceremonies made a mockery, and the soldiers fought among themselves for the spoil" (Leathes in "Camb. Mod. History", II, 55). It seems probable that Charles V was really not implicated in the horrors which then took place. Still he had no objection against the pope bearing the full consequences of his shifty diplomacy, and he allowed him to remain a virtual prisoner in the Castle of Sant’ Angelo for more than seven months. Clement's pliability had already given offence to the other members of the League, and his appeals were not responded to very warmly. Besides this, he was sorely in need of the imperial support both to make head against the Lutherans in Germany and to reinstate the Medici in the government of Florence from which they had been driven out. The combined effect of these various considerations and of the failure of the French attempts upon Naples was to throw Clement into the emperor's arms. After a sojourn in Orvieto and Viterbo, Clement returned to Rome, and there, before the end of July, 1529, terms favourable to the Holy See were definitely arranged with Charles. The seal was set upon the compact by the meeting of the emperor and the pope at Bologna, where, on 24 February, 1530, Charles was solemnly crowned. By whatever motives the pontiff was swayed, this settlement certainly had the effect of restoring to Italy a much-needed peace.

Meanwhile events, the momentous consequence of which were not then fully foreseen, had been taking place in England. Henry VIII, tired of Queen Catherine, by whom he had no heir to the throne, but only one surviving daughter, Mary, and passionately enamoured of Anne Boleyn, had made known to Wolsey in May, 1527, that he wished to be divorced. He pretended that his conscience was uneasy at the marriage contracted under papal dispensation with his brother's widow. As his first act was to solicit from the Holy See contingently upon the granting of the divorce, a dispensation from the impediment of affinity in the first degree (an impediment which stood between him and any legal marriage with Anne on account of his previous carnal intercourse with Anne's sister Mary), the scruple of conscience cannot have been very sincere. Moreover, as Queen Catherine solemnly swore that the marriage between herself and Henry's elder brother Arthur had never been consummated, there had consequently never been any real affinity between her and Henry but only the impedimentum publicæ honestatis. The king's impatience, however, was such that, without giving his full confidence to Wolsey, he sent his envoy, Knight, at once to Rome to treat with the pope about getting the marriage annulled. Knight found the pope a prisoner in Sant’ Angelo and could do little until he visited Clement, after his escape, at Orvieto. Clement was anxious to gratify Henry, and he did not make much difficulty about the contingent dispensation from affinity, judging, no doubt, that, as it would only take effect when the marriage with Catherine was concelled, it was of no practical consequence. On being pressed, however, to issue a commission to Wolsey to try the divorce case, he made a more determined stand, and Cardinal Pucci, to whom was submitted a draft instrument for the purpose, declared that such a document would reflect discredit upon all concerned. A second mission to Rome organized by Wolsey, and consisting of Gardiner and Foxe, was at first not much more successful. A commission was indeed granted and taken back to England by Foxe, but it was safeguarded in ways which rendered it practically innocuous. The bullying attitude which Gardiner adopted towards the pope seems to have passed all limits of decency, but Wolsey, fearful of losing the royal favour, egged him on to new exertions and implored him to obtain at any cost a "decretal commission". This was an instrument which decided the points of law beforehand, secure from appeal, and left only the issue of fact to be determined in England. Against this Clement seems honestly to have striven, but he at last yielded so far as to issue a secret commission to Cardinal Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggio jointly to try the case in England. The commission was to be shown to no one, and was never to leave Compeggio's hands. We do not know its exact terms; but if it followed the drafts prepared in England for the purpose, it pronounced that the Bull of dispensation granted by Julius for the marriage of Henry with his deceased brother's wife must be declared obreptitious and consequently void, if the commissioners found that the motives alleged by Julius were insufficient and contrary to the facts. For example, it had been pretended that the dispensation was necessary to cement the friendship between England and Spain, also that the young Henry himself desired the marriage, etc.

Camapeggio reached England by the end of September, 1528, but the proceedings of the legatine court were at once brought to a standstill by the production of a second dispensation granted by Pope Julius in the form of a Brief. This had a double importance. Clement's commission empowered Wolsey and Campeggio to pronounce upon the sufficiency of the motives alleged in a certain specified document, viz., the Bull; but the Brief was not contemplated by, and lay outside, their commission. Moreover, the Brief did not limit the motives for granting the dispensation to certain specified allegations, but spoke of "aliis causis animam nostram moventibus". The production of the Brief, now commonly admitted to be quite authentic, though the king's party declared it a forgery, arrested the proceedings of the commission for eight months, and in the end, under pressure from Charles V, to whom his Aunt Catherine had vehemently appealed for support as well as to the pope, the cause was revoked to Rome. There can be no doubt that Clement showed much weakness in the concessions he had made to the English demands; but it must also be remembered, first, that in the decision of this point of law, the technical grounds for treating the dispensation as obreptitious were in themselves serious and, secondly, that in committing the honour of the Holy See to Campeggio's keeping, Clement had known that he had to do with a man of exceptionally high principle.

How far the pope was influenced by Charles V in his resistence, it is difficult to say; but it is clear that his own sense of justice disposed him entirely in favour of Queen Catherine. Henry in consequence shifted his ground, and showed how deep was the rift which separated him from the Holy See, by now urging that a marriage with a deceased husband's brother lay beyond the papal powers of dispensation. Clement retaliated by pronouncing censure against those who threatened to have the king's divorce suit decided by an English tribunal, and forbade Henry to proceed to a new marriage before a decision was given in Rome. The king on his side (1531) extorted a vast sum of money from the English clergy upon the pretext that the penalties of præmunire had been incurred by them through their recognition of the papal legate, and soon afterwards he prevailed upon Parliament to prohibit under certain conditions the payment of annates to Rome. Other developments followed. The death of Archbishop Warham (22 August, 1532) allowed Henry to press for the institution of Cranmer as Archbishop of Canterbury, and through the intervention of the King of France this was conceded, the pallium being granted to him by Clement. Almost immediately after his consecration Cranmer proceeded to pronounce judgment upon the divorce, while Henry had previously contracted a secret marriage with Anne Boleyn, which marriage Cranmer, in May, 1533, declared to be valid. Anne Boleyn was consequently crowned on June the 1st. Meanwhile the Commons had forbidden all appeals to Rome and exacted the penalties of præmunire against all who introduced papal Bulls into England. It was only then that Clement at last took the step of launching a sentence of excommunication against the king, declaring at the same time Cranmer's pretended decree of divorce to be invalid and the marriage with Anne Boleyn null and void. The papal nuncio was withdrawn from England and diplomatic relations with Rome broken off. Henry appealed from the pope to a general council, and in January, 1534, the Parliament pressed on further legislation abolishing all ecclesiastical dependence on Rome. But it was only in March, 1534, that the papal tribunal finally pronounced its verdict upon the original issue raised by the king and declared the marriage between Henry and Catherine to be unquestionably valid. Clement has been much blamed for this delay and for his various concessions in the matter of the divorce; indeed he has been accused of losing England to the Catholic Faith on account of the encouragement thus given to Henry, but it is extremely doubtful whether a firmer attitude would have had a more beneficial result. The king was determined to effect his purpose, and Clement had sufficient principle not to yield the one vital point upon which all turned.

With regard to Germany, though Clement never broke away from his friendship with Charles V, which was cemented by the coronation at Bologna in 1530, he never lent to the emperor that cordial co-operation which could alone have coped with a situation the extreme difficulty and danger of which Clement probably never understood. In particular, the pope seems to have had a horror of the idea of convoking a general council, foreseeing, no doubt, grave difficulties with France in any such attempt. Things were not improved when Henry, through his envoy Bonner, who found Clement visiting the French king at Marseilles, lodged his appeal to a future general council on the divorce question.

In the more ecclesiastical aspects of his pontificate Clement was free from reproach. Two Franciscan reforms, that of the Capuchins and that of the Recollects, found in him a sufficiently sympathetic patron. He was genuinely in earnest over the crusade against the Turks, and he gave much encouragement to foreign missions. As a patron of art, he was much hampered by the sack of Rome and the other disastrous events of his pontificate. But he was keenly interested in such matters, and according to Benvenuto Cellini he had excellent taste. By the commission given to the last-named artist for the famous cope-clasp of which we hear so much in the autobiography, he became the founder of Benvenuto's fortunes. (See CELLINI, BENVENUTO.) Clement also continued to be the patron of Raphael and of Michelangelo, whose great fresco of the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel was undertaken by his orders.

In their verdict upon the character of Pope Clement VII almost all historians are agreed. He was an Italian prince, a de’ Medici, and a diplomat first, and a spiritual ruler afterwards. His intelligence was of a high order, though his diplomacy was feeble and irresolute. On the other hand, his private life was free from reproach, and he had many excellent impulses, but despite good intention, all qualities of heroism and gtreatness must emphatically be denied him.2

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Clement VII at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04024a.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html

Giovanni de Medici Cardinal1,2,3

M, #48914, b. 11 December 1475, d. 1 December 1521
FatherLorenzo "the Magnificent" de Medici Duke of Florence1,2 b. 1 Jan 1449, d. 8 Apr 1492
MotherClarice Orsini1,2 b. c 1450, d. 30 Jul 1488
Last Edited11 Aug 2004
     Giovanni de Medici Cardinal was born on 11 December 1475 at Florence, Tuscany, Italy (now).2,3
Giovanni de Medici Cardinal died on 1 December 1521 at Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy (now), at age 45.2,3
     ; Pope Leo X - (GIOVANNI DE MEDICI) - Born at Florence, 11 December, 1475; died at Rome, 1 December, 1521, was the second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492) and Clarice Orsini, and from his earliest youth was destined for the Church. He received tonsure in 1482 and in 1483 was made Abbot of Font Douce in the French Diocese of Saintes and appointed Apostolic prothonotary by Sixtus IV. All the benefices which the Medici could obtain were at his disposal; he consequently became possessed of the rich Abbey of Passignano in 1484 and in 1486 of Monte Cassino. Owing to the constant pressure brought to bear by Lorenzo and his envoys, Innocent VIII in 1489, created the thirteen year-old child a cardinal, on condition that he should dispense with the insignia and the privilege of his office for three years. Meanwhile his education was completed by the most distinguished Humanists and scholars, Angelo Poliziano, Marsilio Ficino, and Bernardo Dovizi (later Cardinal Bibbiena). From 1489 to 1491 Giovanni de' Medici studied theology and canon law, at Pisa, under Filippo Decio and Bartolomeo Sozzini. On 9 March, 1492, at Fiesole, he was invested with the insignia of a cardinal and on 22 March entered Rome. The next day the pope received him in consistory with the customary ceremonies. The Romans found the youthful cardinal more mature than his age might warrant them to expect. His father sent him an impressive letter of advice marked by good sense and knowledge of human nature, besides bearing witness to the high and virtuous sentiments to which the elder Lorenzo returned towards the end of his life. In this letter he enjoins upon his son certain rules of conduct, and admonishes him to be honourable, virtuous, and exemplary, the more so as the College of Cardinals at that time was deficient in these good qualities.

In the very next month Lorenzo's death recalled the cardinal to Florence. He returned once more to Rome for the papal election, which resulted, very much against his approval, in the elevation of the unworthy Alexander VI, after which Giovanni remained in Florence from August, 1492, until the expulsion of the Medici in 1494, when he fled from his native city in the habit of a Franciscan monk. After several fruitless attempts to restore the supremacy of his family, he led the life of a literary and artistic amateur. Patronage, liberality, and poor financial administration frequently reduced him even then to distressing straits; indeed, he remained a bad manager to the last. But though his manner of life was quite worldly he excelled in dignity, propriety, and irreproachable conduct most of the cardinals. Towards the end of the pontificate of Julius II (1503-1513), fortune once more smiled on Giovanni de' Medici. In August, 1511, the pope was dangerously ill and the Medici cardinal already aspired to the succession. In October, 1511, he became legate in Bologna and Romagna, and cherished the hope that his family would again rule in Florence. The Florentines had taken the part of the schismatic Pisans (see JULIUS II) for which reason the pope supported the Medici. Meanwhile the cardinal suffered another reverse. The army, Spanish and papal, with which he was sojourning, was defeated in 1512 at Ravenna by the French and he was taken prisoner. But it was a Pyrrhic victory, for the French soon lost all their possessions in Italy, and the cardinal, who was to have been taken to France, succeeded in making his escape. The supremacy of the Medici in Florence was re-established in September, 1512, and this unexpected change in the fortunes of his family was only the prelude to higher honours.

Julius II died on 21 February, 1513, and on 11 March Giovanni de' Medici, then but thirty-eight years old, was elected pope. In the first scrutiny he received only one vote. His adherents, the younger cardinals, held back his candidacy until the proper moment. The election met with approval even in France, although here and there a natural misgiving was felt as to whether the youthful pope would prove equal to his burden. In many quarters high hopes were placed in him by politicians who relied on his pliancy, by scholars and artists of whom he was already a patron, and by theologians who looked for energetic church reforms under a pacific ruler. Unfortunately he realized the hopes only of the artists, literati, and worldlings who looked upon the papal court as a centre of amusement.

Leo's personal appearance has been perpetuated for us in Raphael's celebrated picture at the Pitti Gallery in Florence, which represents him with Cardinals Medici and Rossi. He was not a handsome man. His fat, shiny, effeminate countenance with weak eyes protrudes in the picture from under a close-fitting cap. The unwieldy body is supported by thin legs. His movements were sluggish and during ecclesiastical functions his corpulence made him constantly wipe the perspiration from his face and hands, to the distress of the bystanders. But when he laughed or spoke the unpleasant impression vanished. He had an agreeable voice, knew how to express himself with elegance and vivacity, and his manner was easy and gracious. "Let us enjoy the papacy since God has given it to us", he is said to have remarked after his election. The Venetian ambassador who related this of him was not unbiased, nor was he in Rome at the time, nevertheless the phrase illustrates fairly the pope's pleasure-loving nature and the lack of seriousness that characterized him. He paid no attention to the dangers threatening the papacy, and gave himself up unrestrainedly to amusements, that were provided in lavish abundance. He was possessed by an insatiable love of pleasure, that distinctive trait of his family. Music, the theatre, art, and poetry appealed to him as to any pampered worldling. Though temperate himself, he loved to give banquets and expensive entertainments, accompanied by revelry and carousing; and notwithstanding his indolence he had a strong passion for the chase, which he conducted every year on the largest scale. From his youth he was an enthusiastic lover of music and attracted to his court the most distinguished musicians. At table he enjoyed hearing improvisations and though it is hard to believe, in view of his dignity and his artistic tastes, the fact remains that he enjoyed also the flat and absurd jokes of buffoons. Their loose speech and incredible appetites delighted him. In ridicule and caricature he was himself a master. Pageantry, dear to the pleasure-seeking Romans, bull-fights, and the like, were not neglected. Every year he amused himself during the carnival with masques, music, theatrical performances, dances, and races. Even during the troubled years of 1520 he took part in unusually brilliant festivities. Theatrical representations, with agreeable music and graceful dancing, were his favourite diversions. The papal palace became a theatre and the pope did not hesitate to attend such improper plays as the immoral "Calendra" by Bibbiena and Ariosto's indecent "Suppositi". His contemporaries all praised and admired Leo's unfailing good temper, which he never entirely lost even in adversity and trouble. Himself cheerful, he wished to see others cheerful. He was good-natured and liberal and never refused a favour either to his relatives and fellow Florentines, who flooded Rome and seized upon all official positions, or to the numerous other petitioners, artists and poets. His generosity was boundless, nor was his pleasure in giving a pose or desire for vainglory; it came from the heart. He never was ostentatious and attached no importance to ceremonial. He was lavish in works of charity; convents, hospitals, discharged soldiers, poor students, pilgrims, exiles, cripples, the blind, the sick, the unfortunate of every description were generously remembered, and more than 6000 ducats were annually distributed in alms.

Under such circumstances, it is not surprising that the large treasure left by Julius II was entirely dissipated in two years. In the spring of 1515 the exchequer was empty and Leo never after recovered from his financial embarrassment. Various doubtful and reprehensible methods were resorted to for raising money. He created new offices and dignities, and the most exalted places were put up for sale. Jubilees and indulgences were degraded almost entirely into financial transactions, yet without avail, as the treasury was ruined. The pope's income amounted to between 500,000 and 600,000 ducats. The papal household alone, which Julius II had maintained on 48,000 ducats, now cost double that sum. In all, Leo spent about four and a half million ducats during his pontificate and left a debt amounting to 400,000 ducats. On his unexpected death his creditors faced financial ruin. A lampoon proclaimed that "Leo X had consumed three pontificates; the treasure of Julius II, the revenues of his own reign, and those of his successor." It is proper, however, to pay full credit to the good qualities of Leo. He was highly cultivated, susceptible to all that was beautiful, a polished orator and a clever writer, possessed of good memory and judgment, in manner dignified and majestic. It was generally acknowledged, even by those who were unfriendly towards him, that he was unfeignedly religious and strictly fulfilled his spiritual duties. He heard Mass and read his Breviary daily and fasted three times a week. His piety cannot truly be described as deep or spiritual, but that does not justify the continued repetition of his alleged remark: "How much we and our family have profited by the legend of Christ, is sufficiently evident to all ages." John Bale, the apostate English Carmelite, the first to give currency to these words in the time of Queen Elizabeth, was not even a contemporary of Leo. Among the many sayings of Leo X that have come down to us, there is not one of a sceptical nature. In his private life he preserved as pope the irreproachable reputation that he had borne when a cardinal. His character shows a remarkable mingling of good and bad traits.

The fame of Leo X is due to his promotion of literature, science, and art. Under him Rome became more than ever the centre of the literary world. "From all parts", wrote Cardinal Riario in 1515 to Erasmus at Rotterdam, "men of letters are hurrying to the Eternal City, their common country, their support, and their patroness." Poets were especially numerous in Rome and few princes have been so lauded in verse as Leo X. He lavished gifts, favours, positions, titles, not only on real poets and scholars, but often on poetasters and commonplace jesters. He esteemed particularly the papal secretaries Bembo and Sadoleto, both celebrated poets and prose writers. Bembo charmed everyone by his polish and wit. His classic Ciceronian letters exhibit a remarkably varied intercourse with almost all the celebrities of his day. Among other things, he prepared a critical edition of Dante's works and was a zealous collector of manuscripts, books, and works of art. His conduct was not in accord with his position as papal notary, count palatine, and incumbent of numerous benefices, for he was worldly and self-indulgent. Sadoleto was quite another man. He led a pure and spotless life, was a model priest, united in himself the different phases of ancient and modern culture and was an ardent enthusiast for antiquity. In elegance and polish he was in no way inferior to Bembo. Among the Latin poets of Medicean Rome we may briefly mention Vida, who composed a poem of great merit, the "Christiade" and was extolled by his contemporaries as the Christian Virgil; Sannazaro, author of an epic poem on the birth of Christ which is a model of style; the Carmelite Spagnolo Mantovano with his "Calendar of Feasts"; Ferreri, who in the most naïve way recast the hymns in the Breviary with heathen terms, images, and allusions. The total number of these poets exceeds one hundred; and a lampoon of 1521 says they were more numerous than the stars in heaven. Most of them have fallen into well-deserved oblivion.

This is equally true of the contemporary Italian poetry–more prolific than notable. Among the Italian poets Trissino wrote a tragedy, "Sophonisba", and an epic "L'Italia liberata dai Gothi", but had no real success with either in spite of earnest purpose and beauty of language. Rucellai, a relative of the pope, whose clever and sympathetic didactic poem on bees met with great approval from his contemporaries, owed his reputation chiefly to an inferior work, the tragedy of "Rosmonda". The celebrated improvisatore, Tebaldeo wrote in both Latin and Italian. Towards Ariosto the pope was remarkably harsh. Archæology received great encouragement. One of its most distinguished representatives was Manetti. In 1521 the first collection of Roman topographical inscriptions appeared and introduced a new era. Important progress was due to the works of the learned antiquary, Fulvio. Fulvio, Calvo, Castiglione, and Raphael had planned an archælogical survey of ancient Rome with accompanying text. Raphael's early death abruptly interrupted the work which was carried on by Fulvio and Calvo. The Greek language also found favour and encouragement; Aldus Manutius, the Venetian publisher, whose excellent and correct editions of Greek classics became so popular, was one of Leo's protégés. Andreas Johannes Lascaris and Musurus were summoned from Greece to Rome and founded a Greek college, the "Medicean Academy". Moreover, the pope encouraged the collection of manuscripts and books. He recovered his family library which had been sold by the Florentines in 1494 to the monks of San Marco, had it brought to Rome, and enforced the regulations of Sixtus IV for the Vatican Library. The most distinguished of his librarians was Inghirami, less indeed through any learned works than for his gift of eloquence. He was called the Cicero of his age and played an important rôle at court. In 1516 he was succeeded by the Bolognese Humanist Beroaldo. Leo tried, as Nicholas V had formerly done, to increase the treasures of the Vatican Library, and with this object sent emissaries in all directions, even to Scandinavia and the Orient, to discover literary treasures and either obtain them, or borrow them for the purpose of making copies. The results, however, were unimportant. The Roman university, which had entered on decay, was reformed, but did not long flourish. On the whole, Leo, as a literary Mæcenas, has been overrated by his biographer Giovio and later panegyrists. Relatively little was accomplished, partly on account of the constant lack of money and partly because of the thoughtlessness and haste which the pope often showed in distributing his favours. He was in reality only a dilettante. Yet he gave an important stimulus to scientific and literary life, and was a potent factor in the cultural development of the West.

More important results ensued from his promotion of art, though he was unquestionably inferior in taste and judgment to his predecessor Julius II. Leo encouraged painting beyond all other branches of art; pre-eminent in this class stand the immortal productions of Raphael. In 1508 he had come to Rome, summoned by Julius II, and remained there until his death in 1520. The protection extended to this master genius is Leo's most enduring claim on posterity. Raphael's achievements, already numerous and important, took on more dignity and grandeur under Leo. He painted, sketched, and engraved from antique works of art, modeled in clay, made designs for palaces, directed the work of others by order of the pope, gave advice and assistance alike to supervisors and workmen. "Everything pertaining to art the pope turns over to Raphael", wrote an ambassador in 1518. This is not, of course, the place to treat Raphael's prodigious activity. We limit ourselves to brief mention of a few of his works. He finished the decoration of the Vatican halls or "Stanze" begun under Julius II, and in the third hall cleverly referred to Leo X by introducing scenes from the pontificates of Leo III and Leo IV. A more important commission was given him to paint the cartoons for the tapestries of the Sistine Chapel, the highest of Raphael's achievements, the most magnificent of them being "St. Peter's miraculous draught of fishes" and "St. Paul preaching in Athens". A third famous enterprise was the decoration of the Vatican Loggia done by Raphael's pupils under his direction, and mostly from his designs. The most exquisite of his paintings are the wonderful Sistine Madonna and the "Transfiguration". Sculpture showed a marked decline under Leo X. Michaelangelo offered his services and worked from 1516 to 1520 on a marble façade for the church of San Lorenzo in Florence, but did not finish it. On the other hand the pope gave especial attention and encouragement to the minor arts, e.g. decorative carving, and furthered the industrial arts. The greatest and most difficult task of Leo was in the field of architecture and was inherited from his predecessor, viz., the continuation of the new St. Peter's. Bramante remained its chief architect until his death in 1514. Raphael succeeded him, but in his six years of office little was done, much to his regret, through lack of means.

We may now turn to the political and religious events of Leo's pontificate. Here the bright splendour that diffuses itself over his literary and artistic patronage, is soon changed to deepest gloom. His well-known peaceable inclinations made the political situation a disagreeable heritage, and he tried to maintain tranqillity by exhortations, to which, however, no one listened. France desired to wreak vengeance for the defeat of 1512 and to reconquer Milan. Venice entered into an alliance with her, whereupon Emperor Maximilian, Spain, and England in 1513 concluded a Holy League against France. The pope wished at first to remain neutral but such a course would have isolated him, so he decided to be faithful to the policy of his predecessors and sought accordingly to oppose the designs of France, but in doing so, to avoid severity. In 1513 the French were decisively routed at Novara and were forced to effect a reconciliation with Rome. The schismatic cardinals (see JULIUS II) submitted and were pardoned, and France then took part in the Lateran Council which Leo had continued.

But success was soon clouded by uncertainty. France endeavoured to form an alliance with Spain and to obtain Milan and Genoa by a matrimonial alliance. Leo feared for the independence of the Papal States and for the so-called freedom of Italy. He negotiated on all sides without committing himself, and in 1514 succeeded in bringing about an Anglo-French alliance. The fear of Spain now gave way to the bugbear of French supremacy and the pope began negotiating in a deceitful and disloyal manner with France and her enemies simultaneously. Before he had decided to bind himself in one way or the other, Louis XII died and the young and ardent Francis I succeeded him. Once more Leo sought delay. He supported the League against France, but until the last moment hoped for an arrangement with Francis. But the latter shortly after his descent upon Italy, won the great victory of Marignano, 13-14 September, 1515, and the pope now made up his mind to throw himself into the arms of the Most Christian King and beg for mercy. He was obliged to alter his policy completely and to abandon to the French king Parma and Piacenza, which had been reunited with Milan. An interview with King Francis at Bologna resulted in the French Concordat (1516), that brought with it such important consequences for the Church. The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), deeply inimical to the papacy, was revoked, but the pope paid a high price for this concession, when he granted to the king the right of nomination to all the sees, abbeys, and priories of France. Through this and other concessions, e.g. that pertaining to ecclesiastical jurisdiction, the royal influence over the French Church was assured. Great discontent resulted in France among the clergy and in the parliaments. The abolition of the Pragmatic Sanction, drawn up in compliance with the decrees of the Council of Basle, affected the adherents of the conciliar system of church government. The abolition of free ecclesiastical elections affected grievously the interests of many and opposition to the Concordat was maintained for centuries. The advantage to the Church and the pope of such a great sacrifice was that France, hitherto schismatical in attitude, now stood firmly bound to the Holy See, which thus turned aside the danger of complete estrangement. However, the way in which the French crown abused its control over the Church led at a later period to great evils.

Meanwhile the Lateran Council, continued by Leo after his elevation to the papacy, was nearing its close, having issued numerous and very timely decrees, e.g. against the false philosophical teachings of the Paduan professor, Pietro Pompanazzi, who denied the immortality of the soul. The encroachments of pagan Humanism on the spiritual life were met by the simultaneous rise of a new order of philosophical and theological studies. In the ninth session was promulgated a Bull that treated exhaustively of reforms in the Curia and the Church. Abbeys and benefices were henceforth to be bestowed only on persons of merit and according to canon law. Provisions of benefices and consistorial proceedings were regulated; ecclesiastical depositions and transfers made more difficult; commendatory benefices were forbidden; and unions and reservations of benefices, also dispensations for obtaining them, were restricted. Measures were also taken for reforming the curial administration and the lives of cardinals, clerics, and the faithful. The religious instruction of children was declared a duty. Blasphemers and incontinent, negligent, or simoniac ecclesiastics were to be severely punished. Church revenues were no longer to be turned to secular uses. The immunities of the clergy must be respected, and all kinds of superstition abolished. The eleventh session dealt with the cure of souls, particularly with preaching. These measures, unhappily, were not thoroughly enforced, and therefore the much-needed genuine reform was not realized. Towards the close of the council (1517) the noble and highly cultured layman, Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola, delivered a remarkable speech on the necessity of a reform of morals; his account of the moral condition of the clergy is saddening, and reveals the many and great difficulties that stood in the way of a genuine reform. He concluded with the warning that if Leo X left such offences longer unpunished and refused to apply healing remedies to these wounds of the Church, it was to be feared that God Himself would cut off the rotten limbs and destroy them with fire and sword. That very year this prophetic warning was verified. The salutary reforms of the Lateran Council found no practical acceptance. Pluralism, commendatory benefices, and the granting of ecclesiastical dignities to children remained customary. Leo himself did not scruple to set aside repeatedly the decrees of the council. The Roman Curia, then much despised and against which so many inveighed with violence, remained as worldly as ever. The pope was either unwilling or not in a position to regulate the unworthy and immoral conduct of many of the Roman courtiers. The political situation absorbed his attention and was largely responsible for the premature close of the council.

In March, 1516, Emperor Maximilian crossed the Alps to make war on the French and Venetians. The pope followed his usual course of shifting and dissimulation. At first, when events seemed favourable for the French, he supported Francis. But his former double-dealing had left Francis in such ill-humour that he now adhered to an antipapal policy, whereupon Leo adopted an unfriendly attitude towards the king. Their relations were further strained apropos of the Duchy of Urbino. During the French invasion the Duke of Urbino had withheld the assistance which he was in duty bound to render the pope, who now exiled him and gave the title to his nephew, Lorenzo de' Medici. The French king was highly displeased with the papal policy, and when Francis I and Maximilian formed the alliance of Cambrai in 1517 and agreed on a partition of Upper and Central Italy, Pope Leo found himself in a disagreeable position. In part by reason of his constant vacillation he had drifted into a dangerous isolation, added to which the Duke of Urbino reconquered his duchy; to crown all other calamities came a conspiracy of cardinals against the pope's life. The ringleader, Cardinal Petrucci, was a young worldly ecclesiastic who thought only of money and pleasure. He and the other cardinals who had brought about Leo's selection, made afterwards such numerous and insistent demands that the pope could not yield to them. Other causes for discontent were found in the unfortunate war with Urbino and in the abolition of the election capitulations and the excessive privileges of the cardinals. Petrucci bore personal ill-will towards the "ungrateful pope", who had removed his brother from the government of Siena. He tried to have the pope poisoned by a physician, but suspicion was aroused and the plot was betrayed through a letter. The investigation implicated Cardinals Sauli, Riario, Soderini, and Castellesi; they had been guilty at least of listening to Petrucci, and perhaps had desired his success, though their full complicity was not actually proved. Petrucci was executed and the others punished by fines; Riario paid the enormous sum of 150,000 ducats.

The affair throws a lurid light on the degree of corruption in the highest ecclesiastical circles. Unconcerned by the scandal he was giving, Leo took advantage of the proceeding to create thirty-one new cardinals, thereby obtaining an entirely submissive college and also money to carry on the unlucky war with Urbino. Not a few of these cardinals were chosen on account of the large sums they advanced. But this wholesale appointment also brought several virtuous and distinguished men into the Sacred College, and it was further important because it definitively established the superiority of the pope over the cardinals. The war with Urbino, encouraged by Francis I and Maximilian for the purpose of increasing Leo's difficulties, was finally brought to a close, after having cost enormous sums and emptied the papal treasury. Lorenzo de' Medici remained in possession of the duchy (1517). Faithful to the ancient tradition of the Holy See, from the very beginning of his reign, Leo zealously advocated a crusade against the Turks, and at the close of the war with Urbino took up the cause with renewed determination. In November, 1517, he submitted an exhaustive memorial to all the princes of Europe, and endeavored to unite them in a common effort, but in vain. The replies of the powers proved widely dissimilar. They were suspicious of one another and each sought naturally to realize various secondary purposes of its own. Leo answered a threatening letter from the sultan by active exertions. Religious processions were held, a truce of five years was proclaimed throughout Christendom and the Crusade was preached (1518). The pope showed real earnestness, but his great plan miscarried through lack of cooperation on the part of the powers. Moreover, Cardinal Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England, thwarted the pope's peaceful efforts and thus dealt a grievous blow to the international prestige of the papacy. When the Crusade was preached in Germany, it found a large section of the people strongly predisposed against the Curia, and furnished them with an occasion to express their views in plain terms. It was believed that the Curia merely sought to obtain more money. One of the numerous spiteful pamphlets issued declared that the real Turks were in Italy and that these demons could only be pacified by streams of gold. The good cause was gradually merged with an important political question, the succession to the imperial throne. Maximilian sought the election for his grandson, Charles of Spain. A rival appeared in the person of Francis I, and both he and Charles vied with each other in seeking to win the pope's favour by repeated assurances of their willingness to move against the Turks. The event of the election relegated the crusade to the background. In 1519 the pope realized that there was no longer any prospect of carrying out his design.

Leo's attitude towards the imperial succession was influenced primarily by his anxiety concerning the power and independence of the Holy See and the so-called freedom of Italy. Neither candidate was acceptable to him, Charles, if possible, less than Francis, owing to the preponderance of power that must result from his accession. The pope would have preferred a German electoral prince, that of Saxony or later, the Elector of Brandenburg. He "sailed", as usual, "with two compasses", held both rivals at bay by a double game played with matchless skill, and even succeeded in concluding simultaneously an alliance with both. The deceitfulness and insincerity of his political dealings cannot be entirely excused, either by the difficult position in which he was placed or by the example of his secular contemporaries. Maximilian's death (January, 1519) ended the pope's irresolution. First he tried to defeat both candidates by raising up a German elector. Then he worked zealously for Francis I in the endeavour to secure his firm friendship in case Charles became emperor, an event which grew daily more likely. Only at the last moment when the election of Charles was certain and unavoidable did Leo come over to his side; after the election he watched in great anxiety the attitude the new emperor might assume.

The most important occurrence of Leo's pontificate and that of gravest consequence to the Church was the Reformation, which began in 1517. We cannot enter into a minute account of this movement, the remote cause of which lay in the religious, political, and social conditions of Germany. It is certain, however, that the seeds of discontent amid which Luther threw his firebrand had been germinating for centuries. The immediate cause was bound up with the odious greed for money displayed by the Roman Curia, and shows how far short all efforts at reform had hitherto fallen. Albert of Brandenburg, already Archbishop of Magdeburg, received in addition the Archbishopric of Mainz and the Bishopric of Hallerstadt, but in return was obliged to collect 10,000 ducats, which he was taxed over and above the usual confirmation fees. To indemnify hiim, and to make it possible to discharge these obligations Rome permitted him to have preached in his territory the plenary indulgence promised all those who contributed to the new St. Peter's; he was allowed to keep one half the returns, a transaction which brought dishonour on all concerned in it. Added to this, abuses occurred during the preaching of the Indulgence. The money contributions, a mere accessory, were frequently the chief object, and the "Indulgences for the Dead" became a vehicle of inadmissible teachings. That Leo X, in the most serious of all the crises which threatened the Church, should fail to prove the proper guide for her, is clear enough from what has been related above. He recognized neither the gravity of the situation nor the underlying causes of the revolt. Vigorous measures of reform might have proved an efficacious antidote, but the pope was deeply entangled in political affairs and allowed the imperial election to overshadow the revolt of Luther; moreover, he gave himself up unrestrainedly to his pleasures and failed to grasp fully the duties of his high office.

The pope's last political efforts were directed to expanding the States of the Church, establishing a dominating power in central italy by means of the acquisition of Ferrara. In 1519 he concluded a treaty with Francis I against Emperor Charles V. But the selfishness and encroachments of the French and the struggle against the Lutheran movement, induced him soon to unite with Charles, after he had again resorted to his double-faced method of treating with both rivals. In 1521 pope and emperor signed a defensive alliance for the purpose of driving the French out of Italy. After some difficulty, the allies occupied Milan and Lombardy. Amid the rejoicings over these successes, the pope died suddenly of a malignant malaria. His enemies are wrongly accused of having poisoned him. The magnificent pope was given a simple funeral and not until the reign of Paul III was a monument erected to his memory in the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. It is cold, prosaic, and quite unworthy of such a connoisseur as Leo.

The only possible verdict on the pontificate of Leo X is that it was unfortunate for the Church. Sigismondo Tizio, whose devotion to the Holy See is undoubted, writes truthfully: "In the general opinion it was injurious to the Church that her Head should delight in plays, music, the chase and nonsense, instead of paying serious attention to the needs of his flock and mourning over their misfortunes". Von Reumont says pertinently–"Leo X is in great measure to blame for the fact that faith in the integrity and merit of the papacy, in its moral and regenerating powers, and even in its good intentions, should have sunk so low that men could declare extinct the old true spirit of the Church."

PASTOR, History of the Popes, VII (St. Louis, 1908); Leonis X. P. M. Regesta, ed. HERGENRNRÖTHER, Fasc. I-VIII (to 16 October, 1515), (Freiburg, 1884-91); JOVIUS, De vita Leonis X (Florence, 1548, 1551); FABRONIUS, Leonis X. P. M. vita (Pisa, 1707); ROSCOE, Life and Pontificate of Leo X (Liverpool, 1805, London, 1883); Italian tr. with new materials by BOSSI (Milan, 1816); AUDIN, Histoire de Léon X. et de son siècle (Paris, 1844); NITTI, Leone X et la sua politica (Florence, 1892); CONFORTI, Leone X ed il suo secolo (Parma, 1896); VON REUMONT, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, III (Berlin, 1870), part ii; GREGOROVIUS, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, VIII (Stuttgart, 1896); GEIGER, Renaissance und Humanismus in Deutschland und Italien (Berlin, 1882).

KLEMENS LÖFFLER
Transcribed by WGKofron
With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio.2 As of between 1513 and 1521, Giovanni de Medici Cardinal was also known as Pope Leo X.1,3

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Leo X at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09162a.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html

Giuliano de Medici Duc de Nemours, Marchese di Soragna1,2,3,4

M, #48915, b. 12 March 1479, d. 17 March 1516
FatherLorenzo "the Magnificent" de Medici Duke of Florence1,2,3 b. 1 Jan 1449, d. 8 Apr 1492
MotherClarice Orsini1,2,3 b. c 1450, d. 30 Jul 1488
Last Edited17 Sep 2004
     Giuliano de Medici Duc de Nemours, Marchese di Soragna was born on 12 March 1479.2,3,4 He married Filiberta/Philiberta (?) de Savoie, daughter of Filippo II "Senza Terra" (?) Duca di Savoia, Conte di Aosta, Moriana, Nizza, Principe del Piemonte, titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem and Claude/Claudine de Brosse Cts de Penthievre, on 10 February 1515.1,2,5,3,4
Giuliano de Medici Duc de Nemours, Marchese di Soragna died on 17 March 1516 at age 37.2,3,4
     ; Leo van de pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 120.2

Family 1

Child

Family 2

Filiberta/Philiberta (?) de Savoie d. 4 Apr 1524

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giuliano de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00353616&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Savoy 3 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/savoy/savoy3.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Philiberte de Savoie: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00011440&tree=LEO

Filiberta/Philiberta (?) de Savoie1,2

F, #48916, d. 4 April 1524
FatherFilippo II "Senza Terra" (?) Duca di Savoia, Conte di Aosta, Moriana, Nizza, Principe del Piemonte, titular King of Cyprus and Jerusalem3,4,2 b. 5 Feb 1438, d. 7 Nov 1497
MotherClaude/Claudine de Brosse Cts de Penthievre4,5,2 b. c 1450, d. 13 Oct 1513
Last Edited17 Sep 2004
     Filiberta/Philiberta (?) de Savoie was born in 1498.4,6,2 She married Giuliano de Medici Duc de Nemours, Marchese di Soragna, son of Lorenzo "the Magnificent" de Medici Duke of Florence and Clarice Orsini, on 10 February 1515.1,7,4,6,2
Filiberta/Philiberta (?) de Savoie died on 4 April 1524; Leo van de Pas says d. 4 Apr 1524; Genealogy.EU Medici 2 page says d. 24 Apr 1524.4,6,2
     ; Leo van de pas cites: 1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: vol II page 113
2. Cahiers de Saint Louis Magazine. , Jacques Dupont, Jacques Saillot, Reference: page 521.4

; [2m.] Filiberta, *1498, +4.4.1524; m.25.1./22.2.1515 Giuliano di Medici, Marchese di Soragna (*12.3.1479, +17.3.1516.)2

Family

Giuliano de Medici Duc de Nemours, Marchese di Soragna b. 12 Mar 1479, d. 17 Mar 1516

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Savoy 3 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/savoy/savoy3.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Philippe I: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005009&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Philiberte de Savoie: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00011440&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Claude de Brosse: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005010&tree=LEO
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giuliano de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00353616&tree=LEO

Cardinal Ippolito de Medici1

M, #48917, d. 1527
FatherGiuliano de Medici Duc de Nemours, Marchese di Soragna1 b. 12 Mar 1479, d. 17 Mar 1516
Last Edited23 Mar 2002
     Cardinal Ippolito de Medici died in 1527.1

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.

Lorenzo II "il Giovane" de Medici Duke of Florence, Duke of Urbino1,2,3,4

M, #48918, b. 13 September 1492, d. 4 May 1519
FatherPiero II "il Unfortunato" de Medici Signore di Firenze1,3,4 b. 15 Feb 1471, d. 28 Dec 1503
MotherAlfonsina Orsini1,3,4 b. 1472, d. 7 Feb 1520
Last Edited28 Oct 2019
     Lorenzo II "il Giovane" de Medici Duke of Florence, Duke of Urbino was buried at Basilica di San Lorenzo (Cappelle medicee), Florence, Città Metropolitana di Firenze, Toscana, Italy (now),

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     12 Sep 1492, Florence, Città Metropolitana di Firenze, Toscana, Italy
     DEATH     4 May 1519 (aged 26), Toscana, Italy
     Duke of Urbino. He married to Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne (c. 1501 – 28 April 1519) was a younger daughter of Jean III de La Tour (1467– 28 March 1501), Count of Auvergne and Lauraguais, and Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme (1465–1511).
     Family Members
     Parents
          Piero de Medici 1472–1503
     Spouse
          Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne 1498–1519
     Siblings
          Clarice de' Medici 1493–1528
     Children
          Catherine de Medici 1519–1589
     BURIAL     Basilica di San Lorenzo, Florence, Città Metropolitana di Firenze, Toscana, Italy
     Created by: Samuel Taylor Geer
     Added: 14 Jun 2012
     Find A Grave Memorial 91925610.5 He was born on 13 September 1492 at Florence, Città Metropolitana di Firenze, Toscana, Italy (now); Sardimpex de' Medici 2 page says b. 13 Sep 1492; Genealogy.EU Medici 2 page says b. 9 Sep 1492; Find A Grave says b. 12 Sep 1492.3,4,5 He married Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, daughter of Jean I de La Tour Comte d'Auvergne et de Lauraguais and Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme, on 2 May 1518 at Amboise, France; contratto 1-1518; Leo van de Pas says m. 2 May 1518; Genealogy.EU Medici 2 page says m. 2 May 1518.1,3,6,4
Lorenzo II "il Giovane" de Medici Duke of Florence, Duke of Urbino died on 4 May 1519 at Villa di Careggi, near Florence, Toscana, Italy (now), at age 26.1,3,4,5
     ; Lorenzo I detto "il Giovane" o "Lorenzo II" (* Firenze 13-9-1492 + villa di Careggi 4-5-1519), Capitano Generale di Santa Romana Chiesa dal 1513, Prefetto di Roma nel 1516, Governatore di Firenze in nome del Papa dal 3-1516, Duca sovrano di Urbino dal 6-1516.
= (contratto 1-1518) Amboise 2-5-1518 Maddalena de La Tour d'Auvergne, figlia di Giovanni III Conte di Boulogne e di Giovanna di Borbone dei Conti di Vendome (* 1501 + postumi del parto, Urbino 28-4-1519).3


; Lorenzo II, Ruler of Florence (1503-15), Duke d'Urbino (1516-19), *Florence 9.9.1492, +Careggi 4.5.1519; m.Amboise 2.5.1518 Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne (*1495, +28.4.1519), dau.of Jean III de La Tour, Comte d'Auvergne by Jeanne de Bourbon.4 He was Ruler of Florence between 1503 and 1515.4 He was Duke of Florence between 1512 and 1519.1 He was Duke of Urbino between 1516 and 1519.2,4

Family 2

Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne b. 1501, d. 28 Apr 1519
Child

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 64: France - House of Valois-Orléans and Angoulême. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  3. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, De'Medici: http://www.sardimpex.com/medici2.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  5. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 28 October 2019), memorial page for Lorenzo de Medici, II (12 Sep 1492–4 May 1519), Find A Grave Memorial no. 91925610, citing Basilica di San Lorenzo, Florence, Città Metropolitana di Firenze, Toscana, Italy ; Maintained by Samuel Taylor Geer (contributor 46925792), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/91925610/lorenzo-de_medici. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00003724&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html

Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne1,2

F, #48919, b. 1501, d. 28 April 1519
FatherJean I de La Tour Comte d'Auvergne et de Lauraguais3 b. 1467, d. 28 Mar 1501
MotherJeanne de Bourbon-Vendôme3 b. 1465, d. 22 Jan 1511
Last Edited28 Oct 2019
     Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne was born in 1501; Sardimpex de' Medici 2 page says b. 1501; Genealogy.EU Medici 2 page says b. 1495; Find A Grave says b. 1498.4,2,5 She married Lorenzo II "il Giovane" de Medici Duke of Florence, Duke of Urbino, son of Piero II "il Unfortunato" de Medici Signore di Firenze and Alfonsina Orsini, on 2 May 1518 at Amboise, France; contratto 1-1518; Leo van de Pas says m. 2 May 1518; Genealogy.EU Medici 2 page says m. 2 May 1518.1,4,3,2
Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne died on 28 April 1519 at Urbino, Italy (now).4,2,5
Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne was buried after 28 April 1519 at Basilica di San Lorenzo (Cappelle medicee), Florence, Città Metropolitana di Firenze, Toscana, Italy,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     1498
     DEATH     28 Apr 1519 (aged 20–21)
     Nobility. Born the younger of the two daughters of Jean de Auvergne and Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendome. After her father's death, she became Countess of Auvergne. She was married to Lorenzo II de Medici in 1518. She died in the following year, two weeks after giving birth to their only child.
     Family Members
     Parents
          Jean de La Tour d'Auvergne 1467–1501
          Jeanne de Bourbon-Vendome 1465–1511
          Spouse
          Lorenzo de Medici 1492–1519
          Siblings
          Anne de La Tour d'Auvergne 1496–1524
     Children
          Catherine de Medici 1519–1589
     BURIAL     Basilica di San Lorenzo, Florence, Città Metropolitana di Firenze, Toscana, Italy
     Created by: Lutetia
     Added: 14 Nov 2013
     Find A Grave Memorial 120337913.5
     ; Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne (*1495, +28.4.1519), dau.of Jean III de La Tour, Comte d'Auvergne by Jeanne de Bourbon.2

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: vol II.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: vol X page 95..3

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00003724&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, De'Medici: http://www.sardimpex.com/medici2.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  5. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 28 October 2019), memorial page for Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne (1498–28 Apr 1519), Find A Grave Memorial no. 120337913, citing Basilica di San Lorenzo, Florence, Città Metropolitana di Firenze, Toscana, Italy ; Maintained by Lutetia (contributor 46580078), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/120337913/madeleine-de_la_tour_d_auvergne. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html

Alessandro de Medici Duke of Florence1,2,3

M, #48920, b. 1510, d. 6 January 1537
FatherLorenzo II "il Giovane" de Medici Duke of Florence, Duke of Urbino1,2 b. 13 Sep 1492, d. 4 May 1519
MotherSimonetta da Collavechio4
Last Edited19 Sep 2014
     Alessandro de Medici Duke of Florence was born in 1510.5 He married Margarita (?) of Austria, Governess of the Netherlands, daughter of Charles/Karl V/I (?) King of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor and Johanna Maria van de Gheynst, on 29 February 1536 at Naples, Città Metropolitana di Napoli, Campania, Italy (now).1,6,5,7
Alessandro de Medici Duke of Florence died on 6 January 1537 at Firenze, Italy (now); murdered.1,5
     ; illegitimate son of Pope Clement VII.8,9,10,11

; "The Medici - Story of a European Dynasty", by Franco Cesati, La Mandragora, Firenze, 1999.

The text, page 61, says:
Clement VII, the second Medici pope. The new pope's first problem was, yet again, family related. Two cousins, both illegitimate, had been living for some years in the Viar Larga palace: Ippolito, the natural son of Giuliano, Duke of Nemours; and Alessandro, who Clement passed off as illegitimate child of Lorenzo, Duke of Urbino, but who was probably his own son, born from a relationship with a peasant from the Roman countryside or else a slave of Slav origin.

The chart shows Pope Clement VII (Giulio Medici 1543-1534) to be the bastard son of Giuliano Medici (1453-1478) and questionably of Antonia Gorini. His bastard son, Alessandro (1511-1537), Duke of Florence, by Margaret of Austria, had two illegitimate children of his own: Giulio and Giulia, who married Bernadetto,brother of Alessandro, Pope Leo XI (1535-1605), and son of Ottaviano and Francesca Salviati.12

; Despite the many portraits of this 16th century Italian Renaissance figure, his African heritage is rarely if ever mentioned. Alessandro wielded great power as the first duke of Florence. He was the patron of some of the leading artists of the era and is one of the two Medici princes whose remains are buried in the famous tomb by Michaelangelo. The ethnic make up of this Medici Prince makes him the first black head of state in the modern western world.

Alessandro was born in 1510 to a black serving woman in the Medici household who, after her subsequent marriage to a muleteer, is simply referred to in existing documents as Simonetta da Collavechio. Historians today are convinced that Alessandro was fathered by the seventeen year old Cardinal Giulio de Medici who later became Pope Clement VII. Cardinal Giulio was the nephew of Lorenzo the Magnificent.

On being elected Pope in 1523, Cardinal Giulio was forced to relinquish the lordship of Florence but he appointed a regent for his thirteen year old son Alessandro who had just been created Duke of Penna, and a nephew, Ipollito. Even though both were bastards, they were the last of what has come to be referred to as the elder line of the family.

Republicanism had grown in Florence under the regent and when Emperor Charles V sacked Rome in 1527, the Florentines took advantage of the situation to install a more democratic form of government and both Alessandro and Ipollito fled. When peace was finally made two years later between the Papal and the Imperial factions, Charles V agreed to militarily restore Florence to the Medici. After a siege of eleven months Alessandro was finally brought back as the Emperor's designated head of state.

In 1532, the new Florentine constitution declared Alessandro hereditary Duke and perpetual gonfalonier of the republic. Though his common sense and his feeling for justice won his subjects' affection, those in sympathy with the exiled opposition hated Alessandro and accused him of using his power to sexually exploit the citizenry. However, only two illegitimate children with the possibility of a third, have been attributed to him and even these he fathered with one woman, Taddea Malespina, a distant cousin of his.

With the death of his father, the Pope, in 1534, the exiles attempted to oust the Duke Alessandro from Florence. But the Emperor decided to uphold Alessandro and in an obvious show of support, gave Alessandro his own illegitimate daughter, Margaret of Austria, as wife.

Despite the security this kind of support should have given him, Alessandro was finally assassinated a few months after his wedding by Lorenzaccio de Medici, a distant cousin who had ingratiated himself in order to win his confidence. According to the declaration he later published, Lorenzaccio claimed that he had executed Alessandro for the sake of the republic and that he had been able to disarm him of his personal bodyguards by setting up a sexual liaison for him as a trap. When the anti-Medici faction failed to use this occasion to overthrow the ducal government, Lorenzaccio fled in dismay. He was himself eventually murdered some twelve years later.

Allessandro's Children:

Although the initial reaction to the assassination on the part of the Ducal party had been to set up a regency for Alessandro's four year-old son, Giulio, they instead turned to Cosimo of the cadet branch of the family who as young man of seventeen they felt would be able to bring some equilibrium to the political instability that confronted them.

Since they were his cousins and since Cosimo had to consolidate the authority of the Medici family, Cosimo raised Alessandro's children in his own household and continued as their guardian until adulthood. Despite the awkward presence at his court of a potential pretender to the duchy of Florence, Cosimo apparently regarded his young wards with true affection.

Giulio married Lucrezia Gaetani in 1561 and a year later, Cosimo appointed him First Admiral of the Knights of San Stephano, an order especially founded to fight the Turks.

Giulio's sister, Giulia, was first married to Francesco Cantelmo, the Count of Alvito and the Duke of Popoli. When her husband died unable to give her children a few years later, Cosimo then married Giulia off in 1559 to a first cousin of his, Bernardino de Medici. Apparently Giulia's pride in her Medici ancestry was intense. In the early years of her second marriage, her insistence that she be treated at court as the equal of Cosimo's wife caused a rift between herself and Cosimo. Eventually she and her husband moved to Naples where, at an enormous expense to themselves, they acquired both the title and lands of the principality of Ottaiano. (Click here for more on Giulia and "Giulia's Portrait." Also, read the November 2001 Washington Post article on the race issue controversy over a portrait of Giulia.)

The greater majority of the noble houses of Italy can today trace their ancestry back to Alessandro de Medici.8

; July 22 - The birth of Alessandro de Medici in 1510 is celebrated on this date. He was an African-Italian ruler during the 16th century.

The son of a Black-servant woman named Simonetta da Collavechio and the seventeen-year-old Cardinal Giulio de Medici who later became Pope Clement VII. The young Alessandro’s father, Cardinal Giulio de Medici was the nephew of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Alessandro de Medici was the first Black head of state in the modern western world. On being elected Pope in 1523, Cardinal Giulio was forced to relinquish the lordship of Florence but appointed a regent for his thirteen-year-old son Alessandro who had just been created Duke of Penna Also a title went to a nephew, Ipollito. Even though both were illegitimate births, they were the last of what has come to be referred to as the elder line of the family.

Republicanism had grown in Florence under the regent and when Emperor Charles V sacked Rome in 1527, the Florentines took advantage of the situation to install a more democratic form of government and both de Medici and Ipollito fled. When peace was finally made two years later between the Papal and the Imperial factions, Charles V agreed to restore Florence to the Medici. After a siege of eleven months de Medici was brought back as the Emperor's designated head of state. In 1532, the new Florentine constitution declared him hereditary Duke of the republic. With the death of his father, the Pope, in 1534, the exiles attempted to oust the Duke de Medici from Florence. But the Emperor decided to uphold him and in an obvious show of support, gave de Medici his own illegitimate daughter, Margaret of Austria, as his wife.

Despite the security Lorenzaccio de Medici, a distant cousin who had ingratiated himself in order to win his confidence assassinated Alessandro de Medici few months after his wedding in 1537. De Medici’s African heritage is rarely if ever mentioned. He wielded great power as the first duke of Florence. He was the patron of some of the leading artists of the era and is one of the two Medici princes whose remains are buried in the famous tomb by Michelangelo.10

; Medici, Alessandro de'
born 1510/11, Florence
died Jan. 5–6, 1537, Florence

First duke of Florence (1532–37).

A member of the elder branch of the Medici family, he was probably the illegitimate son of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici (later Pope Clement VII). The pope made Cardinal Passerini regent in Florence for Alessandro, but they were forced to flee when the unpopular regency provoked a revolt in 1527. An agreement between the pope and Emperor Charles V restored the Medici in Florence (1530), and Alessandro was declared a hereditary duke (1532). A tyrannical ruler, he sought to solidify his control by marrying Charles V's daughter, Margaret of Austria, in 1536. In an unsuccessful attempt to cause a revolt, a distant cousin, Lorenzino de' Medici (1514–48), murdered Alessandro in 1537.9

; (Naturale e legittimato, pare da una schiava negra) Alessandro I (* 1511 + assassinato, Firenze 6-1-1537), Duca di Civita di Penne con Campli, Civita Ducale e Leonessa dal 1522, Governatore di Firenze in nome del Papa dal 30-7-1524 al 16-5-1527, creato capo della Repubblica di Firenze nell’ottobre del 1530 (riconosciuto dai fiorentini il 16-7-1531), Duca sovrano di Firenze per investitura imperiale del 1-5-1532 (che comprendeva come componente della nuova dinastia ducale anche il cugino Cosimo. Questa clausola escluse la successione in via femminile e tutti gli altri componenti del casato, che vennero considerati o borghesi o non capaci. All’estinzione della dinastia, nel 1737, il principe d’Ottaiano (v.), discendente del Duca Alessandro, fece atto di pretesa alla successione ma senza esito; il granducato e i fidecommessi di famiglia passarono nelle mani degli Asburgo-Lorena, che fecero valere le leggi dell’Impero).
= Napioli 18-1-1536 Margherita d’Asburgo, figlia naturale e legittimata dell’Imperatore Carlo V Re di Spagna, Napoli, Sicilia, Sardegna ecc. e di Johanna van der Gheynst (* Oudenaarde 28-12-1522 + Ortona 18-1-1586).2

; On my website if you go to Alessandro de'Medici, you will see four sources. The fourth one is Christopher Weber's books on the genealogies of Papal histories. In volume 3 page 437 is the family tree which gives Pope Clemente VII as father of Alessandro, and also the illegitimate children of Alessandro.13

; [illegitimate child by Simunetta N, a Moorish mistress] Alessandro, Duke d'Urbino (1519-27), Duke of Tuscany (1531-37), *1510, +murdered Florence 5/6.1.1537; m.Napoli 29.2.1536 Margareta von Habsburg (*VII.1522 +18.1.1586) illeg.dau.of Karl V von Habsburg.3

; illegitimate son of Lorenzo de Medici.1,2

; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: vol II page 120
2. Genealogie der Graven van Holland Zaltbommel, 1969. , Dr. A. W. E. Dek, Reference: page 123
3. Cahiers de Saint Louis Magazine. , Jacques Dupont, Jacques Saillot, Reference: page 1535.
4. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte Paepste und Papsttum Stuttgart, 1999, 2001, Christoph Weber, Reference: 3 437.5 He was Duke of Florence between 1523 and 1537.1

Family

Margarita (?) of Austria, Governess of the Netherlands b. 28 Dec 1522, d. 18 Jan 1586

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, De'Medici: http://www.sardimpex.com/medici2.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page (Medici family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Simonetta da Collavechio: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010982&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alessandro de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010983&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Margarete of Austria: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00011241&tree=LEO
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Habsburg 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg4.html
  8. [S1576] PBS Frontline "The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families - Alessandro de Medici, online http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/secret/famous/medici.html. Hereinafter cited as PBS Frontline - Alessandro de Medici.
  9. [S1577] Encyclopedia Britannica Online: Alessandro de'Medici, online http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=397037. Hereinafter cited as Encyclopedia Britannica Online: Alessandro de'Medici.
  10. [S1578] The African American Registry: "Alessandro de Medici, a secret no more", online http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/1788/Alessandro_de_Medici_a_secret_no_more. Hereinafter cited as African American Registry: Alessandro de Medici.
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Medici 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/medici2.html
  12. [S1579] Renia, "Renia email 10 Feb 2004 "Alessandro de' Medici (1510-1537)"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 10 Feb 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Renia email 10 Feb 2004."
  13. [S1580] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 10 Feb 2004 "Re: Alessandro de' Medici (1510-1537)"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 10 Feb 2004. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 10 Feb 2004."

Margarita (?) of Austria, Governess of the Netherlands1,2,3

F, #48921, b. 28 December 1522, d. 18 January 1586
FatherCharles/Karl V/I (?) King of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor2,3 b. 24 Feb 1500, d. 21 Sep 1558
MotherJohanna Maria van de Gheynst4,3,2 b. c 1502, d. 15 Dec 1541
Last Edited11 Aug 2004
     Margarita (?) of Austria, Governess of the Netherlands was born on 28 December 1522 at Oudenaerde, Netherlands.3,2 She married Alessandro de Medici Duke of Florence, son of Lorenzo II "il Giovane" de Medici Duke of Florence, Duke of Urbino and Simonetta da Collavechio, on 29 February 1536 at Naples, Città Metropolitana di Napoli, Campania, Italy (now).1,3,5,2 Margarita (?) of Austria, Governess of the Netherlands married Ottavio Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza on 4 November 1538 at Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy (now).6,3,2
Margarita (?) of Austria, Governess of the Netherlands died on 18 January 1586 at Ortona, Parma, Italy (now), at age 63.3,2
     ; An illegitimate daughter of Emperor Charles V and Johanna Maria van der Gheynst, a servant of Charles de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, she was brought up in Brussels by the family Douwrin. She was taught to speak French, Italian and Spanish but was unable to speak Flemish.

In 1529, aged only seven, she was engaged to Alessandro de' Medici, a nephew of the Pope. In 1533, after having been acknowledged by her father, she was allowed to call herself Margarete of Austria. On 29 February 1536, aged fourteen, she married the almost thirty- year-old Alessandro. However, a year later she became a widow when he, hated for his extravagances, was murdered. Margarete withdrew to Prato, a few miles from Milan. To please Pope Paul III, at sixteen years of age she became engaged to his grandson, Ottavio Farnese, who was only thirteen, and became Marquess of Novara.

In October 1538 she went to Rome for her nuptials and, still dressed in mourning, was presented to the Pope. It seemed omninous when, at her wedding on 4 November 1538 with the exchange of rings, she failed to say 'yes'. Even though her second marriage was as unhappy as her first, in 1545 she gave birth to twins; however only one, Alexander, survived.

In 1547 her husband inherited the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. In May 1559 her half-brother, Philip II, King of Spain, placed her in charge of The Netherlands. This appointment was meant for only seventeen months but she stayed in charge for nine years. She was never appreciated but resented as the daughter of a servant as well as for her devoutness and her Spanish secretary. Margarete was in an impossible position when Philip II placed a Spanish garrison in Piacenza and took her son to Spain.3

; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: page 127
2. Genealogie der Graven van Holland Zaltbommel, 1969. , Dr. A. W. E. Dek, Reference: page 122
3. Cahiers de Saint Louis Magazine. , Jacques Dupont, Jacques Saillot, Reference: page 1535.3

; [illegitimate by Katharina/Johanna Maria van den Gheynst (+15.12.1541)] Margarita, Governess of The Netherlands (1559-67), *Pamele, Flanders/Oudenaerde 28.12.1522, +Ortona, Parma, Italy 18.1.1586, bur San Sisto Church of Parma; 1m: Napoli 29.2.1536 Alessandro de Medici, Gr Duke of Tuscany (*1510 +6.1.1537); 2m: Rome 4.11.1538 Octavio Farnese, Duke of Parma (*9.10.1524 +21.9.1586.)2 She was Governess of the Netherlands between 1559 and 1567.2

Family 1

Alessandro de Medici Duke of Florence b. 1510, d. 6 Jan 1537

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 257. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Habsburg 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg4.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Margarete of Austria: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00011241&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Johanna Maria van der Gheynst: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00011242&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alessandro de' Medici: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00010983&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ottavio Farnese: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00017137&tree=LEO
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Farnese 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/farnese2.html

Galeazzo I Visconti Duke of Milan1,2,3,4

M, #48922, b. 21 January 1277, d. 6 August 1328
FatherMatteo I Visconti Duke of Milan1,3,2,4,5 b. 15 Jul 1250, d. 24 Jun 1322
MotherBonacosta Borri3,6,2,4 d. 15 Jan 1321
Last Edited14 Mar 2004
     Galeazzo I Visconti Duke of Milan was born on 21 January 1277.2,3,4 He married Beatrice d'Este, daughter of Obizzo II d'Este Markgrave d'Este, Signore di Ferrara and Giacoma Fieschi, on 24 June 1300 at Modena, Italy (now); her 2nd husband.1,7,2,3,8,4
Galeazzo I Visconti Duke of Milan died on 6 August 1328 at Pescia, Italy (now), at age 51.1,2,3,4
     ; Galeazzo I (* 21-1-1277 + Pescia 6-8-1328), Podestà di Novara 1298/1299, associato al padre 1300/1302, Vicario Generale di Piacenza nel 1313, Podestà di Treviso nel 1310, Capitano del Popolo e Signore di Milano 1322 (dal 24-6 all' 8-11 e dal 29-12-1322) 1322/1327 (deposto il 5-7-1327).
= Modena 24-6-1300 Beatrice d'Este, figlia del Marchese Azzo VIII Signore di Ferrara (* 1267 ca. + Milano 15-9-1334) (v.), già vedova di Ugolino Visconti Giudice della Gallura.2


; Galeazzo I, Signore di Milano (1322-27), deposed 5.7.1327, Podesta di Novara (1298-99), *21.1.1277, +Pescia 6.8.1328; m.24.6.1300 Beatrice d'Este (+15.9.1334.)3

; Leo van de Pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 131.4 He was Duke of Milan, deposed 5 July 1327 between 1322 and 5 July 1327.1,3

Family 1

Child

Family 2

Beatrice d'Este d. 15 Sep 1334
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 260. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, Visconti: Linea Regnante Di Milano - http://www.sardimpex.com/visconti/viscontiducali.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Visconti 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/visconti2.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Galeazzo I Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028062&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Matteo I Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028038&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bonacosta Borri: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028039&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Beatrice d'Este: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020863&tree=LEO
  8. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Welf 8 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf8.html
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cattarina Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00310158&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Azzo Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028066&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Riccarda Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028068&tree=LEO

Beatrice d'Este1,2,3

F, #48923, d. 15 September 1334
FatherObizzo II d'Este Markgrave d'Este, Signore di Ferrara2,4,5 b. 1247, d. 13 Feb 1293
MotherGiacoma Fieschi2,6,3 d. Dec 1287
Last Edited14 Nov 2004
     Beatrice d'Este married Ugolino Visconti Giudice di Gallura; her 1st husband.5 Beatrice d'Este married Galeazzo I Visconti Duke of Milan, son of Matteo I Visconti Duke of Milan and Bonacosta Borri, on 24 June 1300 at Modena, Italy (now); her 2nd husband.1,2,7,8,5,9
Beatrice d'Este died on 15 September 1334 at Milan, Città Metropolitana di Milano, Lombardia, Italy (now); Leo van de Pas says s. 1 Sep 1334; Gen. delle Din. Ital. says d. 15 Sep 1334; Welf 8 page says d. 15 Sep 1334.2,7,3
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 122.2

; My source was pretty "old" therefor I looked into ES I.1 Tafel 32. This volume was published in 1998.

Here Beatrice is given as parents Obbizo II and Giacoma Fieschi (cousin of Pope Adrian V) if have not looked into my data base (I will though) but Beatrice is shown to have married twice, Ugolino (Nino) Visconti is her first husband.

Tafels 31-36 have been given quite a lengthy list of sources.10

Family 2

Galeazzo I Visconti Duke of Milan b. 21 Jan 1277, d. 6 Aug 1328
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 260. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Beatrice d'Este: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020863&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Welf 8 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf8.html.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Markgrave Obizzo II d'Este: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020863&tree=LEO
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Welf 8 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf8.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giacoma Fieschi: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020864&tree=LEO
  7. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, Visconti: Linea Regnante Di Milano - http://www.sardimpex.com/visconti/viscontiducali.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  8. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Visconti 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/visconti2.html
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Galeazzo I Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028062&tree=LEO
  10. [S1603] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 18 March 2004 "Re: Beatrice d'Este (1267-1334) - REPOST"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 18 March 2004. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 18 March 2004."
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Azzo Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028066&tree=LEO
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Riccarda Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028068&tree=LEO

Azzone I Visconti Signore di Milano1,2,3,4

M, #48924, b. 7 December 1302, d. 16 August 1339
FatherGaleazzo I Visconti Duke of Milan1,2,4,5,3 b. 21 Jan 1277, d. 6 Aug 1328
MotherBeatrice d'Este1,2,6,3,4 d. 15 Sep 1334
Last Edited14 Mar 2004
     Azzone I Visconti Signore di Milano was born on 7 December 1302 at Ferrara, Italy (now).2,3,4 He married Catherine (?) de Savoie, daughter of Louis II (?) de Savoie, Baron de Vaud, Regent of Savoy and Isabelle de Châlons Dame de Joigny, on 1 October 1330 at Milan, Città Metropolitana di Milano, Lombardia, Italy (now); her 1st husband; Genealogie delle Dinastie Italiane and says m. 10 Oct 1330; Leo van de Pas says m. 1 Oct 1330; Genealogy.EU (Visconti 2 page) says m. 1 Oct 1333.7,2,8,3,4
Azzone I Visconti Signore di Milano died on 16 August 1339 at Milan, Città Metropolitana di Milano, Lombardia, Italy (now), at age 36.1,2,3,4
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 131.3

; Azzone I, Signore di Milano (1329-39), *7.12.1302, +Milano 16.8.1339; m.Milano 1.10.1333 Caterina di Savoia (+18.6.1388.)2

; Azzone I (* Ferrara 7-12-1302 + Milano 16-8-1339), Capitano del Popolo e Signore di Milano dal 1329, Vicario Imperiale di Milano 15-1-1329 (confermato il 23-9-1329), Signore di Vercelli dal 1334 (confermato 9-1335), Signore di Como dal 29-7-1335, Signore di Parma dal 15-12-1336, Signore di Brescia dall'8-10-1337.
= Milano 10-10-1330 Caterina di Savoia, figlia di Ludovico II Signore e Barone del Vaud (+ 18-6-1388.)4
He was Signore di Milano between 1329 and 1339.2,4

Family

Catherine (?) de Savoie d. 18 Jun 1388

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 260. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Visconti 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/visconti2.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Azzo Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028066&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, Visconti: Linea Regnante Di Milano - http://www.sardimpex.com/visconti/viscontiducali.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Galeazzo I Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028062&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giacoma Fieschi: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020864&tree=LEO
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Savoy 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/savoy/savoy2.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Catherine de Savoie: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028067&tree=LEO

Luchino I Visconti Duke of Milan1,2,3,4

M, #48925, b. 1292, d. 24 January 1349
FatherMatteo I Visconti Duke of Milan1,4,2,3,5 b. 15 Jul 1250, d. 24 Jun 1322
MotherBonacosta Borri4,6,3,2 d. 15 Jan 1321
Last Edited14 Mar 2004
     Luchino I Visconti Duke of Milan was born in 1292; Genealogy.EU (Visconti 2 page) says b. 1292; Genealogie delle Dinastie Italiane sayd b. 1292; Leo van de Pas says b. 1287.2,4,3 He married Caterina Spinola, daughter of Oberto Spinola Patrizio di Genova, in 1316; his 2nd wife; Genealogy.EU (Visconti 2 page) says m. 1316; Leo van de Pas says m. 1318.7,2,4,3 Luchino I Visconti Duke of Milan married Isabella/Elisabetta Fieschi, daughter of Carlo Fieschi Capitano di Genova e Patrizio di Genova and Teodora (?), in 1318.8,4,3 Luchino I Visconti Duke of Milan married Violante del Vasto di Saluzzo, daughter of Tomasso I del Vasto Marquis di Saluzzo and Aluigia del Vasto, in 1339; his 1st wife; her 2nd husband; Genealogy.EU (Saluzzo 1 page) says m. 1329.9,2,4,10,3
Luchino I Visconti Duke of Milan died on 24 January 1349 at Milan, Città Metropolitana di Milano, Lombardia, Italy (now); murdered.1,2,4,3
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 131.2

; Luchino I, Signore di Milano (1339-49), Vicario Pontificio 1341, Signore di Pavia 1315, *1292, +Milano 24.1.1349; 1m: 1316 Caterina Spinola, dau.of Oberto Spinola Patrizio di Genova (+1317); 2m: 1318 Elisabetta Fieschi, dau.of Carlo Capitano di Genova e Patrizio di Genova by Teodora (+after 1331); 3m: 1339 Violante di Saluzzo (+after 1339.)4

; Luchino I (* 1292 + Milano 24-1-1349), Signore di Milano dal 1339, Vicario Pontificio dal 6-8-1341, Signore di Pavia dal 1315; conquista Asti e Locarno nel 1340, Bobbio e Pontremoli nel 1349, compra Parma il 22-9-1346, conquista Tortona, Alba e Cherasco nel 1347 e Alessandria e Brescello nel 1348; nel 1334 eredita le pretese di successione sul giudicato di Gallura.
= 1316 Caterina, figlia di Oberto Spinola, Patrizio Genovese (+ 1317);
= 1318 Elisabetta, figlia di Carlo Fieschi Capitano di Genova e Patrizio Genovese e di Teodora (+ post 1331);
= 1339 Violante, figlia di Tommaso I Marchese di Saluzzo e di Luisa dei Marchesi di Ceva (+ post 1349.)3

; Leo van de Pas cites: Genealogie medioevali di Sardegna 1983 , L.L.Brook, F.C.Casula, M.M.Costa eds.11 He was Duke of Milan between 1339 and 1349.1

Family 1

Caterina Spinola d. 1317

Family 2

Isabella/Elisabetta Fieschi d. a 1331

Family 3

Violante del Vasto di Saluzzo d. a 1349

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 260. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Lucchino Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00417842&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, Visconti: Linea Regnante Di Milano - http://www.sardimpex.com/visconti/viscontiducali.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Visconti 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/visconti2.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Matteo I Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028038&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bonacosta Borri: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028039&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Catherina Spinola: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00417844&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Isabella Fieschi: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00417845&tree=LEO
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Violante de Saluzzo: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00417843&tree=LEO
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Saluzzo 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/saluzzo1.html
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Luchino Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00324367&tree=LEO

Giovanni I Visconti Cardinal, Archbishop of Milan, Doge of Venice1,2,3,4

M, #48926, b. 1290, d. 5 October 1354
FatherMatteo I Visconti Duke of Milan1,3,2,5,4 b. 15 Jul 1250, d. 24 Jun 1322
MotherBonacosta Borri3,6,4,2 d. 15 Jan 1321
Last Edited14 Mar 2004
     Giovanni I Visconti Cardinal, Archbishop of Milan, Doge of Venice was born in 1290.2,3,4
Giovanni I Visconti Cardinal, Archbishop of Milan, Doge of Venice died on 5 October 1354 at Milan, Città Metropolitana di Milano, Lombardia, Italy (now).1,2,3,4
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 131.2

; Giovanni I, Bp of Novara 1332, Archbp of Milan 1339, Signore di Milano (1349-54), Signore di Genova 1352, Signore di Bologna e Novara 1353, *1290, +5.10.1354. Children:
o     [illegitimate] Leonardo, Podesta di Novara 1332
o     [illegitimate] Margherita; m.Ambrogio Visconti.3


; Giovanni I (* 1290 + Milano 5-10-1354), Canonico e Vicario Generale di Monza, Prevosto di San Giovanni in Pontirolo, Cardinale Diacono di Sant'Eustacchio e Legato Apostolico per la Lombardia creato all'Antipapa Niccolò V il 19-1-1329 (carica successivamente abbandonata e diviene Cappellano del Papa Giovanni XXII), Vescovo Conte di Novara dal 1332, Arcivescovo eletto di Milano nel 1317 (ma è costretto a rinunciare) e dal 1339 (approvazione pontificia del 17-7-1342); Signore di Milano 1339/1354 (associato ai fratelli fino al 1349, poi con i nipoti), Vicario Pontificio dal 6-8-1341, Signore di Genova dal 10-10-1352, Signore di Bologna dal 28-10-1350 (Vicario Papale dal 1352), Signore di Novara dal 1353. [Children:]
J1. (Naturale) Leonardo (+ post 1376 ?), Podestà di Novara nel 1332. = Caterina, figlia di Martino di Viazalla Signore di Palestro
K1. Luchino, Canonico di Bergamo nel 1368.
J2. (Naturale) Margherita = 1350 Ambrogio Visconti, Patrizio Milanese.4
He was Duke of Milan between 1349 and 1354.1

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 260. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Giovanni Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028072&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Visconti 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/visconti2.html
  4. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, Visconti: Linea Regnante Di Milano - http://www.sardimpex.com/visconti/viscontiducali.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Matteo I Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028038&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bonacosta Borri: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028039&tree=LEO

Marco Visconti Podesta di Alessandria, Signore di Lucca1,2,3

M, #48927, d. 5 September 1329
FatherMatteo I Visconti Duke of Milan1,2,3 b. 15 Jul 1250, d. 24 Jun 1322
MotherBonacosta Borri2,3 d. 15 Jan 1321
Last Edited13 Mar 2021
     Marco Visconti Podesta di Alessandria, Signore di Lucca died on 5 September 1329 at Lucca, Provincia di Lucca, Tuscany, Italy (now); Genealogy.EU (Visconti 2 page) says d. 30 Jun 1329; Genealogie delle Dinastie Italiane sayd d. 5 Sep 1329.2,3
     ; Marco detto "Balatrone" (+ strozzato, Milano 5-9-1329), Signore di Rosate dal 1322, Podestà di Alessandria nel 1310, Signore di Lucca dal 15-4-1329.3

; Marco, Podesta di Alessandria 1310, Signore di Lucca (15.4.-30.6.1329), +Lucca 30.6.1329.2

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 260. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Visconti 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/visconti2.html
  3. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, Visconti: Linea Regnante Di Milano - http://www.sardimpex.com/visconti/viscontiducali.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.

Elizabeth Howard1

F, #48928
FatherThomas Howard Earl of Surrey, 4th Duke of Norfolk1 b. 10 Mar 1537, d. 2 Jun 1572
MotherMargaret Audley1
Last Edited30 Mar 2003
     Elizabeth Howard died; died unmarried.1

Citations

  1. [S1429] Unknown compiler, Notable British Families 1600s-1900s from Burke's Peerage., CD-ROM (n.p.: Broderbund Software Company, 1999), Notable British Families, p. 17. Hereinafter cited as Notable British Families CD # 367.

Virida/Verde Visconti1,2,3,4

F, #48929, b. circa 1352, d. before 11 March 1414
FatherBernabo I Visconti Duke of Milan, Bergamo, Cremona, Lodi, Bologna and Parma1,5,2,6,3,4 b. 1319, d. 18 Dec 1385
MotherBeatrice detta Regina della Scala2,7,3,4 b. c 1331, d. 18 Jun 1384
Last Edited12 Mar 2004
     Virida/Verde Visconti was born circa 1352 at Milan, Città Metropolitana di Milano, Lombardia, Italy (now).2,3,4 She married Leopold III (?) Duke of Austria and Styria, son of Albrecht II "de Weise" von Habsburg Duke of Austria and Johanna (?) von Pfirt, on 23 February 1365 at Milan, Città Metropolitana di Milano, Lombardia, Italy (now).5,8,3,4
Virida/Verde Visconti died before 11 March 1414 at Sittich, Kärnten, Austria.5,2,3,4
     ; Leo van de pas cites: 1. Genealogie der Graven van Holland Zaltbommel, 1969. , Dr. A. W. E. Dek, Reference: page 119.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: I.1 42.3

; Verde (* 1352 ca. + Sittich, ante 11-3-1414)
= Milano 23-2-1365 Leopoldo III d'Asburgo Duca di Stiria e Carinzia (* 1-11-1351 + cade nella battaglia di Sempach 9-7-1386).4


; Verde/Viridis, *Milano ca 1352, +Sittich, Carniola before 11.3.1414, bur there; m.Milano 23.2.1365 Leopold III von Steyer (*1.11.1351 +9.7.1386.)2

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 260. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Visconti 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/italy/visconti2.html#AB1
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Viridis (Verde) Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005143&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, Visconti: Linea Regnante Di Milano - http://www.sardimpex.com/visconti/viscontiducali.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  5. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 73: Austria - House of the Hapsburgs in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bernabo Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005140&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Beatrice della Scala: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005141&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Leopold III: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005142&tree=LEO
  9. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 262.
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Habsburg 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg2.html
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ernst I 'the Iron': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005144&tree=LEO
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Friedrich IV: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027514&tree=LEO

Leopold III (?) Duke of Austria and Styria1,2,3,4

M, #48930, b. 1 November 1351, d. 9 July 1386
FatherAlbrecht II "de Weise" von Habsburg Duke of Austria5,2,6,3,4 b. 12 Dec 1298, d. 20 Jul 1358
MotherJohanna (?) von Pfirt5,2,3,4 b. 1300, d. 15 Nov 1351
Last Edited10 Mar 2004
     Leopold III (?) Duke of Austria and Styria was born on 1 November 1351 at Vienna, Austria.2,3,4,7 He married Virida/Verde Visconti, daughter of Bernabo I Visconti Duke of Milan, Bergamo, Cremona, Lodi, Bologna and Parma and Beatrice detta Regina della Scala, on 23 February 1365 at Milan, Città Metropolitana di Milano, Lombardia, Italy (now).2,3,8,7
Leopold III (?) Duke of Austria and Styria died on 9 July 1386 at Sempach at age 34; killed in battle.2,4,7
Leopold III (?) Duke of Austria and Styria was buried after 9 July 1386 at Königsfelden, Austria.4


     ; Duke LEOPOLD III of Austria and Styria (1365-86), Duke in Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and Istria, Ct of Tyrol, etc (1379-86), Hr von Terst 1382, *Vienna 1.11.1351, +k.a.Sempach 9.7.1386, bur Königsfelden; m.Vienna 23.2.1365 Viridis Visconti (*ca 1350, +before 1.3.1414.)4 He was Duke of Styria.2

; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: I.1 42
2. Genealogie der Graven van Holland Zaltbommel, 1969. , Dr. A. W. E. Dek, Reference: page 119.3

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 260. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 73: Austria - House of the Hapsburgs in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Leopold III: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005142&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Habsburg 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg2.html
  5. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 262.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Albrecht II 'der Weise': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00026693&tree=LEO
  7. [S1550] Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane [This website is now defunct. Some information has been transferred to the pay site "Genealogie delle Famiglie Nobili Italine" at http://www.sardimpex.com/], online http://www.sardimpex.com/, Visconti: Linea Regnante Di Milano - http://www.sardimpex.com/visconti/viscontiducali.htm. Hereinafter cited as Genealogie Delle Dinastie Ialiane.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Viridis (Verde) Visconti: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005143&tree=LEO
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ernst I 'the Iron': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005144&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Friedrich IV: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027514&tree=LEO