Richeza (Rixa) (?) of Poland, Queen Consort of Hungary1,2

F, #6691, b. 22 September 1013, d. 21 May 1075
FatherMieszko II Lambert (?) King of Poland1,3 b. 990, d. 10 May 1034
MotherRixa (Richeza) (?) Countess of Pfalz-Lorraine, Queen of Poland1,4 b. c 995, d. 21 Mar 1063
ReferenceGAV27 EDV27
Last Edited13 Dec 2020
     Richeza (Rixa) (?) of Poland, Queen Consort of Hungary was born on 22 September 1013 at Kraków, Miasto Kraków, Malopolskie, Poland; Wikipedia says b 22 Sept 1013, Genealogy.EU says b 1015; Med Lands says b. 1018; Genealogics says b. ca 1018.1,2,5,6 She married Bela I (?) King of Hungary, son of Vazul/Vasul/Basil (?) and Katun Comitopuli of Bulgaria, between 1039 and 1042.1,7,6
Richeza (Rixa) (?) of Poland, Queen Consort of Hungary died on 21 May 1075 at Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary (now), at age 61; Wikipedia says d 21 May 1075.1,7,2,8
     ; Per Wikipedia:
     "Adelaide/Richeza of Poland (11th century) was Queen Consort of Hungary by marriage to Béla I of Hungary.
Life
     "She was a daughter of King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland, and his wife, Richeza of Lotharingia, the great-granddaughter of Emperor Otto II.
     "She is traditionally called Richeza, but contemporary sources do not confirm this name. Nowadays it is supposed that she was called Adelaide.[1]
     "Between 1039 and 1043, she was married to king Béla of Hungary, who had served her father and taken part in her father's campaigns against the pagan Pomeranian tribes.
     "In 1048, her husband received one third of Hungary (Tercia pars Regni) as appanage from his brother, King Andrew I of Hungary, and the couple moved to Hungary. On 6 December 1060, her husband was crowned King of Hungary after defeating his brother.
Marriage and children
     "# 1039-1043: King Béla I of Hungary (c. 1016 – 11 September 1063)
** King Géza I of Hungary (c. 1040 – 25 April 1077)
** King Ladislaus I of Hungary (c. 1040 – 29 July 1095)
** Duke Lampert of Hungary (after 1050 – c. 1095)
** Sophia (after 1050 – 18 June 1095), wife firstly of Markgraf Ulrich I of Carniola, and secondly of duke Magnus I of Saxony
** Euphemia (after 1050 – 2 April 1111), wife of Prince Otto I of Olomouc
** Helen I of Hungary (after 1050 – c. 1091), wife of Demetrius Zvonimir of Croatia
Sources
** Kristó, Gyula - Makk, Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói (IPC Könyvek, 1996)
** Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon (9-14. század), f?szerkeszt?: Kristó, Gyula, szerkeszt?k: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1994)
** Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetekt?l 1526-ig, f?szerkeszt?: Benda, Kálmán (Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1981)
References
1. K. Jasi?ski, Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, Wroc?aw - Warszawa (1992.)2"

; Per Med Lands: "[RYKSA] ([1018]-after 1059). The Gesta Hungarorum records the marriage of Béla and "filia Miskæ [Polonorum duce]" while he was in exile in Poland but does not name her[167]. The Kronika W?giersko-Polska records that "Bela" married "rex Polonie filiam"[168]. Ryksa is shown as her possible name in Europäische Stammtafeln[169], but the primary source on which this is based has not been identified. m ([1039/42]) BÉLA of Hungary, son of VÁSZOLY [Vazúl] Prince of Hungary, Duke between March and Gran, & --- of the Bulgarians (1016-Kanisza creek Dec 1063, bur Szögszárd Abbey). He succeeded in 1060 as BÉLA I King of Hungary."
Med Lands cites:
[167] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 52, p. 121.
[168] Kronika W?giersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 489.
[169] ES II 154.5


Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. Page 104.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:154.6


; Per Genealogics:
     "Richeza was born about 1018, the daughter of Mieszko II Lambert, king of Poland, and Richeza de Lorraine. Between 1039 and 1043 she married Duke Béla of Hungary, a younger son of Vazul 'the Blind' of Hungary and Katun Comitopuli or Katalin of Bulgaria. Béla's elder brother András, from a younger branch of the Arpád dynasty, had claimed the throne when the older line became extinct with the death of King Stephan I, but he and his younger brothers Béla and Levente had been exiled from Hungary, fearing for their lives. András found refuge in Kiev, and Béla and Levente found refuge with Richeza's father Mieszko II Lambert in Poland, where they served him and took part in his campaigns against the pagan Pomeran tribes.
     "In 1046 the brothers returned to Hungary, sparking the Vatha pagan rising, in which András through pagan support managed to wrest the Hungarian crown from Peter Orseolo, brother-in-law of the late King Stephan. In 1048 Richeza's husband received one third of Hungary ('Tercia pars Regni') as an apanage from his brother. However he rebelled against his brother in 1057 when András had his five-year-old son Salomon crowned as his successor, displacing Béla. Initially forced into exile, on 6 December 1060 Béla was crowned king of Hungary after defeating his brother.
     "Richeza and Béla had eight children, of whom five would have progeny, and two, Geisa I and Lászlo I, would be kings of Hungary.
     "Richeza's year of death is not known with certainty. One source gives her date of death as 21 May 1075, but this cannot be confirmed. After Béla's death in 1063 Emperor Heinrich IV installed András' son Salomon as the new king, and the sons of Richeza and Béla were forced into exile."6 GAV-27 EDV-27. Richeza (Rixa) (?) of Poland, Queen Consort of Hungary was also known as Rixa (Richza) of Poland. She was Queen consort of Hungary between 1060 and 1063.2

Family

Bela I (?) King of Hungary b. c 1016, d. 11 Sep 1063
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (the Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richeza_of_Poland,_Queen_of_Hungary. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mieszko II Lambert: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049959&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Richeza de Lorraine: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049960&tree=LEO
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#MieszkoIIdied1034. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Richeza|Ryksa of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020697&tree=LEO
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
  8. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 01 December 2019), memorial page for Richeza Of Poland (22 Sep 1013–21 May 1075), Find A Grave Memorial no. 142136637, citing Szekszárd Abbey, Szekszárd, Szekszárdi járás, Tolna, Hungary ; Maintained by Angie Swann (contributor 48313732), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/142136637/richeza-of_poland. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Laszlo I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020747&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#LaszloI
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gevitza I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020698&tree=LEO
  12. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_G%C3%89ZA_I_1074-1077,.
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#LankaMRostislavVladimirovichRostov

Mathilde (?) von Sachsen1,2

F, #6692, b. 979, d. 4 December 1025
FatherOtto II (?) Holy Roman Emperor1,3,2,4,5,6 b. 955, d. 7 Dec 983
MotherTheophana Skleraina of Byzantium, Holy Roman Empress3,2,5,6,7 b. bt 956 - 960, d. 15 Jun 991
ReferenceGAV27
Last Edited26 Dec 2020
     Mathilde (?) von Sachsen was born in 979.8,2 She married Edzo/Ezzo/Ehrenfried (?) Pfalzgraf von Lothringen, Graf im Auel- und im Bonngau, son of Herman 'Pusillus/The Small' (?) Count im Auelgau, Bonngau, und Keldachau, Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine and Heylwig (?) von Dillingen, on 15 June 991.9,10,11,3,2
Mathilde (?) von Sachsen died on 4 December 1025 at Echtz;
Genealogy.EU (Cleves 2 page) says d. d. 1028; Genealogics and Med lands say d. 4 Dec 1025.12,1,13,2,3
Mathilde (?) von Sachsen was buried after 4 December 1025 at Brauweiler Abbey, Pulheim, Rhein-Erft-Kreis, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown
     DEATH     21 Mar 1034
[Text copied from Wikipedia article]
     Family Members
     Parents
          Otto 955–983
          Theophano Sklerina of Byzantium 956–991
     Spouse
          Ezzo of Lotharingia unknown–1034
     Siblings
          Sophia I. von Gandersheim unknown–1039
          Adelheid I 977–1043
          Otto III 980–1002
     Children
          Hermann II of Lotharingia unknown–1056
          Richeza of Lotharingia unknown–1063
          Otto II of Swabia unknown–1047
          Theophanu von Essen 997–1058
          Liudolf of Lotharingia 1000–1031
     BURIAL     Brauweiler Abbey, Pulheim, Rhein-Erft-Kreis, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
     Maintained by: Mad
     Originally Created by: L. C. B.
     Added: 19 Oct 2010
     Find A Grave Memorial 60336607.13
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "MATHILDE (Summer 978-Echtz 4 Dec 1025, bur Brauweiler Abbey). The Vita Godehardi names "Mahtildis domnæ Sophiæ sororis" as wife of "Ezonis palatine comitis"[318]. Thietmar records that "Mathilde the emperor's sister married Ezzo, who was the son of Hermann the count palatine", commenting that "this displeased many"[319]. Piligrim Archbishop of Köln confirmed the donation of "allodium suum in Brunwilre" to the abbey of St Nicholas made by "Erenfridus comes palatinus […et frater eius comes Hecelinus]…cum coniuge sua domna Mathilde" by charter dated 10 Oct 1028[320]. The Annales Brunwilarenses record the death in 1025 of "domna nostra Mathilda"[321].
     "m (before 15 Jun 991) EZZO [Erenfried] Graf im Auel- und Bonngau [Ezzonen], son of HERMANN Pfalzgraf & his wife Heilwig --- (-Saalfeld 21 May 1034). He succeeded as EZZO Pfalzgraf of Lotharingia in 1020."
Med Lands cites:
[318] Wolfherii Vita Godehardi Episcopi Hildenesheimensis, Vita Prior 29, MGH SS XI, p. 188.
[319] Thietmar 4.60, p. 194, footnote 165 referring to "a later source from Brauweiler" asserting that Ezzo won the right to marry Mathilde by beating King Otto III at dice or chess.
[320] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1840) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band I (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), 164, p. 102.
[321] Annales Brunwilarenses 1034, MGH SS I, p. 99.3


Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 1.1:10.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. Page 3.2


; Per Genealogics:
     "Mathilde was born in the summer of 979, the third daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II and Theophano (Skleraina). Shortly after her birth Mathilde was sent to Essen Abbey, where her older cousin Mathilde, daughter of her uncle Liudolf, Herzog von Schwaben, was abbess, and Mathilde was educated there. It was presumed that she would stay in the abbey and become an abbess like her older sisters Adelheid, abbess of Quedlinburg, and Sophia, abbess of Gandersheim.
     "However Mathilde was destined for a different life to that of her two sisters. Before 15 June in 991 she married Ezzo, Pfalzgraf von Lothringen, a son of Hermann Pusillus, count palatine of Lower-Lorraine, and Heylwig von Dillingen. According to the chronicler Thietmar, bishop of Merseburg, Mathilde's brother Emperor Otto III did not support the marriage at first. When Empress Theophano had consented to it, Ezzo took Mathilde out of her abbey, over the objections of Abbess Mathilde. The marriage of Ezzo and Mathilde appears to have been happy. They had three sons and seven daughters, of whom Liudolf, Otto and Richeza would have progeny.
     "Mathilde apparently died unexpectedly during a visit to Ezzo's brother Hermann, while Ezzo was in Aachen at a meeting of the nobility of Lorraine. She was buried at Brauweiler Abbey."2

; Per Wikipedia:
     "Matilda of Germany or Matilde of Saxony (Summer 979 - November 1025, Echtz[1]) was the third daughter of Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Empress Theophanu.
Life
     "Shortly after her birth, Matilda was sent to Essen Abbey, where her older cousin Mathilde was abbess, Matilda was educated here. It was presumed that Matilda would stay in the Abbey and become an Abbess like her older sisters Adelheid I, Abbess of Quedlinburg and Sophia I, Abbess of Gandersheim.
     "However, Matilda lived a different life from her two sisters, she was to marry Ezzo, Count Palatine of Lotharingia. According to the Historian Thietmar of Merseburg Matilda's brother Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor did not like the idea of the marriage at first. The family gave the couple large gifts to secure an adequate standard of living. The Empress Theophanu had consented to the marriage. Ezzo then took Matilda out of the Abbey where she had lived. However, Abbess Mathilde had vainly refused to surrender the girl. Later romantic embellishments even claimed Ezzo had previously been secretly in love with the young Matilda. Ezzo took Matilda from the Abbey to marry her.
     "Matilda's mother Theophanu had always agreed to the wedding but Matilda's cousin and teacher Abbess Matilde did not agree to the marriage. Without the consent of Matilda's mother the marriage would not happen with certainty, it is even likely that this marriage was to ensure the power of Otto III. The family had extensive estates in the Lower Rhine and Mosel. Ezzo's mother came from the house of the Dukes of Swabia and so Ezzo laid claims to these lands. Matilda received them out of Ottonian possessions and gave them to her husband.
Marriage and children
     "Ezzo and Matilda had married for love and their marriage was very happy. In any case, it was extremely fruitful, with ten children:
** Liudolf (c. 1000–10 April 1031), Count of Zutphen.
** Otto I (died 1047), Count Palatine of Lotharingia and later Duke of Swabia as Otto II.
** Hermann II (995–1056), Archbishop of Cologne.
** Theophanu (died 1056), Abbess of Essen and Gerresheim.
** Richeza (died 21 March 1063), Queen of Poland
** Adelheid (died c. 1030), Abbess of Nijvel (Nivelles).
** Heylwig, Abbess of Neuss.
** Mathilde, Abbess of Dietkirchen and Vilich.
** Sophie, Abbess of St. Maria, Mainz.
** Ida (died 1060), Abbess of Cologne and Gandersheim Abbey (founded in 852 by her ancestor Liudolf, Duke of Saxony).

     "Matilda apparently died unexpectedly during a visit to Ezzo's brother Hermann, while Ezzo was held in Aachen, at a meeting of the nobility of Lorraine. Matilda was buried at Brauweiler Abbey.[2]
     "Matilda was the mother of the famous Richeza of Lotharingia who became Queen of Poland and was later beatified.
References
1. After Schwennicke, European pedigrees Volume I.1 (2005) Plate 10, and Volume I.2 (1999), Plate 201 The identification of Aeccheze with Esch-SauerAs in genealogy-medieval transfer is made, must be false: Matilda died on 4 of the month and was on 7 (Trillmich) buried - the distance between Esch-Sauer and Brauweiler is approximately 180 kilometers, which was not the time to establish, within three days, the exclusion of Düren-Echtz to Brauweiler is 40 kilometers. Echtz also fits better than Esch Sauer to Mathilde's brother Hermann, the count in Zülpichgau. That Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Edward Hlawitschka, Werner Trillmich and Emil Kimpen keep open the point by equating it solely with Aeccheze Esch, but not tell what they think Esch.
2. GERMANY KINGS, Medieval Lands: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#MathildeMEzzodied1034."14 GAV-27.

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cleves 2 page (The Ezzon Family - Die Ezzonen): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/cleves/cleves2.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mathilde von Sachsen: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080072&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#MathildeMEzzodied1034. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080073&tree=LEO
  5. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 147-20, p. 142.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#OttoIIdied983.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theophano Skleraina: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080074&tree=LEO
  8. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ezzo/Ehrenfried: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080071&tree=LEO
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Liudolfer page (Liudolfing): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/liudolfer.html
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#Ezzodied1034
  12. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 147-21, p. 129. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  13. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 28 February 2020), memorial page for Matilda of Germany (unknown–Nov 1025), Find A Grave Memorial no. 60336607, citing Brauweiler Abbey, Pulheim, Rhein-Erft-Kreis, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany ; Maintained by Mad (contributor 47329061), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/60336607/matilda-of_germany. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matilda_of_Germany,_Countess_Palatine_of_Lotharingia. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#Richenzadied1063
  16. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#Ludolfdied1031
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Liudolf: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00570106&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00165038&tree=LEO
  19. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#Ottodied1047
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hermann: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00570216&tree=LEO

Herman 'Pusillus/The Small' (?) Count im Auelgau, Bonngau, und Keldachau, Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine1,2,3,4

M, #6693, b. circa 925, d. 16 July 996
FatherEhrenfried II (?) Graf von Bonn, von Hattuaria, von Tubalgo1,2,5,6 b. c 895, d. 942
MotherRichwara (?)7,2,1,6 b. c 895, d. b 10 Jul 963
ReferenceGAV28
Last Edited17 Apr 2020
     Herman 'Pusillus/The Small' (?) Count im Auelgau, Bonngau, und Keldachau, Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine married Heylwig (?) von Dillingen, daughter of Hucbald II von Dillingen;
His 1st wife.1,2,3 Herman 'Pusillus/The Small' (?) Count im Auelgau, Bonngau, und Keldachau, Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine married Dietbirg (?) of Swabia;
His 2nd wife.2,3 Herman 'Pusillus/The Small' (?) Count im Auelgau, Bonngau, und Keldachau, Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine was born circa 925.8,9
Herman 'Pusillus/The Small' (?) Count im Auelgau, Bonngau, und Keldachau, Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine died on 16 July 996.1,2,9
     ; Per Genealogics: "Hermann, called 'Pusillus' or 'the Slender', was the son of Erenfried II, Graf im Zülpichgau, Graf im Bonngau, and his wife Richwara. He was Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine and of several counties along the Rhine, including Bonngau, Eifelgau, Mieblgau, Zülpichgau, Keldachgau, Alzey and Auelgau. With his wife Heylwig von Dillingen, daughter of Hucbald II von Dillingen and Dietbirg von Schwaben, he had four sons and a daughter, of whom Ezzo/Ehrenfried would have progeny. Hermann died on 16 July 996."9

Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: VI 1.9

; Per Genealogy.EU: "C1. Hermann I Pusillus, Gf im Auelgau, etc., Pfalzgraf von Lothringen (Ct Palatine of Lorraine) (945-996), +996; 1m: Heylwig von Dillingen; 2m: NN"
D1. [1m.] Ezzo (Ehrenfried), Gf im Auelgau and Bonngau, Pfalzgraf von Lothringen (Ct Palatine of Lorraine) (996-1034), +1034; m.Mathilde (+1025) dau.of Emperor Otto II
D2. [1m.] Hezzelin=Hermann, Gf im Zulpichgau, +1033; m.N, a dau.of Herzog Konrad von Kärnten
D3. [1m.] Richenza, Abbess of Nivelles
D4. [2m.] Hermann II Gf im Keldachgau
D5. [2m.] Adolf, Vogt von Deutz.10



; Per Med Lands:
     "HERMANN "Pusillus", son of EHRENFRIED Graf [im Zülpichgau] & his wife Richwara --- (-16 Jul or 20 Nov 996). "Herimannis…comes" donated property "in…villæ…Eilba in Maginensi pago" to Münster St Martin for the soul of "nostræ matris Rihuuare" by charter dated 10 Jun 963, witnessed by “Vdonis comitis, Bernhardi vice comitis, Raginboldi vice comitis...”[333]. The primary source which names his father has not yet been identified. Graf im Bonngau: Gero Archbishop of Köln donated property "in pago Bonnense in comitatu Herimanni comitis in villa vel marca Ingermaresthorp…in pago…Auelgoue in comitatu Godefridi comitis in villa vel marca Roonthorp" to Kloster Gerresheim by charter dated 2 Jan 970[334]. Graf im Eifelgau: "Uuicfredus sancta Treuerice sedis archidiaconus" donated property "in pago Aiflense in comitatu Herimanni" to the abbey of St Maximin by charter dated 975[335]. Graf in Gerresheim: Emperor Otto II renewed toll exemptions "in comitatu...Herimanni comitis...in Gerrichesheim" in favour of Kloster Gerresheim by charter dated 12 Apr 976[336]. "Udo cum coniuge mea Gisla" donated property "in pago Aiflensi in comitatu Herimanni" to St Maximin at Trier by charter dated 978[337]. Graf von Zülpich 981. He was installed as HERMANN Pfalzgraf of Lower Lotharingia in [985]/989. "Otto…rex" donated property "Vvalbisci in comitatu Karoli comitis" to Quedlinburg by charter dated 6 Jan 992, which names as present "Bernhardi ducis, Egberti comitis, Eggihardi marchionis, Herimanni palatini comitis, Huodonis marchionis, Deoderici palatini comitis eiusque fratris Sigeberti comitis, Herimanni comitis"[338]. Graf im Auelgau: Pope Gregory V granted rights to the abbey founded by "comite Megingozo diveque memoriæ coniuge eius Gerburga" in “comitatu Herimanni palatini comitis...pago...Aualgauue in loco Filiche situm” by charter dated 24 May 996[339]. The Memorienbuch of Köln St Gereon records the death "XVII Kal Aug" of "Herimannus palatinus comes cuius beneficio habemus Grieneswilere"[340]. The Memorienbuch of Köln St Gereon records the death "XII Kal Dec" of "Herimannus palatinus comes huius beneficio habemus Louenich"[341].
     "m HEILWIG, daughter of --- [related to Ulrich Bishop of Augsburg] (-12 Nov or 22 Jan ----). The Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio names "Helywiga" wife of "Hermanni comitis palatine…cognomente Pusillus", but does not give her origin[342]. Her possible relationship with Ulrich Bishop of Augsburg is based on the Brunwilarensis Monasterii Fundatio naming her son Ezzo as "sancti Udalrici episcopi...consanguineus"[343]. Speculation on the precise family relationship is fruitless considering the broad scope of the term “consanguineus”. The Memorienbuch of Köln St Gereon records the death "II Id Nov" of "Helewich comitissa uxor palatine horum beneficio habemus Grieneswilere"[344]. "
Med Lands cites:
[333] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 213, p. 272.
[334] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1840) Urkundenbuch für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band I (Düsseldorf) ("Niederrheins Urkundenbuch"), 111, p. 66.
[335] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch, I, 245, p. 301.
[336] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 119, p. 73.
[337] Mittelrheinisches Urkundenbuch 251, p. 307.
[338] MGH Diplomata II, D O III 81, p. 489.
[339] Niederrheins Urkundenbuch, Band I, 126, p. 77.
[340] Lacomblet, T. J. (ed.) (1860) Archiv für die Geschichte des Niederrheins, Band III (Düsseldorf), Memorienbuch des Canonichenstifts St Gereonis zu Cöln ("Köln St Gereon Memorienbuch"), p. 116.
[341] Köln St Gereon Memorienbuch, p. 117.4


; Per Wikipedia:
     "Herman I (died 996 AD), called Pusillus or the Slender, was the Count Palatine of Lotharingia, and of several counties along the Rhine, including Bonngau, Eifelgau, Mieblgau, Zülpichgau, Keldachgau, Alzey, and Auelgau. From 945 AD until his death in 996 AD.
     "He was the son of Erenfried II and Richwara of Zülpichgau. He was first married to Heylwig von Dillingen; secondly, to Dietbirg of Swabia. He left four sons and one daughter:
** Ezzo (Erenfried), Count Palatine of Lotharingia from 1015 until 1034
** Hezzelin I (sometimes called Hezilo, Hermann or Heinrich) Count of Zülpichgau (d. 1033). He married a daughter of Conrad I, Duke of Carinthia.
** Hermann II im Keldachgau, Vogt of Deutz (d. 1040)
** Adolf I of Lotharingia, Count of Keldachgau, Vogt of Deutz (1008–1018)
** Richenza of Lotharingia, Abbess of Nivelles

Sources
** Gerstner, Ruth, 'Die Geschichte der lothringischen Pfalzgrafschaft (von den Anfängen bis zur Ausbildung des Kurterritoriums Pfalz)', Rheinisches Archiv 40 (Bonn 1941)
** Kimpen, E., ‘Ezzonen und Hezeliniden in der rheinischen Pfalzgrafschaft’, Mitteilungen des Österreichischen Instituts für Geschichtsforschung. XII. Erg.-Band. (Innsbruck 1933) p. 1-91.
** Lewald, Ursula, 'Die Ezzonen. Das Schicksal eines rheinischen Fürstengeschlechts', Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter 43 (1979) p. 120-168
** Steinbach, F., ‘Die Ezzonen. Ein Versuch territorialpolitischen Zusammenschlusses der fränkischen Rheinlande’, Collectanea Franz Steinbach. Aufsätze und Abhandlungen zur Verfassungs-, Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, geschichtlichen Landeskunde und Kulturraumforschung, ed. F. Petri en G. Droege (Bonn 1967) p. 64-81."3 Herman 'Pusillus/The Small' (?) Count im Auelgau, Bonngau, und Keldachau, Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine was also known as Herman I Count Palatine of Lotharingia and Count in the Bonngau, the Eiffelgau, the Zülpichgau and the Auelgau.11 GAV-28 EDV-29. He was Count Palatine of Lorraine (Lotharingia). See attached map (from Wikipedia: By Joostik - Own work, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18663669) between 945 and 996.2,1,3,11

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hermann Pusillus: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080192&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cleves 2 page (The Ezzon Family - Die Ezzonen): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/cleves/cleves2.html
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_I,_Count_Palatine_of_Lotharingia. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#Hermanndied996B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Erenfried II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080190&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIAN%20(LOWER)%20NOBILITY.htm#Hermanndied996A
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Richwara: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080191&tree=LEO
  8. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I25087
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hermann Pusillus: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080192&tree=LEO
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cleves 2: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/cleves/cleves2.html
  11. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Count_palatine#Counts_Palatine_of_Lotharingia
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ezzo/Ehrenfried: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080071&tree=LEO

Heylwig (?) von Dillingen1,2

F, #6694, b. 931, d. between 959 and 1025
FatherHucbald II von Dillingen3 d. 909
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited15 Jan 2020
     Heylwig (?) von Dillingen married Herman 'Pusillus/The Small' (?) Count im Auelgau, Bonngau, und Keldachau, Count Palatine of Lower-Lorraine, son of Ehrenfried II (?) Graf von Bonn, von Hattuaria, von Tubalgo and Richwara (?);
His 1st wife.4,1,5 Heylwig (?) von Dillingen was born in 931.6
Heylwig (?) von Dillingen died between 959 and 1025; WFT Est.6
     GAV-30 EDV-30.

Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: VI 1.7 Heylwig (?) von Dillingen was also known as Heylwig von Dillingen.7

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cleves 2 page (The Ezzon Family - Die Ezzonen): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/cleves/cleves2.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Heylwig von Dillingen: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080193&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=6a9d2ead2ba415662ed73a07deea6198. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hucbald II von Dillingen: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00599822&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hermann Pusillus: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080192&tree=LEO
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_I,_Count_Palatine_of_Lotharingia. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  6. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Heylwig von Dillingen: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080193&tree=LEO
  8. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#Hermanndied996B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ezzo/Ehrenfried: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080071&tree=LEO

Otto II (?) Holy Roman Emperor1,2,3,4,5,6

M, #6695, b. 955, d. 7 December 983
FatherOtto I "the Great" (?) Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire7,8,4,5,6 b. 23 Nov 912, d. 7 May 973
MotherSaint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne7,9,4,5,6 b. bt 931 - 932, d. 16 Dec 999
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited26 Dec 2020
     Otto II (?) Holy Roman Emperor was born in 955.2,4,5,6,10 He married Theophana Skleraina of Byzantium, Holy Roman Empress, daughter of Konstantinos/Constantine Skleros and Sophia Phokaina, on 14 April 972 at Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy (now).5,11,7,4,6,12
Otto II (?) Holy Roman Emperor died on 7 December 983 at Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy.2,4,5,6,10
Otto II (?) Holy Roman Emperor was buried after 7 December 983 at Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     c.955, Saxony (Sachsen), Germany
     DEATH     7 Dec 983 (aged 27–28), Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy
     Holy Roman Emperor.
     Family Members
     Parents
          Otto I The Great 912–973
          Adelheid of Burgundy 931–999
     Spouse
          Theophano Sklerina of Byzantium 956–991
     Half Siblings
          Liudolf von Schwaben 930–957
          Liutgard of Saxony 931–953
     Children
          Sophia I. von Gandersheim unknown–1039
          Adelheid I 977–1043
          Otto III 980–1002
          Matilda of Germany 980–1025
     BURIAL     Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Mad
     Added: 19 Oct 2010
     Find a Grave Memorial 60332287.13
     ; Per Genealogics:
     “Otto was born about 955, the son of Emperor Otto I 'the Great' and Aelis of Burgundy. He received a good education under the care of his uncle Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, and his illegitimate half-brother Wilhelm von Sachsen, archbishop of Mainz. At first only co-reigning with his father, he was chosen German king at Worms in 961, crowned at Aachen Cathedral on 26 May 961, and on 25 December 967 was crowned joint emperor at Rome by Pope John XIII.
     “On 14 April 972 in Rome he married Theophano Skleraina, daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and Sophia Phokaina, and niece of Bardas Skleros, emperor of Byzantium. After participating in his father's campaigns in Italy, he returned to Germany and became sole emperor on the death of his father in May 973, without meeting any opposition. When he became emperor, he demanded all the Byzantine possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry. His demands were refused.
     “Otto spent his reign continuing his father's policy of strengthening imperial rule in Germany and extending deeper into Italy.
     “After suppressing a rising in Lorraine, difficulties arose in southern Germany, probably owing to Otto's refusal to grant the duchy of Swabia to Heinrich II 'der Zanker', duke of Bavaria. In 974 Heinrich's mother Judith of Bavaria set up a conspiracy against the emperor, which included Heinrich II, Bishop Abraham of Freising, the dukes of Bohemia and Poland, and several members of the clergy and the nobility who were discontented by the previous emperor's policies. However the plan was discovered and easily suppressed. In the same year Otto's forces successfully opposed an attempt by Harald I Gormsen Blatand, king in Denmark and Norway, to throw off the German yoke; however, his expedition against the Bohemians in 975 was a partial failure owing to the outbreak of further trouble in Bavaria. The following year he restored order for the second time in Lorraine and forced Heinrich II to flee from Regensburg to Bohemia, Bavaria being assigned to his relative Otto of Bavaria. In 977 Otto made another expedition into Bohemia, where Duke Boleslaw II 'the Pious' promised to return to his earlier allegiance. Mieszko I Dagon, grand duke of Poland, also submitted to him.
     “After Otto had crushed an attempt by Heinrich to regain Bavaria, Lothar I, king of France, invaded Lorraine with an army of 20,000 and occupied the capital Aachen for five days. Otto retired first to Cologne and then to Saxony. His mother, who was of French origin, sided with Lothar and moved to Burgundy.
     “In September 978, having mustered 30,000 men, Otto retaliated by invading France. He met with little resistance, but sickness among his troops compelled him to raise the siege of Paris, and on the return journey the rearguard of his army was destroyed and the baggage seized by the French, An expedition against the Poles was followed by peace with France: Lothar renounced his claim on Lorraine (in 980), and in exchange Otto recognised the rights of Lothar's son Louis, the future Louis V.
     “Otto therefore felt himself free to travel to Italy. The government of Germany was left to arch-chancellor Willigis and to Bernhard I, Herzog von Sachsen. He was accompanied by his wife, his son, Otto of Bavaria, the bishops of Worms, Metz and Merseburg and numerous other counts and barons. Crossing the Alps in what is today Switzerland, he reconciled with his mother at Pavia and then celebrated the Christmas of 980 in Ravenna. Pope Benedict VI, elected by his father, had been imprisoned by the Romans in Castel Sant'Angelo, where he died in 974. His successor Boniface VII had fled to Constantinople and Benedict VII, former bishop of Sutri, was now pope. Preceded by Benedict, Otto ceremoniously entered Rome on Easter day of 981.
     “Otto held a splendid court in the city, attended by princes and nobles from all parts of western Europe. He was next required to punish inroads of the Saracens on the Italian mainland and, most of all, the aggressive policy of the Sicilian emir Abu al-Qasim, whose fleet was harassing Apulia and whose troops had invaded Calabria. In September 981 Otto marched into southern Italy. He was first entangled in the quarrels between the local Lombard princes who had divided the area after the death of Pandolfo I 'the Iron-Head', principe di Capua e Benevento, duca di Spoleto. Otto unsuccessfully besieged Manso I of Amalfi in Salerno, but in the end obtained the recognition of his authority from all the Lombard principalities. In January 982 the German troops marched towards the Byzantine Apulia to annex this region as well to the western Empire.
     “When Otto moved from Taranto, he met with a severe defeat near Stilo in July 982 (in which, among others, al-Qasim was killed). Without revealing his identity, the emperor escaped on a Greek vessel to Rossano. He returned to Rome on 12 November 982.
     “At a diet held at Verona in June 983, largely attended by German and Italian princes, he had his son Otto III confirmed as King of the Germans and prepared a new campaign against the Saracens. He also obtained a settlement with the Republic of Venice, whose help was much needed after the defeat of Stilo. Proceeding to Rome, Otto secured the election of Peter of Pavia as Pope John XIV.
     “Just as the news reached him of a general rising of the Slav tribes on the eastern frontier of Germany, he died in his palace in Rome on 7 December 983, aged 28.
     “Otto is the only German emperor to be buried in Rome. He was survived by the future emperor Otto III and three daughters. He was buried in the atrium of St. Peter's Basilica, and when the church was rebuilt his remains were removed to the crypt, where his tomb can still be seen in the Grotte Vaticane - minus its porphyry cover; having originally been removed from the Mausoleum of Hadrian, it now serves as the font of St. Peter's.
     “Otto, who is sometimes called the 'Red', was a man of small stature, by nature brave and impulsive, and by training an accomplished knight. He was generous to the Church and aided the spread of Christianity in many ways.”.4 GAV-30 EDV-30.

; This is the same person as ”Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor” at Wikipedia and as ”Otto II. (HRR)” at Wikipedia (DE).14,15

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. The Normans in Sicily , Norwich, John Julius. Biographical details,
2. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.
3. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. 3.
4. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 1.1:10.4


; Per Med Lands:
     "OTTO (end 955-Rome 7 Dec 983, bur Rome St Peter's[292]). Regino records the birth of "Otto filius regis" at the end of 955[293]. "Ottone fratre [Machtild unica filia…patre Otto imperatore et matre Athelheida imperiatrice]" was recorded by Annalista Saxo[294]. He was elected associate King of Germany at Worms and crowned at Aachen 26 May 961. He was crowned associate Emperor 25 Dec 967 at Rome[295]. He was elected OTTO II "Rufus"[296] King of Germany at Worms early May 973, crowned at Aachen 26 May 973. His rule was challenged by the rebellions of his cousin Heinrich II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria in 974 and 976/78. On his accession, he claimed Byzantium's possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry. He left for Italy in Nov 980 to press his claims, conquered Tarento, but was defeated in 982 by a Byzantine/Muslim alliance near Stilo in Calabria[297]. His chancery adopted the title "imperator Romanorum augustus" in 982[298]. After holding court at Verona, where his son was elected associate king, Otto II left for Rome where he died of malaria[299]. The necrology of Fulda records the death "983 VII Id Dec" of "Otto imperator"[300].
     "m (Rome 14 Apr 972[301]) THEOFANO, niece of Emperor IOANNES Tzimiskes, daughter of --- ([955/60]-Nijmegen 15 Jun 991[302], bur Köln St Pantaleon). A document entitled Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam records Luitprand's mission on behalf of Emperor Otto I to negotiate a marriage between "filiam Romani imperatoris et Theophanæ imperatricis" and "domino meo filio suo Ottoni Imperatori Augusto"[303]. Her name is not given in the document. It is unlikely, given the date of the marriage of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas and Theofano (in 963) that any daughter of theirs would have been considered marriageable in the late 960s by Emperor Otto. It is therefore likely that the document was prepared before Luitprand's visit, in ignorance of the details of the emperor's family members. The identity of the proposed bride is therefore not certain. Prior to Luitprand's arrival in Constantinople, Emperor Nikephoros was murdered. According to Thietmar, his successor Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes sent his niece Theofano back to Germany "not the desired maiden…accompanied by a splendid entourage and magnificent gifts"[304]. Western sources consistently refer to Theofano as "neptis" of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, for example the charter dated 14 Apr 972 under which "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim"[305]. Her exact relationship to Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes is unknown. It is possible that she was a relative of the emperor's wife rather than of the emperor himself. Davids suggests that she was the daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and his wife Sofia[306], who was probably the sister of the first wife of Emperor Ioannes. An indication that this may be correct is that Theofano's second daughter was named Sophie, normal Byzantine practice being to name the first daughter after the paternal grandmother and the second after the maternal grandmother[307]. It also appears to be chronologically sustainable. However, too little is known about the families of Emperor Ioannes and his wife to propose this as the only plausible hypothesis, especially as the word "neptis" could cover a wide variety of relationships. In addition, it cannot even be assumed that the wife of Konstantinos Skleros was the only individual named Sofia in these families at the time. "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim" dated 14 Apr 972[308]. Lay Abbess of Nivelles. She was regent during the minority of her son 984-991. Thietmar records the death of Empress Theofano at Nijmegen on 15 Jun and her place of burial[309]. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "15 Jun" of "Theophanu imperatrix"[310]."
Med Lands cites:
[292] Thietmar 3.25, p. 147.
[293] Reginonis Chronicon 955, MGH SS I, p. 623.
[294] Annalista Saxo 966.
[295] Thietmar 2.15, p. 102.
[296] Annalista Saxo 974.
[297] Thietmar 3.20, pp. 143-4.
[298] Reuter (1991), p. 177.
[299] Thietmar 3.24 and 3.25, pp. 146-7, and Reuter (1991), p. 177.
[300] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123.
[301] Annalista Saxo 972.
[302] Annales Quedlinburgenses 972, MGH SS III, p. 68.
[303] Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam imperatorem Constantinopolitanum (after Leo Diaconus), p. 346.
[304] Thietmar 2.15, pp. 102-3.
[305] D O II 21, p. 28.
[306] Davids, A. (1995) The Empress Theophano, citing Wolf, F. (1991) Die Kaiserin Theophanu.
[307] Morris Bierbrier, in a private e-mail to the author dated 27 Aug 2006.
[308] D O II 21, p. 28.
[309] Thietmar 4.15, p. 161.6


; Per The Henry Project: "Otto II, b. 955, d. 7 December 983, emperor, 967-983;
     "m. 14 April 972, Theophano, d. 15 June 991, niece of John Tsimiskes, Byzantine emperor.
     "Born in 955 ["Otto filius regis nascitur." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 955, 168], Otto II was declared joint-emperor on 25 December 967, at the age of 12 ["... et sequenti die Ottonem regem acclamatione tocius Romane plebis ante confessionem beati Petri cesarem et augustum ordinavit" ibid., s.a. 967, 179]. On 14 April 972, he was married to Theophano, niece of the Byzantine emperor John Tsimiskes ["... sed neptem suam, Theophanu vocatam, imperatori nostro trans mare mittens..." Thietmar, Chronicon, ii, 9, MGH SS 3: 748; "... et accepit coniugem filio suo Ottoni neptem Iohanni Constantinopolitani imperatori qui cognominatus est Cimiski." Annales Casinates, MGH SS 3: 172; Theophano's parentage is given differently by Liudprand: "... filiam Romani imperatoris et Theophanae imperatricis, domino meo filio suo, Ottoni imperatori augusto, in coniugium tradere volueris..." Liudprand, Legatio, c. 7, Dümmler (1877), 140; "Ottoni imperatori iuniori venit imperatrix Romam de Constantinopoli 18. Kal. Mai. octaba pascae." Annales Hildesheimenses, s.a. 972, MGH SS 3: 62; Dümmler (1876), 479-481; Uhlirz (1902), 25, n. 43]. Otto died on 7 December 983, and was succeeded by his son Otto III "Ac non longe post 8. Id. Decembris Otto benignissimus imperator obiit, filio et equivoco eius regna relinquens." Ann. Hildisheim., s.a. 983, MGH SS 3: 64; "... et piae memoriae Otto imperator secundus obiit." Ann. Weissemb., s.a. 983, ibid., 65; "Otto secu[ndus imperator Romam post male gestas res regressus [6. Idus Decembris] obiit, ibidemque sepultus est." (words in brackets only in one manuscript) Lambert, Annales, ibid; "VII. id. [Dec.] Otto impr." Calend. Merseb., 126; "vii. id. [Dec.] Otto ii. imp." Kalendarium necrologicum Weissenburgense, Fontes rerum Germ., 4: 314; "[vii. id. Dec.] Otto imperator." Kal. necrol. b. Mariae virg. in Monte Fuldensis, Fontes rerum Germ., 4: 455; for more details, see Uhlirz (1902), 206, n. 57]. Theophano died on 15 June 991 "... Theophanu imperatrix consummato in bonis vitae suae cursu, pro dolor! quod est miserabile dictu, immatura dissolvitur morte, 17. Kal. Iulii..." Ann. Quedlinb., s.a. 991, MGH SS 3: 68; "Theophanu imperatrix obiit." Ann. Hildisheim., s.a. 991, MGH SS 3[: 68; Lambert, Annales, ibid; "XVII. K. [Jul.] ... Theuphanu. imp. oddonis imp." Calend. Merseb., 115; ES 1: 3 incorrectly gives 15 September 991].”
See original article for sources cited.10

; Per Weis: “Otto II, by (2), b. abt. 955, d. Rome, 7 Dec. 983, King of Germany 973-983; m. (2) 14 Apr. 972, Theophana, b. abt 956/58, d. June 991, niece of John I Tsimices, and poss. dau. of Romanus II, Emperor of the east, 959-963, by 2nd wife, theophana. (Anthony Wagner, Ped. and Prog., 202, 258; The Genealogicst 2 (1981); 7, 38-39 esp. note 15; ES 1.2/201, I.1/84, I.1/10).”.5

; Per Genealogy.EU (Liudolfing): “D5. Otto II, King of Italy (961-983), King of Germany (962-973), Emperor (973-983); m.Theofania (+991), dau.of Romanos II of Byzantium”

Per Genealogy.EU (Byzant 10): “D3. [2m.] Theofania, *ca 956; m.Emperor Otto II of Germany (*955 +983)”.3,16 He was King of Germany between 26 May 961 and 7 December 983.14 He was (an unknown value) between 962 and 973.7 He was Holy Roman Emporer between 967 and 983.17,7,10 He was King of Italy between 25 December 980 and 7 December 983.7,14

Family

Theophana Skleraina of Byzantium, Holy Roman Empress b. bt 956 - 960, d. 15 Jun 991
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 178. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Liudolfer page (Liudolfing): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/liudolfer.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080073&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 147-20, p. 142.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#OttoIIdied983. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Liudolfer page (Liudolfing): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/liudolfer.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto I 'the Great': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080076&tree=LEO
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aelis (Adelheid) de Bourgogne: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080077&tree=LEO
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Otto I the Great: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/otto0001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theophano Skleraina: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080074&tree=LEO
  12. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#Theophanodied991
  13. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 26 December 2020), memorial page for Otto II (c.955–7 Dec 983), Find a Grave Memorial no. 60332287, citing Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/60332287. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  15. [S4759] Wikipedia - Die freie Enzyklopädie, online https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Hauptseite, Otto II. (HRR): https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_II._(HRR). Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (DE).
  16. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The Macedonian family (Byzant 10): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  17. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 147-20, p. 129. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sofie of Saxony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080209&tree=LEO
  19. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophia_I,_Abbess_of_Gandersheim.
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Adelheid of Saxony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080208&tree=LEO
  21. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cleves 2 page (The Ezzon Family - Die Ezzonen): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/cleves/cleves2.html
  22. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#MathildeMEzzodied1034.
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mathilde von Sachsen: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080072&tree=LEO
  24. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 178,.

Theophana Skleraina of Byzantium, Holy Roman Empress1,2,3,4

F, #6696, b. between 956 and 960, d. 15 June 991
FatherKonstantinos/Constantine Skleros7,8 b. c 930, d. 11 Mar 991
MotherSophia Phokaina5,6
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited26 Dec 2020
     Theophana Skleraina of Byzantium, Holy Roman Empress was born between 956 and 960; Genealogics says b. 955/956.2,9,4 She married Otto II (?) Holy Roman Emperor, son of Otto I "the Great" (?) Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and Saint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne, on 14 April 972 at Rome, Città Metropolitana di Roma Capitale, Lazio, Italy (now).9,10,11,12,13,4
Theophana Skleraina of Byzantium, Holy Roman Empress died on 15 June 991 at Nijmegen, Nijmegen Municipality, Gelderland, Netherlands; Genealogics says d. 15 Jun 991; Med Lands 15 May 991.11,9,3,4
Theophana Skleraina of Byzantium, Holy Roman Empress was buried after 15 June 991 at Sankt Pantaleon, Cologne (Köln), Stadtkreis Köln, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     956
     DEATH     15 Jun 991 (aged 34–35)
     German Monarch, Roman Empress. On April 14. 972 she married in Rome Otto II., son and co-regent of emperor Otto I. and empress Adelheid, and was crowned empress herself. While the relationship toward her husband was destined by love, the relationship with her mother in law was very tense. The situation became unbearable when Otto I. died in May 973. Adelheid had to leave the court and went as regent for her son to Italy. She gave birth to one son and three daughters. On December 24. 983 her son was crowned german and italian King, without the knowledge of Otto II. death in Rome two weeks earlier. Otto III. was given to the Archbishop of Cologne to be raised and she acted as his regent, with Archbishop Willigis of Mainz as chancellor. In February 984 Duke Heinrich "The Quarrelsome" kidnapped the child and brought him to a Castle in Thuringia. The Reichstag in Worms forced him to release Otto in June. The war with France started and only ended when Hugh Capet became King and signed a contract which gave the Lorraine irrevocably to the german empire. She was a realist and oriented her politics on her possibilities and not on unrealistic goals. When she died she left her son a stable and strong kingdom. Adelheid returned and acted as Otto III. regent for another three years. Bio by: Lutetia
     Family Members
     Spouse
          Otto 955–983
     Children
          Sophia I. von Gandersheim unknown–1039
          Adelheid I 977–1043
          Otto III 980–1002
          Matilda of Germany 980–1025
     BURIAL     Sankt Pantaleon, Cologne, Stadtkreis Köln, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Lutetia
     Added: 1 Dec 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 10023171.14
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "OTTO (end 955-Rome 7 Dec 983, bur Rome St Peter's[292]). Regino records the birth of "Otto filius regis" at the end of 955[293]. "Ottone fratre [Machtild unica filia…patre Otto imperatore et matre Athelheida imperiatrice]" was recorded by Annalista Saxo[294]. He was elected associate King of Germany at Worms and crowned at Aachen 26 May 961. He was crowned associate Emperor 25 Dec 967 at Rome[295]. He was elected OTTO II "Rufus"[296] King of Germany at Worms early May 973, crowned at Aachen 26 May 973. His rule was challenged by the rebellions of his cousin Heinrich II "der Zänker" Duke of Bavaria in 974 and 976/78. On his accession, he claimed Byzantium's possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry. He left for Italy in Nov 980 to press his claims, conquered Tarento, but was defeated in 982 by a Byzantine/Muslim alliance near Stilo in Calabria[297]. His chancery adopted the title "imperator Romanorum augustus" in 982[298]. After holding court at Verona, where his son was elected associate king, Otto II left for Rome where he died of malaria[299]. The necrology of Fulda records the death "983 VII Id Dec" of "Otto imperator"[300].
     "m (Rome 14 Apr 972[301]) THEOFANO, niece of Emperor IOANNES Tzimiskes, daughter of --- ([955/60]-Nijmegen 15 Jun 991[302], bur Köln St Pantaleon). A document entitled Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam records Luitprand's mission on behalf of Emperor Otto I to negotiate a marriage between "filiam Romani imperatoris et Theophanæ imperatricis" and "domino meo filio suo Ottoni Imperatori Augusto"[303]. Her name is not given in the document. It is unlikely, given the date of the marriage of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas and Theofano (in 963) that any daughter of theirs would have been considered marriageable in the late 960s by Emperor Otto. It is therefore likely that the document was prepared before Luitprand's visit, in ignorance of the details of the emperor's family members. The identity of the proposed bride is therefore not certain. Prior to Luitprand's arrival in Constantinople, Emperor Nikephoros was murdered. According to Thietmar, his successor Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes sent his niece Theofano back to Germany "not the desired maiden…accompanied by a splendid entourage and magnificent gifts"[304]. Western sources consistently refer to Theofano as "neptis" of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, for example the charter dated 14 Apr 972 under which "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim"[305]. Her exact relationship to Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes is unknown. It is possible that she was a relative of the emperor's wife rather than of the emperor himself. Davids suggests that she was the daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and his wife Sofia[306], who was probably the sister of the first wife of Emperor Ioannes. An indication that this may be correct is that Theofano's second daughter was named Sophie, normal Byzantine practice being to name the first daughter after the paternal grandmother and the second after the maternal grandmother[307]. It also appears to be chronologically sustainable. However, too little is known about the families of Emperor Ioannes and his wife to propose this as the only plausible hypothesis, especially as the word "neptis" could cover a wide variety of relationships. In addition, it cannot even be assumed that the wife of Konstantinos Skleros was the only individual named Sofia in these families at the time. "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim" dated 14 Apr 972[308]. Lay Abbess of Nivelles. She was regent during the minority of her son 984-991. Thietmar records the death of Empress Theofano at Nijmegen on 15 Jun and her place of burial[309]. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "15 Jun" of "Theophanu imperatrix"[310]."
Med Lands cites:
[292] Thietmar 3.25, p. 147.
[293] Reginonis Chronicon 955, MGH SS I, p. 623.
[294] Annalista Saxo 966.
[295] Thietmar 2.15, p. 102.
[296] Annalista Saxo 974.
[297] Thietmar 3.20, pp. 143-4.
[298] Reuter (1991), p. 177.
[299] Thietmar 3.24 and 3.25, pp. 146-7, and Reuter (1991), p. 177.
[300] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123.
[301] Annalista Saxo 972.
[302] Annales Quedlinburgenses 972, MGH SS III, p. 68.
[303] Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam imperatorem Constantinopolitanum (after Leo Diaconus), p. 346.
[304] Thietmar 2.15, pp. 102-3.
[305] D O II 21, p. 28.
[306] Davids, A. (1995) The Empress Theophano, citing Wolf, F. (1991) Die Kaiserin Theophanu.
[307] Morris Bierbrier, in a private e-mail to the author dated 27 Aug 2006.
[308] D O II 21, p. 28.
[309] Thietmar 4.15, p. 161.13


; Per Genealogy.EU (Liudolfing): “D5. Otto II, King of Italy (961-983), King of Germany (962-973), Emperor (973-983); m.Theofania (+991), dau.of Romanos II of Byzantium”

Per Genealogy.EU (Byzant 10): “D3. [2m.] Theofania, *ca 956; m.Emperor Otto II of Germany (*955 +983)”.15,16

; Per Weis: “Otto II, by (2), b. abt. 955, d. Rome, 7 Dec. 983, King of Germany 973-983; m. (2) 14 Apr. 972, Theophana, b. abt 956/58, d. June 991, niece of John I Tsimices, and poss. dau. of Romanus II, Emperor of the east, 959-963, by 2nd wife, theophana. (Anthony Wagner, Ped. and Prog., 202, 258; The Genealogicst 2 (1981); 7, 38-39 esp. note 15; ES 1.2/201, I.1/84, I.1/10).”.9

; Per The Henry Project: "Otto II, b. 955, d. 7 December 983, emperor, 967-983;
     "m. 14 April 972, Theophano, d. 15 June 991, niece of John Tsimiskes, Byzantine emperor.
     "Born in 955 ["Otto filius regis nascitur." Regino, Chronicon (continuation), s.a. 955, 168], Otto II was declared joint-emperor on 25 December 967, at the age of 12 ["... et sequenti die Ottonem regem acclamatione tocius Romane plebis ante confessionem beati Petri cesarem et augustum ordinavit" ibid., s.a. 967, 179]. On 14 April 972, he was married to Theophano, niece of the Byzantine emperor John Tsimiskes ["... sed neptem suam, Theophanu vocatam, imperatori nostro trans mare mittens..." Thietmar, Chronicon, ii, 9, MGH SS 3: 748; "... et accepit coniugem filio suo Ottoni neptem Iohanni Constantinopolitani imperatori qui cognominatus est Cimiski." Annales Casinates, MGH SS 3: 172; Theophano's parentage is given differently by Liudprand: "... filiam Romani imperatoris et Theophanae imperatricis, domino meo filio suo, Ottoni imperatori augusto, in coniugium tradere volueris..." Liudprand, Legatio, c. 7, Dümmler (1877), 140; "Ottoni imperatori iuniori venit imperatrix Romam de Constantinopoli 18. Kal. Mai. octaba pascae." Annales Hildesheimenses, s.a. 972, MGH SS 3: 62; Dümmler (1876), 479-481; Uhlirz (1902), 25, n. 43]. Otto died on 7 December 983, and was succeeded by his son Otto III "Ac non longe post 8. Id. Decembris Otto benignissimus imperator obiit, filio et equivoco eius regna relinquens." Ann. Hildisheim., s.a. 983, MGH SS 3: 64; "... et piae memoriae Otto imperator secundus obiit." Ann. Weissemb., s.a. 983, ibid., 65; "Otto secu[ndus imperator Romam post male gestas res regressus [6. Idus Decembris] obiit, ibidemque sepultus est." (words in brackets only in one manuscript) Lambert, Annales, ibid; "VII. id. [Dec.] Otto impr." Calend. Merseb., 126; "vii. id. [Dec.] Otto ii. imp." Kalendarium necrologicum Weissenburgense, Fontes rerum Germ., 4: 314; "[vii. id. Dec.] Otto imperator." Kal. necrol. b. Mariae virg. in Monte Fuldensis, Fontes rerum Germ., 4: 455; for more details, see Uhlirz (1902), 206, n. 57]. Theophano died on 15 June 991 "... Theophanu imperatrix consummato in bonis vitae suae cursu, pro dolor! quod est miserabile dictu, immatura dissolvitur morte, 17. Kal. Iulii..." Ann. Quedlinb., s.a. 991, MGH SS 3: 68; "Theophanu imperatrix obiit." Ann. Hildisheim., s.a. 991, MGH SS 3[: 68; Lambert, Annales, ibid; "XVII. K. [Jul.] ... Theuphanu. imp. oddonis imp." Calend. Merseb., 115; ES 1: 3 incorrectly gives 15 September 991].”
See original article for sources cited.17

; Per Ravilious:
     “The following chart lays out the relationships in the Phokas family, including the fact that the Emperor John I Tzimiskes was a nephew of the Emperor Nicephorus II, and 1st cousin of Sophia Phokaina (the subject wife of Constantine Skleros). I would assume that the relationship indicated here, with Theophano shown as a blood kinswoman or of John Tzimiskes, is the basis for Gunther Wolf's assigning Theophano's parentage to Constantine Skleros and Sophia Phokaina.

Bardas Phokas
______________I_____________________________________
I I I
Nicephorus II Leo Phokas NN Phokaina domesticus of the Scholae curopalates, 963-969 = NN Tzimiskes of the East, 954 'domestikos' of the I
Byzantine Emperor 963-969 West (blinded 969)
I_______
(murdered 11 Dec 969) I I
______________________________I _____________ I
I I I I I I
Bardas Leo Sophia = Constantine Maria = John I
Phokas Phokas : Skleros Sklerina Tzimiskes
Byz. Emperor : Byz. Emperor
(pretender) : 969-976
969, again .............:.............
987-989 : :
NN Theophano = Otto II
: I Holy Rom
: I Emperor
Andronicus = NN Sklerina [1] V 973-983
Dukas I
_________I______________________
I I
Constantine X Dukas Caesar John Dukas = Irene
Byz. Emperor 1059-1067 d. 1088 I
I
I
Andronicus Dukas
I
I
Alexius I = Irene Dukaina
Byz. Emperor I
1081-1118 I
I
V

     “The relationship of NN Sklerina, wife of Andronicus Dukas, is a possibility - as noted previously in another thread, Christian Settipani drew on the Chronographia of Michael Psellus to show that the wife of Andronicus Dukas was a descendant of Pantherios Skleros, and either a daughter [I think granddaughter] or niece of Constantine Skleros [1]. This raises added interest in the genealogical connections through the Phokas family, as the descendants of the Western Emperor Otto II (through his daughter Matilda) would be near relations to the Byzantine Emperor Constantine X, and the descendants of his brother Caesar John Dukas (which include the Comneni and subsequent Byzantine Emperors).
     “If anyone should have any further thoughts or documentation on the Dukas-Skleros connection set forth above, that would be appreciated.”.8

; Per Med Lands:
     "THEOFANO ([955/60]-Nijmegen 15 May 991, bur Köln St Pantaleon). A document entitled Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam records Luitprand's mission on behalf of Emperor Otto I to negotiate a marriage between "filiam Romani imperatoris et Theophanæ imperatricis" and "domino meo filio suo Ottoni Imperatori Augusto"[1425]. Her name is not given in the document. It is unlikely, given the date of the marriage of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas and Theofano (in 963) that any daughter of theirs would have been considered marriageable in the late 960s by Emperor Otto. It is therefore likely that the document was prepared before Luitprand's visit, in ignorance of the details of the emperor's family members. The identity of the proposed bride is therefore not certain. Prior to Luitprand's arrival in Constantinople, Emperor Nikeforos was murdered. According to Thietmar, his successor Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes sent his niece Theofano back to Germany "not the desired maiden…accompanied by a splendid entourage and magnificent gifts"[1426]. Western sources consistently refer to Theofano as "neptis" of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, for example the charter dated 14 Apr 972 under which "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim"[1427]. Her exact relationship to Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes is unknown. It is possible that she was a relative of the emperor's wife rather than of the emperor himself. Davids suggests that she was the daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and his wife Sofia[1428], who was probably the sister of the first wife of Emperor Ioannes. An indication that this may be correct is that Theofano's second daughter was named Sophie, normal Byzantine practice being to name the first daughter after the paternal grandmother and the second after the maternal grandmother[1429]. It also appears to be chronologically sustainable. However, too little is known about the families of Emperor Ioannes and his wife to propose this as the only plausible hypothesis, especially as the word "neptis" could cover a wide variety of relationships. In addition, it cannot even be assumed that the wife of Konstantinos Skleros was the only individual named Sofia in these families at the time. "Otto…imperator augustus" granted property to "Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim" dated 14 Apr 972[1430]. Lay Abbess of Nivelles. She was regent during the minority of her son 984-991. Thietmar records the death of Empress Theofano at Nijmegen on 15 Jun and her place of burial[1431]. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "15 Jun" of "Theophanu imperatrix"[1432].
     m (Rome 14 Apr 972) OTTO co-Emperor and King of Germany, son of Emperor OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany & his second wife Adelheid of Burgundy [Welf] (955-Rome 7 Dec 983, bur Rome St Peter's). He succeeded his father in 973 as OTTO II King of Germany. On his accession, he claimed Byzantium's possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry. He campaigned in Italy to support his claims, but was defeated in 982 by a Byzantine/Muslim alliance near Stilo in Calabria."
Med Lands cites:
[1425] Luitprandi Legatio ad Nicephorum Phocam imperatorem Constantinopolitanum (after Leo Diaconus), p. 346.
[1426] Warner, D. A. (trans.) The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press), 2.15, pp. 102-3.
[1427] DO II 21, p. 28.
[1428] Davids, A. (1995) The Empress Theophano, citing Wolf, F. (1991) Die Kaiserin Theophanu. [MB]
[1429] Morris Bierbrier, in a private e-mail to the author dated 27 Aug 2006.
[1430] DO II 21, p. 28.
[1431] Thietmar 4.15, p. 161.
[1432] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg.4


; This is the same person as ”Theophanu” at Wikipedia and as ”Theophanu (HRR)” at Wikipedia (DE).18,19

; Per Genealogics:
     “Theophano was born reputedly about 956 though this is uncertain. She was about fifteen when she arrived in Italy to be married to the sixteen-year-old Otto, heir to the Holy Roman Emperor and already King of the Romans. Their marriage had been arranged as part of a peace treaty between the Eastern and Western empires.
     “Very little has been recorded about her, except that she was beautiful and loved by her husband. Although she apparently did not always get on with her mother-in-law, Theophano became a competent empress, at times acting as Otto's representative in his absence. They managed to spend most of their lives together, indicating that their marriage had become more than just pre-arranged.
     “Her wedding had taken place in Rome on 14 April 972 and according to tradition she was crowned by Pope John XIII. In the marriage contract, as a dowry she was given extensive properties in Italy as well as in The Netherlands. On 7 May 973 her father-in-law died and her husband became Emperor Otto II and she his empress. In 977 their first child, a daughter, was born followed by another daughter almost a year later. In 980 a son and heir, Otto, was born followed by a third daughter.
     “She accompanied her husband in his unsuccessful campaigns against the Saracens in Southern Italy. Otto II died in Theophano's arms on 7 December 983 and was buried in Rome's St. Peter's Basilica.
     “Many difficult and unhappy years were now to come for Theophano, deserted in a time of great need by those people once favoured by her husband. Bishop Diederik of Metz, often favoured by Otto II, became her implacable enemy and tried to damage her reputation, even after she had died.
     “Her son Otto III was crowned king on 25 May 983 in Aachen as a first step to being acknowledged as Holy Roman Emperor. Bishop Warin of Cologne, custodian of the little boy, gave him to his great-uncle Heinrich, duke of Bavaria. Heinrich had only just been released from prison, where he had been locked up because of his opposition to his brother Emperor Otto I and his nephew Emperor Otto II. At first Heinrich pretended that he wanted to act as regent for the three-year-old Emperor Otto III, but it soon became obvious that he wanted to become emperor himself.
     “He took possession of Theophano's daughter Adelheid, and in Quedlinburg he was accepted as King of the Romans by some of Germany's nobles. However, many more nobles had sworn to protect the young emperor, and they forced Heinrich to promise to return the boy to his mother.
     “Before the kidnapping of her son, Theophano had made arrangements to return to Germany and the regency, which was rightly hers. Her mother-in-law, the dowager empress Adelaide, remained in Italy as regent of the Italian kingdom. On 29 June 984 Heinrich was forced to appear at a court at Rohr near Meiningen-im-Grabfeld, but he refused to hand over the emperor. In the afternoon of that day an unusual event took place; a bright star appeared in the sky, impressed by such a supernatural phenomenon, Heinrich returned both children to their mother.
     “The empress widow Adelaide interceded for Heinrich and he was left unpunished, though for some time he continued his attempts to become emperor. In 985 he was forced to abandon all claims, and Theophano had forced his supporters to accept her rule. Neither Heinrich nor his supporters were punished as Theophano again refused to take revenge. With political insight, she realised that this would have only extended the unrest in the empire.
     “Her three daughters were brought up in convents, and two would remain there to become abbesses. Her son remained at her court where she took great care with his education. As a result Otto III became one of the best educated among the Holy Roman Emperors. Had he not died at twenty-one he would have made a much larger impact on history.
     “As regent, Theophano was intelligent and active, achieving much more than others would have done by the sword. There were border skirmishes with Slav tribes as well as with the Frankish kings. She obtained more co-operation from the magnates than her father-in-law, Otto 'the Great' had achieved. As regent she was required to travel a great deal, and with her capacity for negotiation she ensured a peaceful period for Germany.
     “After a visit to Italy, Theophano returned to Germany in May 990 and from there to Nijmegen, where she died on 15 June 991, probably only about thirty-five years of age.”.3 GAV-30 EDV-30.

; Genealogics cites:
1. Genealogists' Magazine, Journal of the Society of Genealogists, London. Mar 1991.
2. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, 3 volumes, New York, Oxford, 1991.
3. Die Skleroi : Eine Prosopographische - Sigillographische Studie, Wien, 1976, Seibt, Werner.
Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. 3.10


; Per William:
     “Thanks for these details. I had heard of 'Wer war Theophanu?' but had not seen the article itself. Given this theory the following ahnenreihe seems to represent Theophano's known ancestry:

1. Theophano [Skleraina]. b. ca. 955. d. 15 Jun 991, Nimwegen. m. 14 Apr 972, St. Peter's Rome, to Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor. (ODB III: 2065).
2. Konstantinos Skleros. b. ca. 930. d. 11 Mar 991. (Seibt, 58-60).
3. Sophia Phokaina. (Seibt, 58).
4. "Munir" (Photeinos or Pantherios) Skleros. fl. ca. early 10th century. (Seibt, 27-28).
5. Gregoria. (Seibt, 28).
6. Leo Phokas, kouropalates. b. ca. 915-20. d. aft. 970, poss. on the island of Prote. (ODB III: 1667).

10. Bardas. (Seibt, 28; Settipani, 187).
12. Bardas Phokas. Domestikos of the East, 948. (ODB III: 1666; Du Cange, 149).

20. Basileios, Rector & Magistros. (Seibt, 28; Settipani, 187).
24. Nikephoros Phokas "the Elder". d. ca. 900. (ODB III: 1666).

40. Bardas, brother of Emperor Basileios I "the Macedonian". d. aft. 867. (Seibt, 28; Settipani, 187).
42. N. Phokas, tourmarches. fl. ca. 872. (ODB III: 1666).

80. [Konstantinos]. d. ca. 838. (Settipani, 187). 81. Pankalo. d. aft. 838 & bu. in the Church of St. Euphemia. (Settipani, 187).

160. Mai at an unknown age ktes (i.e., Hmayeak). Supposedly a Mamikonian prince. fl. in Adrianople. (Settipani, 187; Toumanoff, 344).
161. Na. (Settipani, 187).

322. Leo V "the Armenian", Emperor of Byzantium. d. 25 Dec 820, Constantinople. (ODB II: 1209; Settipani, 187).
323. Theodosia. (ODB II: 1209; Settipani, 187).

644. Bardas, strategos of the Armeniakon theme, 771-780, patrikios, 780-792. d. 20 Jul 792. (Settipani, 187). Toumanoff (500) calls him a "Prince Gnouni".
646. Arsaber, quaestor, patrikios, pretender to the throne in 808. d. aft. 808, prob. in Bithynia. (ODB I: 186; Settipani, 187). A "Prince Kamsarakan" per Toumanoff (270).

     “It is interesting that (as John Ravilious mentioned earlier) the Doukai may be descended from another child of Sophia & Konstantinos. This would mean that there were at least 640 years (from 813, the date of Leo V's accession, to 1453) of genealogical continuity in the later Byzantine Empire, from Leo the Armenian to the last Palaiologoi. This begs the question whether there might not be a similar chain of continuity earlier in the history of the Empire. Perhaps from Rome to Constantinople?
Sincerely, Kelsey J. Williams
Sources:
     “Du Cange = Charles Du Fresne, Sieur Du Cange, _Historia Byzantina
     “Duplici Commentario Illustrata_ (Paris, 1680).
     “ODB = _The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium_, 3v. (New York, Oxford, 1991).
     “Seibt = Werner Seibt, _Die Skleroi: Eine
     “Prosopographisch-Sigillographische Studie_ (Wien, 1976).
     “Settipani = Christian Settipani, _Nos Ancetres de l'Antiquite_ (Paris, 1991).
     “Toumanoff = Cyrille Toumanoff, _Manuel de Genealogie et de Chronologie pour l'Histoire de la Caucasie Chretienne (Armenie - Georgie - Albanie)_ (Roma, 1976).”.20 She was Queen consort of Germany between 972 and 983.18 She was Empress consort of the Holy Roman Empire between 973 and 983.18

Family

Otto II (?) Holy Roman Emperor b. 955, d. 7 Dec 983
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 178. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theophano Skleraina: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080074&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#Theophanodied991. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sophia Phokaina: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215845&tree=LEO
  6. [S1668] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 1 Aug 2004: "Re: Empress Theophano, wife of Otto II"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/EJJcx5MLHhE/m/MsWrwPDeYBYJ) to e-mail address, 1 Aug 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 1 Aug 2004."
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine Skleros: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080075&tree=LEO
  8. [S1668] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 1 Aug 2004," e-mail to e-mail address, 1 Aug 2004, https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/EJJcx5MLHhE/m/MsWrwPDeYBYJ
  9. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 147-20, p. 142.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theophano Skleraina: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080074&tree=LEO
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Liudolfer page (Liudolfing): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/liudolfer.html
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080073&tree=LEO
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#OttoIIdied983.
  14. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 26 December 2020), memorial page for Theophano Sklerina of Byzantium (956–15 Jun 991), Find a Grave Memorial no. 10023171, citing Sankt Pantaleon, Cologne, Stadtkreis Köln, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/10023171. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  15. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Liudolfer page (Liudolfing): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/liudolfer.html
  16. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The Macedonian family (Byzant 10): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  17. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Otto I the Great: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/otto0001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  18. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theophanu. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  19. [S4759] Wikipedia - Die freie Enzyklopädie, online https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Hauptseite, Theophanu (HRR): https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theophanu_(HRR). Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (DE).
  20. [S1669] Kelsey J. Williams, "Williams email 1 Aug 2004: "Re: Empress Theophano, wife of Otto II"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 1 Aug 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Williams email 1 Aug 2004."
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sofie of Saxony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080209&tree=LEO
  22. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophia_I,_Abbess_of_Gandersheim.
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Adelheid of Saxony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080208&tree=LEO
  24. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#MathildeMEzzodied1034.
  25. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mathilde von Sachsen: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080072&tree=LEO
  26. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 178,.

Romanus II "The Younger" (?) Emperor of Byzantium1,2

M, #6697, b. 939, d. 15 March 969
FatherConstantine/Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos (?) Emperor of Byzantium1,2,3 b. b Nov 905, d. 9 Nov 959
MotherElena/Helena Lekapena1,2,4 b. 906, d. 19 Sep 961
Last Edited3 Dec 2004
     Romanus II "The Younger" (?) Emperor of Byzantium married Agatha (?)5 Romanus II "The Younger" (?) Emperor of Byzantium was born in 939; Genealogy.EU (Byzant 10 page) says b. 939; Leo van de Pas says b. 940.1,2 He married Eudoxia (?) d'Arles, daughter of Hugues (?) Cte d'Arles et de Vienne, Margrave of Provence, King of Italy and Pezola (?), in 944; Genealogy.EU (Boson page) says m. 944; Leo van de Pas says m. 942.6,1,7,2 Romanus II "The Younger" (?) Emperor of Byzantium married Anastasia Theophana (?), daughter of Krateros (?) and Maria (?), in 956.1,8,2
Romanus II "The Younger" (?) Emperor of Byzantium died on 15 March 969; poisoned by his 2nd wife, Theofania Anatasia; Genealogy.EU (Byzant 10 page) says d. 963; Leo van de Pas says d. 15 Mar 969.1,2
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 141
2. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 131.2

Reference: (an unknown value.)9 Romanus II "The Younger" (?) Emperor of Byzantium was also known as Romanos II (?) Emperor of Byzantium. He was Emperor of Byzantium between 959 and 963.10,1,2

Family 1

Eudoxia (?) d'Arles b. bt 927 - 930, d. 949

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 10 page (The Macedonian Family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Romanos II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027733&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215864&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Helena Lekapena: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215865&tree=LEO
  5. [S740] Rene Jette, "Is the Mystery of the Origin of Agatha, Wife of Edward the Exile, Finally Solved?", The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, October 1996, 150:417-432. (n.p.: The New England Historic Genealogical Society
    Boston, unknown publish date), p. 432.
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertha (Eudokia) de Provence: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215867&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theophano: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027734&tree=LEO
  9. [S740] Rene Jette, "Is the Mystery of the Origin of Agatha, Wife of Edward the Exile, Finally Solved?", The New England Historical and Genealogical Register, October 1996, 150:417-432., p. 427.
  10. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 189. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  11. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I25146
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Basilius II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215866&tree=LEO
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine VIII: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027727&tree=LEO
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Anna Porphyrogenita of Byzantium: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027735&tree=LEO

Anastasia Theophana (?)1,2

F, #6698, b. 941, d. 976
FatherKrateros (?)3
MotherMaria (?)4
Last Edited6 Apr 2020
     Anastasia Theophana (?) was born in 941.5,2 She married Romanus II "The Younger" (?) Emperor of Byzantium, son of Constantine/Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos (?) Emperor of Byzantium and Elena/Helena Lekapena, in 956.5,2,6 Anastasia Theophana (?) married Nikephoros II Phokas Emperor of Byzantium, son of Bardas Phokas Domestikos of the East, after 963;
His 2nd wife; her 2nd husband.1,5,2,7
Anastasia Theophana (?) died in 976.5
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 141
2. Genealogists' Magazine Journal of the Society of Genealogists London, Reference: March 1991.2

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 189. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theophano: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027734&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Krateros: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00303840&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Maria: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00303841&tree=LEO
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 10 page (The Macedonian Family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Romanos II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027733&tree=LEO
  7. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#BardasPhokasdied969B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  8. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I25147
  9. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Basilius II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215866&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine VIII: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027727&tree=LEO
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Anna Porphyrogenita of Byzantium: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027735&tree=LEO

Constantine/Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos (?) Emperor of Byzantium1,2,3

M, #6699, b. before November 905, d. 9 November 959
FatherLeo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium3,1 b. 1 Sep 866, d. 12 May 912
MotherZoe Carbonospine4 b. 885, d. 920
Last Edited7 Apr 2004
     Constantine/Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos (?) Emperor of Byzantium was born before November 905.3,1 He married Elena/Helena Lekapena, daughter of Romanos I Lekapenos Emperor of Byzantium and Theodora (?), on 27 April 919.5,3,6,1
Constantine/Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos (?) Emperor of Byzantium died on 9 November 959.1,3
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 141.1

; Constantine VII (Porphyrogenetos) ascended the throne as a child, with a regency composed of his mother, Zoë, the patriarch Nikolas, and John Eladas. Constantine was a learned man of artistic tastes. He never really governed, leaving the actual conduct of affairs to strong men who were associated with him.2 He was Emperor of Byzantium between 912 and 959.3

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215864&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 189. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Zoe Karbunopsina: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215863&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Helena Lekapena: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215865&tree=LEO
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 13 page (Lekapenos family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant13.html
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 10 page (The Macedonian Family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Romanos II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027733&tree=LEO

Elena/Helena Lekapena1,2,3

F, #6700, b. 906, d. 19 September 961
FatherRomanos I Lekapenos Emperor of Byzantium4,2,1,5,3 b. 869, d. 948
MotherTheodora (?)4,1 b. 874, d. 923
Last Edited7 Apr 2004
     Elena/Helena Lekapena was born in 906.2 She married Constantine/Konstantinos VII Porphyrogenetos (?) Emperor of Byzantium, son of Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium and Zoe Carbonospine, on 27 April 919.3,2,1,6
Elena/Helena Lekapena died on 19 September 961.2,3
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 141.3

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 13 page (Lekapenos family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant13.html
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Helena Lekapena: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215865&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 189. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Romanos I Lekapenos: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220765&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215864&tree=LEO
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 10 page (The Macedonian Family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Romanos II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027733&tree=LEO

Saint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne1,2,3,4

F, #6701, b. between 931 and 932, d. 16 December 999
FatherRudolf II (?) King of Upper Burgundy, King of Italy1,2,5,6,7,8 b. 905, d. 11 Jul 937
MotherBerthe (?) of Swabia9,5,8 b. c 895
ReferenceGAV29 EDV30
Last Edited26 Dec 2020
     Saint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne was born between 931 and 932 at Orbe, District du Jura-Nord Vaudois, Vaut, Switzerland (now); Med Lands says b. 928/933.8,10,11 She married Lothar II (?) d'Arles, King of Italy, son of Hugues (?) Cte d'Arles et de Vienne, Margrave of Provence, King of Italy and Alda/Hilda (?), in 947; her 1st husband; Genealogy.EU (Boson page) says m. 947; Leo van de pas says m. 937; Med Lands says m. "947 before 27 Jun."12,13,1,8,10,14,15 Saint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne married Adalbert (?) of Ivrea in 950; possibly her 2nd husband.13 Saint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne married Otto I "the Great" (?) Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, son of Heinrich I "der Vogelsteller/The Fowler/l'Oiseleur" (?) Emperor of Germany, Duke of Saxony, Brunswick and Zelle and Saint Mathilde von Ringelheim Countess von Ringelheim, Queen of Germany, in October 951 at Pavia, Provincia di Pavia, Lombardia, Italy (now); her 3rd husband; Weis AR7 147-19 says m. aft. 951; Leo van de Pas says m. Oct 951.16,1,13,2,17,8,10,18
Saint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne died on 16 December 999 at Bellefosse Waldersbach, Departement du Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France; Leo van de Pas says d. 16 Dec 999.16,8,1,10
Saint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne was buried after 16 December 999 at Kloster Seltz (Abbey of Seltz), Seltz, Departement du Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     c.931, Orbe, District du Jura-Nord vaudois, Vaud, Switzerland
     DEATH     16 Dec 999 (aged 67–68), Seltz, Departement du Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
     Royalty, Roman Catholic Saint. She was also known as Adelaide of Italy or Adele de Metz. Born in 931 or 932 as daughter of Rudolf II of High Burgundy and his wife Bertha of Swabia. In the year her father died (937) she was engaged to King Lothair II of Italy. They were married ten years later. Their daughter Emma later married Lothar II, King of the Westfranks. After Lothairs death she was imprisoned by Berengar of Ivrea who wanted to marry her to his son, thus cementing his power. She was able to flee and asked the German king Otto for help. He invaded Italy and defeated Berengar, but later installed him as his viceroy. Otto and she were married in 951 and she again was crowned queen. With this marriage they founded the connection of the east Frankish and the Lombard kingdoms that was the heart of the Imperium Romanum of the middle ages. Together they received the imperial crown in 962 and she accompanied him on his two campaigns against Italy. After Ottos death she was the most influential adviser of her son Otto II. When Heinrich of Bavaria was banned in 978 she left the court only to return after Ottos death to secure the reign of her grandchild Otto III. Her co-regency with Theophano and Willigis of Mainz only lasted for two years. In 985 she left the court after the tension with Theophano became unbearable for her. After Theophanos death in 991 she and her daughter Mathilde shared the regency for Otto III. She supported several monasteries and churches and had close contact with the abbots Maiolus and Odilio of Cluny. Based on their ecclesiastical reform she founded the Benedictine abbey in Selz. She retired there in 994 and died there five years later. Odilio of Cluny wrote her vita five years after her death. She was soon venerated as saint and canonized in 1097. In 1307 a flood destroyed the abbey and her grave. Bio by: Lutetia
     Family Members
     Parents
          Bertha of Swabia
     Spouses
          Otto I The Great 912–973
          Lothair II of Italy
     Siblings
          Conrad of Burgundy 925–993
     Children
          Otto 955–983
     BURIAL     Abbey of Seltz, Seltz, Departement du Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Lutetia
     Added: 19 Feb 2011
     Find a Grave Memorial 65859087.10,11
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "OTTO, son of HEINRICH I "der Vogelsteller/the Fowler" King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde --- (23 Nov 912-Memleben 7 May 973, bur Magdeburg Cathedral). Widukind names (in order) "Oddonem, Heinricum, Brunonem" as sons of King Heinrich & his second wife[217]. Associate King of Germany, with his father, in 930. He was elected as OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany 7 Aug 936, crowned at Aachen. After his accession, the Bohemians and the Abotrites withheld payment of tribute. A revolt in Bavaria was led by Duke Eberhard, whom King Otto deposed and banished. Otto's half-brother Thankmar rebelled in Saxony with other magnates dissatisfied with the king's distribution of offices. His brother Heinrich rebelled in 939, was joined by Louis IV King of the West Franks and Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia, but was defeated at Birten and Andernach[218]. Thietmar records that he founded the monastery of Magdeburg (later Magdeburg Cathedral), encouraged by his first wife, to which the relics of St Innocent were brought[219]. He sent armed forces which were unsuccessful in taking reprisals against Rouen in 945, after members of the local nobility had arranged the escape of Richard I Comte [de Normandie] from his captivity by Louis IV King of the West Franks, his brother-in-law, a nepos (unidentified) of King Otto being killed in the battle[220]. Thietmar records that he invaded Italy in 951, using the ill-treatment of his future second wife as an excuse, entered Pavia 23 Sep 951 and proclaimed himself king of Italy. His predecessor Berengario di Ivrea proposed himself as Otto's viceroy in Italy, which was accepted by the Council of Augsburg in Aug 952. King Otto's son Liudolf rebelled in 953, but was pardoned in 954. Thietmar records that King Otto defeated the Magyars in battle at Lechfeld near Augsburg in 955[221], which marked the end of their marauding in Europe. Berengario King of Italy abused his position, and Otto sent Liudolf to Italy to restore order. After several further years of Berengario's tyrannical rule in Italy, Otto invaded in Aug 961 in response to requests for intervention from Pope John XII and Hubert [de Provence] Duke of Spoleto, one of Berengario's main vassals. King Otto forced Berengario's retreat to the fortress of San Leo near Montefeltro 962, finally capturing him in 963. Thietmar records that he was crowned Emperor at Rome 2 Feb 962 by Pope John XII[222]. The necrology of Fulda records the death "973 Non Mai" of "Otto imp"[223]. Thietmar records his death at Memleben on 7 May in the thirty-eighth year after his consecration and his burial at Magdeburg[224]. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 May" of "Otto maior magnus imperator"[225].
     "m firstly (Sep 929) EADGYTH of Wessex, daughter of EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex & his second wife Ælfleda --- (-26 Jan 946[226], bur Magdeburg Cathedral). The Book of Hyde names "Edgitham et Elgimam" as fifth and sixth of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda", specifying that they were both sent to "Henrico Alemanorum imperatori" and that the former married "filio sui Othoni"[227]. Thietmar names "Edith…daughter of King Edmund of England" when recording her marriage during the lifetime of Otto's father, in a later passage stating that she urged her husband to begin establishing the city of Magdeburg[228]. The Annalista Saxo records the wife of Otto as "Ediht filiam Ehtmundi regis Anglorum"[229]. Thietmar records her death 26 Jan "in the eleventh year" of the reign of her husband, after 19 years of marriage, and her place of burial[230].
     "m secondly (Pavia [Oct/Nov] 951) as her second husband, ADELAIS of Burgundy, widow of LOTHAR King of Italy, daughter of RUDOLF II King of Upper Burgundy [Welf] & his wife Berta of Swabia ([928/33]-Kloster Selz, Alsace 16 Dec 999, bur Kloster Selz). Luitprand names "Adelegidam" daughter of Rudolf and Berta, when recording her marriage to "regi Lothario"[231]. Her birth date range is estimated from having given birth to one child by her first marriage before the death of her husband in 950. She claimed the kingdom of Italy on the death of her husband, as the daughter of one of the rival claimants for the throne earlier in the century. Willa, wife of Berengario di Ivrea who had been proclaimed king at Pavia 15 Dec 950, ordered Adelais's imprisonment at Como 20 Apr 951 and "afflicted her with imprisonment and hunger" according to Thietmar[232]. Otto I King of Germany used her ill-treatment as an excuse to invade Italy in Sep 951, although Adelais had succeeded in escaping 20 Aug 951 to Reggio[233]. King Otto entered Pavia 23 Sep 951, proclaimed himself king of Italy, and married Adelais as her second husband. The Annalista Saxo records "Adelheidam reginam" as "coniuge rege Lothario" when she married Otto[234]. Flodoard refers to "uxorem quoque Lotharii regis defuncti, filii Hugonis, sororem Chonradi regis" when recording her second marriage[235]. Thietmar records that she was crowned empress at Rome with her husband 2 Feb 962[236]. "Aleidis sororis" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[237]. "Adelheidis imperatrix cum filia Athelheidhe abbatissa in Italiam profecta est propter quasdam discordias inter se et filium factas", although it is unclear to whom "filia Athelheidhe" refers unless this is an error for her daughter Mathilde[238]. Thietmar records that she replaced her daughter-in-law as regent for her grandson King Otto III in 991[239]. The necrology of Fulda records the death "999 17 Kal Ian" of "Adalheid imperatrix"[240].
     "Mistress (1): (before 929) --- [of the Hevelli], daughter of [BAÇLABI? [Václav] Fürst der Stodoranen & his wife ---]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[241], she was the daughter of Baçlabi?. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. She was a "captured Slavic noblewoman" according to Thietmar, who gives neither her name nor her parentage[242]."
Med Lands cites:
[217] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.31, MGH SS III, p. 430.
[218] Reuter (1991), pp. 150-4.
[219] Thietmar 2.3, p. 91.
[220] Dudo of St Quentin's Gesta Normannorum, Chapters 44-45.
[221] Thietmar 2.9 and 2.10, pp. 97-9.
[222] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101.
[223] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123.
[224] Thietmar 2.43, p. 123.
[225] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Merseburg.
[226] Annales Hildesheimenses 946, MGH SS III, p. 56.
[227] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 112.
[228] Thietmar 2.1, p. 90, and 2.3, p. 91.
[229] Annalista Saxo 936.
[230] Thietmar 2.3, p. 92.
[231] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318.
[232] Thietmar 2.5, p. 93.
[233] Thietmar 2.5, pp. 93-4.
[234] Annalista Saxo 951.
[235] Flodoard 951, MGH SS III, p. 401.
[236] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101.
[237] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1878) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny ( Paris) Tome II, 1127, p. 217.
[238] Annalista Saxo 978.
[239] Thietmar 4.15, p. 162.
[240] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123.
[241] ES I.2 175A.
[242] Thietmar 2.35, p. 118.18


Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: I 3.
2. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 161.
3. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.

Se also Weis [AR7] line 147-19.8,16

; Per Catholic Enc.: "St. Adelaide (ADELHEID) - Born 931; died 16 December, 999, one of the conspicuous characters in the struggle of Otho the great to obtain the imperial crown from the Roman Pontiffs. She was the daughter of Rudolph II, King of Burgundy, who was at war with Hugh of Provence for the crown of Italy. The rivals concluded a peace in 933, by which it was stipulated that Adelaide should marry Hugh's son Lothaire. The marriage took place, however, only fourteen years later; Adelaide's mother meantime married Hugh. By this time Berengarius, the Marquis of Ivrea, came upon the scene, claiming the Kingdom of Italy for himself. He forced Hugh to abdicate in favour of Lothaire, and is supposed to have afterwards put Lothaire to death by poison. He then proposed to unite Adelaide in marriage with his son, Adalbert. Refusing the offer, Adelaide was kept in almost solitary captivity, in the Castle of Garda, on the lake of that name. From it she was rescued by a priest named Martin, who dug a subterraneous passage, by which she escaped, and remained concealed in the woods, her rescuer supporting her, meantime, by the fish he caught in the lake. Soon, however, the Duke of Canossa, Alberto Uzzo, who had been advised of the rescue, arrived and carried her off to his castle. While this was going on the Italian nobles, weary of Berengarius, had invited Otho to invade Italy. He met with little resistance, and betook himself to Canossa where he met Adelaide, and married her on Christmas day, 951, at Pavia. This marriage gave Otho no new rights over Italy, but the enthusiasm of the people for Adelaide, whose career had been so romantic, appealed to them and made Otho's work of subjugating the peninsula easy. In Germany she was the idol of her subjects, while her husband lived. During the reign of her son Otho II, her troubles began, chiefly owing to the jealousy of her daughter-in-law, Theophano, and possibly also because of her excessive liberality in her works of charity. It resulted in her withdrawing from court and fixing her residence at Pavia, but a reconciliation was effected by the Abbot of Cluny, St. Mayeul. The same troubles broke out when her grandson came to the throne, the jealous daughter-in-law being yet unreconciled, and Adelaide was again forced into seclusion. But Theophano dying suddenly, Adelaide was recalled to assume the burden of a Regency. Her administration was characterized by the greatest wisdom. She took no revenge upon her enemies; her court was like a religious house; she multiplied monasteries and churches in the various provinces, and was incessant in her efforts to convert the pagans of the North. In the last year of her reign she undertook a journey to Burgundy to reconcile her nephew Rudolph with his subjects, but died on the way at Seltz, in Alsace. She is not mentioned in the Roman martyrology, but her name appears in several calendars of Germany, and her relics are enshrined in Hanover. St. Odilo of Cluny wrote her life."1

; This is the same person as:
”Adelaide of Italy” at Wikipedia, as
”Adélaïde de Bourgogne” at Wikipédia (FR.),
and as ”Adelheid von Burgund” at Wikipedia (DE.)19,4,20

; Per Genealogics:
     "Aelis (or Adelheid or Adelaïde) was born about 931/932, the daughter of Rudolf II, king of Burgundy, and Bertha von Schwaben. She was perhaps the most prominent European woman of the 10th century. Her first marriage, at the age of fifteen, was to Lothar I, king of Italy, the son of her father's rival in Italy, Hugo of Arles, king of Italy. The union was part of a political settlement designed to conclude a peace between her father and Hugo. They had a daughter Emma who would have two sons by Lothar I, king of France, though neither would have progeny.
     "The Calendar of Saints states that her first husband was poisoned by the holder of real power, his successor Berengar II, king of Italy, who attempted to cement his political power by forcing her to marry his son Adalbert; when she refused and fled, she was tracked down and imprisoned for four months at Como. She escaped to the protection, at Canossa, of Adalbert Atto, where she was besieged by Berengar. She managed to send an emissary to throw herself on the mercy of Otto 'the Great' of Germany, son of Heinrich I 'the Fowler', King of the Germans, and Mathilde von Ringelheim. Otto's brothers were equally willing to save the heiress of Italy, but Otto brought an army to Lombardy and forced Berengar to acknowledge him as the overlord of Italy. Otto and Aelis subsequently met at the old Lombard capital of Pavia and were married in 951. He was crowned Emperor in Rome on 2 February 962 by Pope John XII, and, most unusually, she was crowned Empress at the same ceremony. Among their children, four lived to maturity but only Otto II, later Holy Roman Emperor, would have progeny.
     "In Germany, the crushing of a revolt in 953 by Liudolf, Herzog von Schwaben, Otto's son by his first marriage, cemented the position of Aelis, who retained all her dower lands. She accompanied Otto in 966 on his third expedition to Italy, where she remained with him for six years.
     "When her husband Otto I died in 973 he was succeeded by their son Otto II, and Aelis for some years exercised a powerful influence at court. Later, however, her daughter-in-law, the Byzantine princess Theophano Skleraina, turned her husband Otto II against his mother, and she was driven from court in 978; she lived partly in Italy, and partly with her brother Conrad I, king of Burgundy, by whose mediation she was ultimately reconciled to her son. In 983 Otto appointed her his viceroy in Italy. However, Otto died the same year, and although mother and grand-mother were appointed as co-regents for the child-king Otto III, Theophano forced Aelis to abdicate and exiled her. When Theophano died in 991, Aelis was restored to the regency of her grandson. She was assisted by Willigis, bishop of Mainz. In 995 Otto III came of age, and Aelis was free to devote herself exclusively to works of charity, notably the foundation or restoration of religious houses.
     "Aelis had long entertained close relations with Cluny, then the centre of the movement for ecclesiastical reform, and in particular with its abbots Majolus and Odilo. She retired to a monastery at Seltz in Alsace that she had founded about 991. Though she never became a nun, she spent the rest of her days there in prayer. On her way to Burgundy to support her nephew Rudolf III against a rebellion, she died at the monastery of Selz, on 16 December 999, days short of the millennium she thought would bring the Second Coming of Christ. She had constantly devoted herself to the service of the Church and peace, and to the empire as guardian of both; she also interested herself in the conversion of the Slavs. She was thus a principal agent - almost an embodiment - of the work of the Catholic Church during the Early Middle Ages in the construction of the religion-culture of western Europe. Her feast day, 16 December, is still kept in many German dioceses."8 Saint Adélaïde (?) de Bourgogne was also known as Aelis (Adelheid) (?) de Burgundia.8 GAV-29 EDV-30 GKJ-32.

; Per Genealogy.EU (Liudolfing): "C2. Otto I "The Great", Duke of Saxony and Thuringia (936-973), King of Germany (936-962), King of Italy (961-973), Emperor cr 2.2.962, *22.11.912, +Memleben 7.5.973; 1m: 930 Edith of England (+26.1.946); 2m: 951 Adelaide of Bourgogne (+999), dau.of Rudolf II of Lower Burgundy."21

; Per Med Lands:
     "ADELAIS of Burgundy ([928/33]-Kloster Selz, Alsace 16 Dec 999, bur Kloster Selz). Luitprand names "Adelegidam" as daughter of Rudolf and his wife Berta, when recording her marriage to "regi Lothario"[138]. Her birth date range is estimated from her having given birth to one child by her first marriage before the death of her husband in 950. She claimed the kingdom of Italy on the death of her husband, as the daughter of one of the rival claimants for the throne earlier in the century. Willa, wife of Berengario di Ivrea who had been proclaimed king at Pavia 15 Dec 950, ordered Adelais's imprisonment at Como 20 Apr 951 and "afflicted her with imprisonment and hunger" according to Thietmar[139]. Otto I King of Germany used her ill-treatment as an excuse to invade Italy in Sep 951, although Adelais had succeeded in escaping 20 Aug 951 to Reggio[140]. King Otto entered Pavia 23 Sep 951, proclaimed himself King of Italy, and married Adelais as her second husband. The Annalista Saxo records "Adelheidam reginam" as "coniuge rege Lothario" when she married Otto[141]. Flodoard refers to "uxorem quoque Lotharii regis defuncti, filii Hugonis, sororem Chonradi regis" when recording her second marriage[142]. She was crowned empress at Rome with her husband 2 Feb 962[143]. "Aleidis sororis" is named in the charter of "Chuonradus rex" dated 8 Apr 962[144]. "Adelheidis imperatrix cum filia Athelheidhe abbatissa in Italiam profecta est propter quasdam discordias inter se et filium factas", although it is unclear to whom "filia Athelheidhe" refers unless this is an error for her daughter Mathilde[145]. She replaced her daughter-in-law as regent for her grandson King Otto III in 991[146]. The necrology of Fulda records the death "999 XVII Kal Ian" of "Adalheid imperatrix"[147].
     "m firstly (947 before 27 Jun) LOTHAR King of Italy, son of UGO King of Italy & his second wife Hilda --- ([926/28]-Turin 22 Nov 950).
     "m secondly (Pavia [Oct/Nov] 951) as his second wife, OTTO I "der Große" King of Germany, son of HEINRICH I "der Vogelsteller/the Fowler" King of Germany & his second wife Mathilde --- (23 Nov 912-Memleben 7 May 973, bur Magdeburg Cathedral). He was crowned Emperor at Rome 2 Feb 962."
Med Lands cites:
[138] Liudprandi Antapodosis IV.12, MGH SS III, p. 318.
[139] Thietmar 2.5, p. 93.
[140] Thietmar 2.5, pp. 93-4.
[141] Annalista Saxo 951.
[142] Flodoard 951, MGH SS III, p. 401.
[143] Thietmar 2.13, p. 101.
[144] Cluny, Tome II, 1127, p. 217.
[145] Annalista Saxo 978.
[146] Thietmar 4.15, p. 162.
[147] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123.10


;      Per Genealogy.EU (Welf): "E4. Adelaide, *931, +16/17.12.999; 1m: 947 Lothar d'Arles, King of Italy (+950); (?) 2m: 950 Adalbert of Ivrea; 3m: 951 Emperor Otto I (+973)"
     Per Genealogy.EU (Bosonides): "D3. [2m.] Lothar II, King of Italy (946-950), *915, +XI.950; m.947 Adelaide of Burgundy (*ca 931 +999.)22,23" She was Queen consort of Germany between 951 and 961.19

Family 1

Lothar II (?) d'Arles, King of Italy b. c 926, d. 22 Nov 950
Child

Citations

  1. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Adelaide at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01140c.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Liudolfer page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/liudolfer.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aelis (Adelheid) de Bourgogne: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080077&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Adélaïde de Bourgogne: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad%C3%A9la%C3%AFde_de_Bourgogne. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Welf 1 page - The House of Welfen: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf1.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rudolf II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120373&tree=LEO
  7. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BURGUNDY%20KINGS.htm#RudolfIIdied937B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aelis (Adelheid) de Bourgogne: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080077&tree=LEO
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertha von Schwaben: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120374&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BURGUNDY%20KINGS.htm#AdelaisBurgundydied999
  11. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 23 April 2020), memorial page for Adelheid of Burgundy (c.931–16 Dec 999), Find a Grave Memorial no. 65859087, citing Abbey of Seltz, Seltz, Departement du Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France ; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/65859087/adelheid-of_burgundy. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  13. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Welf 1 page (The House of Welfen): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf1.html
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Lothar: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331120&tree=LEO
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#LotharKingItalydied950.
  16. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 147-19. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto I 'the Great': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080076&tree=LEO
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#OttoIGermanyEmperordied973.
  19. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelaide_of_Italy. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  20. [S4759] Wikipedia - Die freie Enzyklopädie, online https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Hauptseite, Adelheid von Burgund: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adelheid_von_Burgund. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (DE).
  21. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Liudolfing: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/liudolfer.html
  22. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The House of Welfen: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf1.html
  23. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Bosonides: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html#L3
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Emma of Italy: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331112&tree=LEO
  25. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Reginlint of (Alamannia): https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00726544&tree=LEO
  26. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Heinrich of Saxony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080202&tree=LEO
  27. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Brun of Saxony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080203&tree=LEO
  28. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Liudolfer page (Liudolfing): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/liudolfer.html
  29. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080073&tree=LEO
  30. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 147-20, p. 142.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  31. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#OttoIIdied983.
  32. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mathilde of Saxony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080204&tree=LEO

Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland1,2

M, #6702, b. 967, d. 17 June 1025
FatherMieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland2,3,4 b. 922, d. 25 May 992
MotherDobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia2,5,6,4 b. bt 940 - 945, d. 977
ReferenceGAV27 EDV29
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland was born in 967.2,4 He married Henilda (?) von Meissen, daughter of Rikdag (?) Margraf von Meissen, in 984;
His 1st wife.2,4 Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland married (?) (?) of Hungary, daughter of Géza (?) Prince of Hungary and Sarolta (?) von Siebenburgen, in 985;
His 2nd wife.7,2,4,8,9 Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland and (?) (?) of Hungary were divorced between 986 and 987.7,2,9 Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland married Emnilde (?) Princess of the Western Slavs, Duchess of the Polans, daughter of Dobromir (?) Prince of The Western Slavs, in 987;
His 3rd wife.2,4,10 Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland married Oda (?) von Meissen, daughter of Ekkehard I (?) Margrave of Meissen and Thuringia and Schwanhild|Suanehild (?) von Saxony, on 3 February 1018 at Burg Czicania;
His 4th wife.2,11,4,12
Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland died on 17 June 1025.2,4
Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland was buried after 17 June 1025 at Archcathedral Basilica Of Saint Peter And Saint Paul, Poznan, Miasto Poznan, Wielkopolskie, Poland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown
     DEATH     17 Jun 1025
     Family Members
     Parents
          Mieszko I King Of Poland
          Dobrawa Of Bohemia
     Spouses
          Emnilda S?owia?ska unknown–1017
     Judith Of Hungary
     Children
          Regelinda unknown–1014
          Bezprym unknown–1032
          Mieszko II Lambert unknown–1034
          Otto Boles?awowic 1000–1033
     BURIAL     Archcathedral Basilica Of Saint Peter And Saint Paul, Pozna?, Miasto Pozna?, Wielkopolskie, Poland
     Maintained by: Anne Shurtleff Stevens
     Originally Created by: Jerry Ferren
     Added: 4 Mar 2011
     Find A Grave Memorial 66462184.13
     ; Per Wikipedia:
     "Boles?aw I the Brave (Polish: Boles?aw I Chrobry About this soundPolish (help·info), Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Boles?aw I the Great (Polish: Boles?aw I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025. As Boleslav IV, he was also Duke of Bohemia between 1002 and 1003. He was the son of Mieszko I of Poland by his wife, Dobrawa of Bohemia. According to a scholarly theory, Boles?aw ruled Lesser Poland already during the last years of his father's reign. Mieszko I, who died in 992, divided Poland among his sons, but Boles?aw expelled his father's last wife, Oda of Haldensleben, and his half-brothers and reunited Poland between 992 and 995.
     "He supported the missionary goals of Adalbert, Bishop of Prague, and Bruno of Querfurt. The martyrdom of Adalbert in 997 and his imminent canonization were used to consolidate Poland's autonomy from the Holy Roman Empire. This perhaps happened most clearly during the Congress of Gniezno (11 March 1000), which resulted in the establishment of a Polish church structure with a Metropolitan See at Gniezno. This See was independent of the German Archbishopric of Magdeburg, which had tried to claim jurisdiction over the Polish church. Following the Congress of Gniezno, bishoprics were also established in Kraków, Wroc?aw, and Ko?obrzeg, and Boles?aw formally repudiated paying tribute to the Holy Roman Empire. Following the death of Holy Roman Emperor Otto III in 1002, Boles?aw fought a series of wars against the Holy Roman Empire and Otto's cousin and heir, Henry II, ending in the Peace of Bautzen (1018). In the summer of 1018, in one of his expeditions, Boles?aw I captured Kiev, where he installed his son-in-law Sviatopolk I as ruler. According to legend, Boles?aw chipped his sword when striking Kiev's Golden Gate. Later, in honor of this legend, a sword called Szczerbiec ("Jagged Sword") would become the coronation sword of Poland's kings.
     "Boles?aw I was a remarkable politician, strategist, and statesman. He not only turned Poland into a country comparable to older western monarchies, but he raised it to the front rank of European states. Boles?aw conducted successful military campaigns in the west, south and east. He consolidated Polish lands and conquered territories outside the borders of modern-day Poland, including Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen, Lusatia, and Bohemia. He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs. Finally, as the culmination of his reign, in 1025 he had himself crowned King of Poland. He was the first Polish ruler to receive the title of rex (Latin: "king").
     "He was an able administrator who established the "Prince's Law" and built many forts, churches, monasteries and bridges. He introduced the first Polish monetary unit, the grzywna, divided into 240 denarii,[1] and minted his own coinage. Boles?aw I is widely considered one of Poland's most capable and accomplished Piast rulers.
Youth
     "Boles?aw was born in 966 or 967,[2] the first child of Mieszko I of Poland and his wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa.[3][4] His Epitaph, which was written in the middle of the 11th century, emphasized that Boles?aw had been born to a "faithless" father and a "true-believing" mother, suggesting that he was born before his father's baptism.[4][5] Boles?aw was baptized shortly after his birth.[6] He was named after his maternal grandfather, Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia.[7] Not much is known about Boles?aw's childhood. His Epitaph recorded that he underwent the traditional hair-cutting ceremony at the age of seven and a lock of his hair was sent to Rome.[6] The latter act suggests that Mieszko wanted to place his son under the protection of the Holy See.[6][8] Historian Tadeusz Manteuffel says that Boles?aw needed that protection because his father had sent him to the court of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in token of his allegiance to the emperor.[8] However historian Marek Kazimierz Bara?ski notes that the claim that Boles?aw was sent as a hostage to the imperial court is disputed.[9]
     "Boles?aw's mother, Dobrawa died in 977; his widowed father married Oda of Haldensleben who had already been a nun.[10][11] Around that time, Boles?aw became the ruler of Lesser Poland, through it is not exactly clear in what circumstances. Jerzy Strzelczyk says that Boles?aw received Lesser Poland from his father; Tadeusz Manteuffel states that he seized the province from his father with the local lords' support; and Henryk ?owmia?ski writes that his uncle, Boleslav II of Bohemia, granted the region to him.[12]
Reign
First years (992–999)
     "Mieszko I died on 25 May 992.[13][14] The contemporaneous Thietmar of Merseburg recorded that Mieszko left "his kingdom to be divided among many claimants", but Boles?aw unified the country "with fox-like cunning"[15] and expelled his stepmother and half-brothers from Poland.[16][17] Two Polish lords, "Odilien and Przibiwoj",[18] who had supported her and her sons, were blinded on Boles?aw's order.[17] Historian Przemys?aw Wiszniewski says that Boles?aw had already taken control of the whole Poland by 992;[19] Pleszczy?ski writes that this only happened in the last months of 995.[16]
     "Boles?aw's first coins were issued around 995.[20] One of them bore the inscription Vencievlavus, showing that he regarded his mother's uncle, Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, as the patron saint of Poland.[21] Boles?aw sent reinforcements to the Holy Roman Empire to fight against the Polabian Slavs in summer 992.[22][23] Boles?aw personally led a Polish army to assist the imperial troops in invading the land of the Abodrites or Veleti in 995.[22][23][24] During the campaign, he met the young German monarch, Otto III.[25]
     "Sob?slav, the head of the Bohemian Slavník dynasty, also participated in the 995 campaign.[26] Taking advantage of Sob?slav's absence, Boleslav II of Bohemia invaded the Slavníks' domains and had most members of the family murdered.[27] After learning of his kinsmen's fate, Sob?slav settled in Poland.[28][16] Boles?aw gave shelter to him "for the sake of [Sob?slav's] holy brother",[29] Bishop Adalbert of Prague, according to the latter's hagiographies.[30] Adalbert (known as Wojciech before his consecration)[31] also came to Poland in 996, because Boles?aw "was quite amicably disposed towards him".[32][30] Adalbert's hagiographies suggest that the bishop and Boles?aw closely cooperated.[33] Early 997 Adalbert left Poland to proselytize among the Prussians who had been invading the easter borderlands of Boles?aw's realm.[24][33] However, the pagans murdered him on 23 April 997.[33] Boles?aw ransomed Adalbert's remains, paying its weight in gold, and buried it in Gniezno.[9][33][34] He sent parts of the martyr bishop's corpse to Emperor Otto III who had been Adalbert's friend.[34]
Congress of Gniezno and its aftermath (999–1002)
     "Emperor Otto III held a synod in Rome where Adalbert was canonized on the emperor's request on 29 June 999.[33][35] Before 2 December 999, Adalbert's brother, Radim Gaudentius, was consecrated "Saint Adalbert's archbishop".[35][36] Otto III made a pilgrimage to Saint Adalbert's tomb in Gniezno, accompanied by Pope Sylvester II's legate, Robert, in early 1000.[37][38] Thietmar of Merseburg mentioned that it "would be impossible to believe or describe"[39] how Boles?aw received the emperor and conducted him to Gniezno.[40] A century later, Gallus Anonymus added that "[m]arvelous and wonderful sights Boles?aw set before the emperor when he arrived: the ranks first of the knights in all their variety, and then of the princes, lined up on a spacious plain like choirs, each separate unit set apart by the distinct and varied colors of its apparel, and no garment there was of inferior quality, but of the most precious stuff that might anywhere be found."[40][41]
     "Boles?aw took advantage of the emperor's pilgrimage.[42] After the Emperor's visit in Gniezno, Poland started to develop into a sovereign state, in contrast with Bohemia, which remained a vassal state, incorporated in the Kingdom of Germany.[43] Thietmar of Merseburg condemned Otto III for "making a lord out of a tributary"[44] in reference to the relationship between the Emperor and Boles?aw.[45] Gallus Anonymus emphasized that Otto III declared Boles?aw "his brother and partner" in the Holy Roman Empire, also calling Boles?aw "a friend and ally of the Roman people".[46][37][40] The same chronicler mentioned that Otto III "took the imperial diadem from his own head and laid it upon the head of Boles?aw in pledge of friendship"[46] in Gniezno.[40] Boles?aw also received "one of the nails from the cross of our Lord with the lance of St. Maurice"[46] from the Emperor.[37][40]
     "Gallus Anonymus claimed that Boles?aw was "gloriously raised to kingship by the emperor"[47] through these acts, but the Emperor's acts in Gniezno only symbolized that Boles?aw received royal prerogatives, including the control of the Church in his realm.[40] Radim Gaudentius was installed as the archbishop of the newly established Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gniezno.[36] At the same time, three suffragan bishoprics, subordinated to the see of Gniezno – the Dioceses of Ko?obrzeg, Kraków and Wroc?aw – were set up.[48] Boles?aw had promised that Poland would pay Peter's Pence to the Holy See to obtain the pope's sanction to the establishment of the new archdiocese.[42] Unger, who had been the only prelate in Poland and was opposed to the creation of the archdiocese of Gniezno, was made bishop of Pozna?, directly subordinated to the Holy See.[49] However, Polish commoners only slowly adopted Christianity: Thietmar of Merseburg recorded that Boles?aw forced his subjects with severe punishments to observe fasts and to refrain from adultery.[50]
If anyone in this land should presume to abuse a foreign matron and thereby commit fornication, the act is immediately avenged through the following punishment. The guilty party is led on to the market bridge, and his scrotum is affixed to it with a nail. Then, after a sharp knife has been placed next to him, he is given the harsh choice between death or castration. Furthermore, anyone found to have eaten meat after Septuagesima is severely punished, by having his teeth knocked out. The law of God, newly introduced in these regions gains more strength from such acts of force than from any fast imposed by the bishops
—?Thietmar of Merseburg: Chronicon[51]

     "During the time the Emperor spent in Poland, Boles?aw also showed off his affluence.[45] At the end of the banquets, he "ordered the waiters and the cupbearers to gather the gold and silver vessels ... from all three days' coursis, that is, the cups and goblets, the bowls and plates and the drinking-horns, and he presented them to the emperor as a toke of honor ... [h]is servants were likewise told to collect the wall-hangings and the coverlets, the carpets and tablecloths and napkins and everything that had been provided for their needs and take them to the emperor's quarters",[47] according to Gallus Anonymus.[45] Thietmar of Merseburg recorded that Boles?aw presented Otto III with a troop of "three hundred armoured warriors".[52][49] Boles?aw also gave Saint Adalbert's arm to the Emperor.[49]
     "After the meeting, Boles?aw escorted Otto III to Magdeburg in Germany where "they celebrated Palm Sunday with great festivity"[53] on 25 March 1000.[54] A continuator of the chronicle of Adémar de Chabannes recorded, decades after the events, that Boles?aw also accompanied Emperor Otto from Magdeburg to Aachen where Otto III had Charlemagne's tomb reopened and gave Charlemagne's golden throne to Boles?aw.[49][55][56]
     "An illustrated Gospel, made for Otto III around 1000, depicted four women symbolizing Roma, Gallia, Germania and Sclavinia as doing homage to the Emperor who sat on his throne.[55] Historian Alexis P. Vlasto writes that "Sclavinia" referred to Poland, proving that it was regarded as one of the Christian realms subjected to the Holy Roman Empire in accordance with Otto III's idea of Renovatio imperii[55] – the renewal of the Roman Empire based on a federal concept.[57] Within that framework, Poland, along with Hungary, was upgraded to an eastern foederatus of the Holy Roman Empire, according to historian Jerzy Strzelczyk.[57]
     "Coins struck for Boles?aw shortly after his meeting with the emperor bore the inscription Gnezdun Civitas, showing that he regarded Gniezno as his capital.[55] The name of Poland was also recorded on the same coins referring to the Princes Polonie [sic].[55] The title princeps was almost exclusively used in Italy around that time, suggesting that it also represented the Emperor's idea of the renewal of the Roman Empire.[55] However, Otto's premature death on 23 January 1002 put an end to his ambitious plans.[54] The contemporaneous Bruno of Querfurt stated that "nobody lamented" the 22-year-old emperor's "death with greater grief than Boles?aw".[58][59]
Expansion (1002–1019)
     "Three candidates were competing with each other for the German royal crown after Otto III's death.[60] One of them, Henry IV, Duke of Bavaria, promised the Margraviate of Meissen to Boles?aw in exchange for his assistance against Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen who was the most powerful contender.[60] However, Eckard was murdered on 30 April 1002, which enabled Henry of Bavaria to defeat his last opponent, Herman II, Duke of Swabia.[60] Fearing that Henry II would side with elements in the German Church hierarchy, which were unfavorable towards Poland,[61] and taking advantage of the chaos that followed Margrave Eckard's death and Henry of Bavaria's conflict with Henry of Schweinfurt, Boles?aw invaded Lusatia and Meissen.[42][62] He "seized Margrave Gero's march as far as the river Elbe",[63] and also Bautzen, Strehla and Meissen.[64] At the end of July, he participated at a meeting of the Saxon lords where Henry of Bavaria, who had meanwhile been crowned as King Henry II, only confirmed Boles?aw's possession of Lusatia, and granted Meissen to Margrave Eckard's brother, Gunzelin, and Strehla to Eckard's oldest son, Herman.[65][66] The relationship between Henry II and Boles?aw became tense after assassins tried to murder Boles?aw in Merseburg, because he accused the king of the conspiracy against him.[65][66] In retaliation, he seized and burned Strehla and took the inhabitants of the town into captivity.[65]
     "Boleslaus III, Duke of Bohemia was dethroned and the Bohemian lords made Vladivoj, who had earlier fled to Poland, duke in 1002.[65] The Czech historian Dušan T?eštík writes that Vladivoj seized the Bohemian throne with Boles?aw's assistance.[67] After Vladivoj died in 1003, Boles?aw invaded Bohemia and restored Boleslaus III who had many Bohemian noblemen murdered.[68][65] The Bohemian lords who survived the massacre "secretly sent representatives" to Boles?aw, asking "him to rescue them from fear of the future",[69] according to Thietmar of Merseburg.[68] Boles?aw invaded Bohemia and had Boleslaus III blinded.[65] He entered Prague in March 1003 where the Bohemian lords proclaimed him duke.[70][71] King Henry II of Germany sent his envoys to Prague, demanding Boles?aw to take an oath of loyalty and to pay tribute to him, but Boles?aw refused to obey.[66][70] He also allied himself with the king's opponents, including Henry of Schweinfurt to whom he sent reinforcements.[72] King Henry defeated Henry of Schweinfurt, forcing him to flee to Bohemia in August 1003.[73] Boles?aw invaded the Margraviate of Meissen, but Margrave Gunzelin refused to surrender his capital.[73] It is also likely that Polish forces took control of Moravia and Upper Hungary (present day Slovakia) in 1003 as well. The proper conquest date of the Hungarian territories is 1003 or 1015 and this area stayed a part of Poland until 1018.[74]
     "Henry II allied himself with the pagan Veleti,[71] and broke into Lusatia in February 1004, but heavy snows forced him to withdraw.[68][73] He invaded Bohemia in August 1004, taking the oldest brother of the blinded Boleslaus III of Bohemia, Jaromír, with him.[73] The Bohemians rose up in open rebellion and murdered the Polish garrisons in the major towns.[73] Boles?aw left Prague without resistance, and King Henry made Jaromír duke of Bohemia on 8 September.[73] Boleslaw's ally Sob?slav died in this campaign.[71]
     "During the next part of the offensive Henry II retook Meissen and in 1005, his army advanced as far into Poland as the city of Pozna? where a peace treaty was signed.[75] According to the peace treaty Boles?aw lost Lusatia and Meissen and likely gave up his claim to the Bohemian throne. Also in 1005, a pagan rebellion in Pomerania overturned Boleslaw's rule and resulted in the destruction of the just implemented local bishopric.[76]
     "In 1007 Henry denounced the Peace of Pozna?, which caused Boles?aw's attack on the Archbishopric of Magdeburg as well as the re-occupation of the marches of Lusatia, through he stopped short of retaking Meissen.[71] The German counter-offensive began three years later, in 1010, but it was of no significant consequence.[71] In 1012, a five-year peace was signed. Boles?aw broke the peace, however, and once again invaded Lusatia. Boles?aw's forces pillaged and burned the city of Lubusz (Lebus).[75] In 1013, a peace accord was signed at Merseburg.[71] As part of the treaty, Boles?aw paid homage to Henry II for the March of Lusatia (including the town of Bautzen) and Sorbian Meissen as fiefs.[71] A marriage of Boles?aw's son Mieszko with Richeza of Lotharingia, daughter of the Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia and granddaughter of Emperor Otto II was also performed.[71] During the brief period of peace on the western frontier that followed, Boles?aw took part in a short campaign in the east, towards the Kievan Rus' territories.[71]
     "In 1014, Boles?aw sent his son Mieszko to Bohemia in order to form an alliance with duke Oldrich .[71] Oldrich imprisoned Mieszko and turned him over to Henry II, who however released him in a gesture of good will.[71] Boles?aw nonetheless refused to aid the Emperor militarily in his Italian expedition.[71] This led to imperial intervention in Poland and so in 1015 a war erupted once again.[71] The war started out well for the Emperor, as he was able to defeat the Polish forces at the Battle of Ciani.[77] Once the imperial forces crossed the river Oder, Boles?aw sent a detachment of Moravian knights in a diversionary attack against the Eastern March of the empire. Soon after, the imperial army, having suffered a defeat near the Bóbr marshes, retreated from Poland without any permanent gains.[71] After this event, Boles?aw's forces took the initiative. The Margrave of Meissen, Gero II, was defeated and killed during a clash with the Polish forces in late 1015.[78][79]
     "Later that year, Boles?aw's son Mieszko was sent to plunder Meissen. His attempt at conquering the city, however, failed.[75] In 1017, Boles?aw defeated Margrave Henry V of Bavaria. In that same year, supported by his Slavic allies, Henry II once again invaded Poland, however, once again to very little effect.[71] He did besiege the cities of G?ogów and Niemcza, but was unable to conquer them.[71] The imperial forces once again were forced to retreat, suffering significant losses.[71] Taking advantage of the involvement of Czech troops, Boles?aw ordered his son to invade Bohemia, where Mieszko met very little resistance.[80] On 30 January 1018, the Peace of Bautzen was signed. The Polish ruler was able to keep the contested marches of Lusatia and Sorbian Meissen not as fiefs, but as a part of Polish territory,[71] and also received military aid in his expedition against Kievan Rus.[81] Also, Boles?aw (then a widower) strengthened his dynastic bonds with the German nobility through his marriage with Oda, daughter of Margrave Eckard I of Meissen. The wedding took place four days later, on 3 February in the castle of Cziczani (also Sciciani, at the site of either modern Groß-Seitschen[82] or Zützen).[83]
     "Boles?aw organized his first expedition east, to support his son-in-law Sviatopolk I of Kiev, in 1013, but the decisive engagements were to take place in 1018 after the peace of Budziszyn was already signed.[84] At the request of Sviatopolk I, in what became known as the Kiev Expedition of 1018m the Polish duke send an expedition Kievan Rus' with an army of between 2,000–5,000 Polish warriors, in addition to Thietmar's reported 1,000 Pechenegs, 300 German knights, and 500 Hungarian mercenaries.[85] After collecting his forces during June, Boleslaw led his troops to the border in July and on 23 July at the banks of the Bug River, near Wo?y?, he defeated the forces of Yaroslav the Wise prince of Kiev, in what became known as the Battle at Bug river. All primary sources agree that the Polish prince was victorious in battle.[86][87] Yaroslav retreated north to Novgorod, rather than to Kiev. The victory opened the road to Kiev.[84] The city, which suffered from fires caused by the Pecheneg siege, surrendered upon seeing the main Polish force on 14 August.[88] The entering army, led by Boles?aw, was ceremonially welcomed by the local archbishop and the family of Vladimir I of Kiev.[89] According to popular legend Boles?aw notched his sword (Szczerbiec) hitting the Golden Gate of Kiev.[89] Although Sviatopolk lost the throne soon afterwards and lost his life the following year,[89] during this campaign Poland re-annexed the Red Strongholds, later called Red Ruthenia, lost by Boles?aw's father in 981.[84]
Last years (1019–1025)
     "Historians dispute the exact date of Boles?aw's coronation. Some[who?] believe that since the year 1000, the Polish ruler asked the Pope to consent to his coronation, following the Congress of Gniezno. Independent German sources clearly confirmed that after Henry II's death in 1024, Boles?aw took advantage of the interregnum in Germany and crowned himself King in 1025 (the exact date and place of the coronation remain unknown[90]), thus raising Poland to the rank of a kingdom, before its neighbor Bohemia. Boles?aw was the first Polish king (rex), his predecessors having been considered dukes (dux) by the Holy Roman Empire and the papacy. Others (like Johannes Fried) believe that the coronation of 1025 was only the renewal of a previous coronation performed in 1000 (multiple coronations were common at the time).
     "Wipo of Burgundy in his Chronicle describes this event: "[In 1025] Boleslaus [of the Slavic nation], duke of the Poles, took for himself in injury to King Conrad the regal insignia and the royal name. Death swiftly killed his temerity." —?Wipo: The Deeds of Conrad II[91]
     "Hence it is assumed that Boles?aw received permission for his coronation from Pope John XIX (who at that point had a bad relationship with the Holy Roman Empire). Stanis?aw Zakrzewski put forward the theory that the coronation had the tacit consent of Conrad II and that the Pope only confirmed this fact. This was further confirmed by Jaros?aw Sochacki, who added other facts that supported Zakrzewski's theory:
** Conrad II confirmed the title of King to Mieszko II Lambert, Boles?aw's heir.
** The agreement between the Holy Roman Empire and the Counts of Tusculum, rulers of Rome (1012–1046).
** The interaction between the Holy Roman Empire and the Papacy, at the time of the coronation, to granted crowns.
** The connection of Boles?aw with the Papacy came only in the years 1003–1014.[92]
     "Boles?aw I died shortly after his coronation on 17 June, most likely from an illness.[citation needed] The location of Boleslaw's burial site is uncertain. According to Jan D?ugosz (and followed by modern historians and archaeologists), he was buried in the Archcathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, Pozna?.[citation needed] In the 14th century, King Casimir III the Great reportedly ordered the construction of a Gothic sarcophagus, to which he transferred Boleslaw's remains.[citation needed]
     "The sarcophagus was partially destroyed in 1772 during a fire, and completely destroyed a few years later in 1790 due to the collapse of the south tower. Then, the remains were moved to the Chapter house, where three bone fragments where donated to Tadeusz Czacki (in 1801, at his request). Czacki, a notable Polish historian, pedagogue, and numismatist, placed one of the bone fragments in his ancestral mausoleum in Poryck (now Pavlivka) in the Volhynia region; the other two were given to Princess Izabela Czartoryska née Flemming, who placed them in her recently founded Czartoryski Museum in Pu?awy. After many historical twists, the burial place of Boles?aw I ultimately remained at Pozna? Cathedral, in the Golden Chapel.[93] The content of his epitaph is known to historians. It is Boles?aw's epitaph, which, in part, came from the original tombstone, that is one of the first sources (dated to the period immediately after Boles?aw's death, probably during the reign of Mieszko II[94]) that gave the King his widely known nickname of "Brave" (Polish: Chrobry) -later Gallus Anonymus in the Chapter 6 of his Gesta principum Polonorum named the Polish ruler as Bolezlavus qui dicebatur Gloriosus seu Chrabri.
Family
     "The contemporaneous Thietmar of Merseburg recorded Boles?aw's marriages, also mentioning his children.[95] Boles?aw's first wife was an unnamed daughter of Rikdag, Margrave of Meissen.[95][9] Historian Manteuffel says that the marriage was arranged in the early 980s by Mieszko I who wanted to strengthen his links with the Saxon lords and to enable his son to succeed Rikdag in Meissen.[96] Boles?aw "later sent her away",[18] according to Thietmar's Chronicon.[95] Historian Marek Kazimierz Bara?ski writes that Boles?aw repudiated his first wife after her father's death in 985 which left the marriage without any political value.[9]
     "Boles?aw "took a Hungarian woman"[18] as his second wife.[95] Most historians identify her as a daughter of Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, but this theory has not been universally accepted.[97] She gave birth to a son, Bezprym, but Boles?aw repudiated her.[95]
     "Boles?aw's third wife, Emnilda, was "a daughter of the venerable lord, Dobromir".[18][95] Her father was a Slavic prince, either a local ruler from present-day Brandenburg who was closely related to the imperial Liudolfing dynasty,[22] or the last independent prince of the Vistulans, before their incorporation into Poland.[9] Wiszewski dates the marriage of Boles?aw and Emnilda to 988.[3] Emnilda exerted a beneficial influence on Boles?aw, forming "her husband's unstable character",[18] according to Thietmar of Merseburg's report.[95] Boles?aw's and Emnilda's oldest (unnamed) daughter "was an abbess"[18] of an unidentified abbey.[3] Their second daughter Regelinda, who was born in 989, was given in marriage to Herman I, Margrave of Meissen in 1002 or 1003.[3] Mieszko II Lambert who was born in 990[3] was Boles?aw's favorite son and successor.[98] The name of Boles?aw's and Emnilda's third daughter, who was born in 995, is unknown; she married Sviatopolk I of Kiev between 1005 and 1012.[3] Boles?aw's youngest son, Otto, was born in 1000.[3]
     "Fourth marriage: 1018–1025 Oda (b. c. 995 – d. aft. 1025), daughter of Eckard I, Margrave of Meissen. She was nicknamed the Younger (Polish: M?odsza) probably in reference to either Boles?aw's step-mother or first wife. Issue:
Matilda (b. aft. 1018 – d. aft. 1036), betrothed (or married) on 18 May 1035 to Otto of Schweinfurt, since 1048 Duke Otto III of Swabia.

References (See original Wikipedia article for detailed references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boles%C5%82aw_I_the_Brave)
Sources
Primary sources
** "Life of the Five Brethren by Bruno of Querfurt (Translated by Marina Miladinov)" (2013). In Saints of the Christianization Age of Central Europe (Tenth-Eleventh Centuries) (Edited by Gábor Klaniczay, translated by Cristian Ga?par and Marina Miladinov, with an introductory essay by Ian Wood) [Central European Medieval Texts, Volume 6.]. Central European University Press. pp. 183–314. ISBN 978-615-5225-20-8.
** "Life of Saint Adalbert Bishop of Prague and Martyr (Translated by Cristian Ga?par)" (2013). In Saints of the Christianization Age of Central Europe (Tenth-Eleventh Centuries) (Edited by Gábor Klaniczay, translated by Cristian Ga?par and Marina Miladinov, with an introductory essay by Ian Wood) [Central European Medieval Texts, Volume 6.]. Central European University Press. pp. 77–182. ISBN 978-615-5225-20-8.
** Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (Translated and annotated by David A. Warner) (2001). Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4926-1.
** "The Deeds of Conrad II (Wipo)" (2000). In Imperial Lives & Letters of the Eleventh Century (Translated by Theodor E. Mommsen and Karl F. Morrison, with a historical introduction and new suggested readings by Karl F. Morrison, edited by Robert L. Benson). Columbia University Press. pp. 52–100. ISBN 978-0-231-12121-7.
** The Deeds of the Princes of the Poles (Translated and annotated by Paul W. Knoll and Frank Schaer with a preface by Thomas N. Bisson) (2003). CEU Press. ISBN 963-9241-40-7.
Secondary sources
** Bara?ski, Marek Kazimierz (2008). Dynastia Piastów w Polsce [The Piast Dynasty in Poland] (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. ISBN 978-83-01-14816-4.
** Barford, P. M. (2001). The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3977-9.
** Berend, Nora; Urba?czyk, Przemys?aw; Wiszewski, Przemys?aw (2013). Central Europe in the High Middle Ages: Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c. 900-c. 1300. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78156-5.
** Davies, Norman (2005). God's Playground: A History of Poland, Volume I: The Origins to 1795 (Revised Edition). Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12817-9.
** Manteuffel, Tadeusz (1982). The Formation of the Polish State: The Period of Ducal Rule, 963–1194 (Translated and with an Introduction by Andrew Gorski). Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1682-4.
** Pleszczy?ski, Andrzej (2001). "Poland as an ally of the Holy Ottonian Empire". In Urba?czyk, Przemys?aw (ed.) Europe around the Year 1000. Wydawnictwo DIG. pp. 409–425. ISBN 83-7181-211-6.
** Reuter, Timothy (2013). Germany in the Early Middle Ages, c. 800–1056. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-582-49034-5.
** Rosik, Stanis?aw (2001). Boles?aw Chrobry i jego czasy [Boles?aw the Brave and his Times] (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Dolno?l?skie. ISBN 978-83-70-23888-9.
** Strzelczyk, Jerzy (2003). "Die Anfänge Polens und Deutschlands". In Lawaty, Andreas; Or?owski, Hubert (eds.) Deutsche und Polen: Geschichte-Kultur-Politik (in German). Verlag C. H. Beck. pp. 16–25. ISBN 978-3-406-49436-9.
** Thompson, James Westfall (2012). "Medieval German expansion in Bohemia and Poland". In Berend, Nóra (ed.) The Expansion of Central Europe in the Middle Ages. Ashgate Variorum. pp. 1–38. ISBN 978-1-4094-2245-7.
** T?eštík, Dušan (2011). "Great Moravia and the beginnings of the stte (9th and 10th centuries)". In Pánek, Jaroslav; T?ma, Old?ich (eds.) A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University in Prague. pp. 65–79. ISBN 978-80-246-1645-2.
** Vlasto, A. P. (1970). The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-10758-7.
** Wiszewski, Przemys?aw (2010). Domus Bolezlai: Values and Social Identity in Dynastic Traditions of Medieval Poland (c. 966–1138). Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-18142-7.
** Zamoyski, Adam (1987). The Polish Way: A Thousand-year History of the Poles and their Culture. Hippocrene Book. ISBN 0-7818-0200-8."14



Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:120.4

; Per Genealogics:
     "Boleslaw was born about 967, the son of Mieszko I and of his first wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa. He ruled as duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and briefly as king of Poland in 1025.
     "In 984 Boleslaw married Henilda, daughter of Ricdag, Markgraf von Meissen. Boleslav divorced her in 985/986, and soon married Judith, daughter of Geisa, prince of Hungary. In 987 he married Emnilde, daughter of Dobromir, duke of Lusatia. Finally in 1018 he married Oda von Meissen, the sister of Hermann. His surviving children were Bexprym (from his second marriage); Mieszko II, Otto and Regelinda, the wife of Hermann, Markgraf von Meissen (from his third marriage); and Matylda from the fourth.
     "After his father's death around 992, Boleslaw was able to expel his father's second wife Oda von Haldensleben and her sons, and unite the country.
     "In 997 Boleslaw sent Archbishop Adalbert of Prague to Prussia on the Baltic Sea, on a mission to convert the heathen Prussians to Christianity - an attempt that would end in Adalbert's martyrdom and subsequent canonisation.
     "From his father Boleslaw had inherited a principality centred on Greater Poland, along the river Warta (the 'valley of the Warta'), and much smaller than today's Poland. By 997 he possessed Silesia and Pomerania (with its chief city Gdansk) and Lesser Poland (with its chief city Cracow). In 999 Boleslaw annexed present-day Moravia, and in 1000 or 1001, part of the present-day Slovakia.
     "In 1000 Emperor Otto III, while on pilgrimage to the tomb of Saint Adalbert at Gniezno, invested Boleslaw with the title _Frater et Cooperator Imperii_ ('Brother and Partner in the Empire'). Some historians state that the emperor also pledged a royal crown to Boleslaw. During the same visit, Otto III accepted Gniezno's status as an archbishopric.
     "After the untimely death of Otto III in 1002 aged just 22, Boleslaw conquered Meissen and Lusatia, wresting imperial territory for himself during the disputes over succession to the imperial throne. He and his father had earlier backed Heinrich II, duke of Bavaria against Otto, and Boleslaw now accepted the accession of his son as Emperor Heinrich II.
     "Boleslaw conquered Bohemia and Moravia in 1003-1004, declaring himself duke, and ruling as Boleslaw IV.
     "At the request of his son-in-law Swjatopolk I Okajanny, grand duke of Kiev, Boleslaw intervened in Kievan affairs; not only did he expel Yaroslav 'the Wise' from Kiev, but he seems to have deployed his troops in the Rus' capital for about half a year. It was during this campaign that Boleslaw annexed the Red strongholds, later called Red Ruthenia.
     "The intermittent wars with the Holy Roman Empire ended with the Peace of Bautzen in 1018, which left Meissen and Lusatia in Polish hands. Emperor Heinrich II obliged Boleslaw to pledge his fealty again in exchange for the lands that he held in fief.
     "After Heinrich's death in 1024, Boleslaw crowned himself king (in 1025), thereby raising Poland to the rank of a kingdom and being the first Polish king, his predecessors having been 'princes'. His successors as rulers of Poland long desired to be king continuously, like their neighbours in Hungary, but like their neighbours in Bohemia they were only occasionally granted such recognition by their nominal liege lord the emperor, or any such international recognition. Boleslaw sent an army to aid his friend - and nephew - Knud 'den Store' (Canute), king of Denmark and Norway, in his conquest of England.
     "Boleslaw died on 17 June 1025. His son Mieszko II crowned himself king immediately upon his father's death."4

; Per Med Lands:
     "BOLES?AW of Poland, son of MIESZKO I Prince of Poland & his [second] wife Dobrava [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia ([967]-17 Jun 1025). The Chronicæ Polanorum names "Boleslavum" as son of "Meschonem [et] Dubrovcam"[79]. The Annales Kamenzenses name "Bolezlaum Magnum" as son of "Mesco…rex Polanorum" and his wife "Danbrovcam filiam ducis Boemie", born in 967[80]. The Annales Polanorum date the birth of "Boleslaus Chabri" in 967[81]. His father left him as a hostage at the German court after the Quedlinburg mediation of 973 following Prince Mieszko's defeat of Hodo Markgraf der Ostmark[82]. He succeeded his father in 992 as BOLES?AW I "Chrobry/the Brave" Prince of Poland. On his accession, he expelled his stepmother and half-brothers from Poland[83]. He offered safe passage through Poland for St Adalbert, expelled as Bishop of Prague, who entered Prussia to convert the pagans. After Adalbert's martyrdom in Apr 997, Boles?aw ransomed his body for its weight in gold and buried it in Gniezno cathedral[84]. In 1000, Emperor Otto III visited Gniezno, recognised Polish independence, and established the archbishopric of Gniezno as an independent church metropolis covering the whole of Poland, on the authority of a special bull issued by Pope Sylvester II[85]. After the election in 1002 of Heinrich II as King of Germany, a group of German nobles tried to assassinate Prince Boles?aw[86], triggering the Polish-German war which lasted until 1016. During the course of this, Boles?aw occupied Meissen, was invited into Prague by the population, deposed Boleslav III Duke of Bohemia, and installed his brother as duke in his place. After his brother died, Boles?aw assumed the position of duke of Bohemia himself until 1004 when he was driven out of Bohemia by Heinrich II King of Germany[87]. He captured Lausitz in 1007, confirmed in peace meetings at Merseburg in 1013 and Bautzen in 1018[88]. After the Polish-Russian war of 1013, peace was confirmed by the marriage of Duke Boles?aw's daughter to the Grand Prince of Kiev, and in [1017] Prince Boles?aw asked for the hand in marriage of the daughter of Grand Prince Vladimir, wishing to strengthen the bond between Poland and Russia, but this was refused[89]. He helped restore his son-in-law in Kiev in Jul/Aug 1018, forcing the temporary retreat of Iaroslav Vladimirovich to Novgorod[90]. After the death in 1024 of Emperor Heinrich II, with whom Prince Boles?aw had always had poor relations, Pope John XIX agreed to grant Boles?aw a royal crown and he was crowned King of Poland in 1024. The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "17 Jun" of "Bolizlauus dux"[91]. The Breve chronicon Silesiæ records the death in 1025 of "Bolezlaus magnus"[92].
     "m firstly ([984], divorced [985/86]) --- [von Meissen], daughter of RICDAG Markgraf [von Meissen] & his wife ---. The Annales Kamenzenses record the marriage of "Bolezlaus Magnus" in 984, presumably referring to his first marriage, but do not name his wife[93]. Thietmar records that Boleslaw married "the daughter of Markgraf Rikdag but later sent her away"[94].
     "m secondly (end 985, divorced [986/87]) [--- of Hungary, daughter of GÉZA Prince of Hungary & his first wife Sarolt of Transylvania]. Thietmar records that Boleslaw married "a Hungarian woman" after repudiating his first wife but "also sent her away"[95]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified, but it is chronologically plausible for her to have been the daughter of Prince Géza. This marriage probably ended because of the deterioration in political relations between Poland and Hungary[96].
     "[m thirdly ([987/92]) HODICA, daughter of BILLUG Prince of the Obotrites & his wife ---. Helmold names "Hodicam" as the daughter of "regulus Obotritorum…Billug" and his wife, recording that her maternal uncle installed her as abbess of Mecklenburg[97]. Helmold records in a later passage that "Missizlaus, Obotritorum princeps…sororem suam…Hodicam" was removed from her monastery to marry Boles?aw of Poland, while many other nuns were sent "in terram Wilzorum sive Ranorum" and the monastery dissolved[98]. This is the only source so far identified which refers to this marriage of Prince Boles?aw.]
     "m [thirdly/fourthly] (987) EMNILDA, daughter of DOBROMIR [ruler of Lausitz and the lands of the Milseni][99] (-1017). Thietmar names "Emnilde a daughter of the venerable lord Dobromir" as third wife of Boleslaw[100]. The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Boleslaus" married "felix mulier et prudens" (unnamed), by whom he fathered "filium Meziconem secundum" in 990, in 984[101].
     "m [fourthly/fifthly] (Burg Cziczani 3 Feb 1018) ODA von Meissen, daughter of EKKEHARD I Markgraf von Meissen & his wife Schwanehild [Billung] (-1025). Thietmar records the marriage of "Oda, Markgraf Ekkehard's daughter" and Boleslav in Zützen in 1018 "after septuagesima" (2 Feb)[102]. The chronicler adds the comment "until now she has lived outside the law of matrimony and thus in a manner worthy only of a marriage such as this one", which suggests a reputation for moral dissolution.
Med Lands cites:
[80] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[81] Annales Polanorum II 967, MGH SS XIX, p. 615.
[82] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 142.
[83] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[84] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 156.
[85] Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 155-7 and 194-5.
[86] Thietmar 5.18, cited in Dzeciol, p. 238.
[87] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 260.
[88] Reuter (1991), p. 260.
[89] Gallus Chronicon, I, 7, quoted in Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 223.
[90] Franklin, S and Shepard, J. (1998) The Emergence of Rus 750-1200 (Longman), pp. 186-87. Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London) (“Novgorod Chronicle”) 1016, pp. 1-2.
[91] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg.
[92] Breve chronicon Silesiæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34.
[93] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[94] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[95] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[96] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 215.
[97] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 13, MGH SS XXI, p. 20.
[98] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 22.
[99] Lexikon des Mittelalters, Vol. 3, pp. 1150-51, cited in Thietmar, p. 193 footnote 159. .
[100] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[101] Chronica principum Poloniæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 53.
[102] Thietmar 8.1, p. 361.15
GAV-27 EDV-29 GKJ-30.

; Per Genealogy.EU (Piast 1): "B2. [2m.] Boleslaw I "Chrobry" "the Brave", Ct of Poland (993-1024), became King of Poland (1024-25), Duke of Bohemia (1003-04), *967, +17.6.1025; 1m: 984 (div 985/6) N, a dau.of Mgve Rikdag of Meissen; 2m: 985 (div 987) Judith of Hungary; 3m: 987 Emnilde (+1017) dau.of the Sorb chieftain Dobromir; 4m: Czicania 3.2.1018 Oda (+1025) dau.of Mgve Ekkehard of Meissen."2

; Per Enc. of World History: "BOLESLAV I (Chrobry, the Brave). He ascended the throne at 25 and was the real organizer of the Polish state. An energetic but at times treacherous and cruel ruler, he built up an efficient military machine, laid the basis for an administrative system (comites = castellani = Burggrafen, with civil and military powers), organized the Church (establishment of Benedictine monasteries). Politically his aim appears to have been the union of all western Slavs under his rule. He conquered eastern Pomerania and gained access to the Baltic (992-94), added Silesia, Moravia, and Kraków to his domain (999), and induced Otto III to erect an independent archbishopric of Gnesen (1000). On the death of Otto, he took advantage of the confusion in Germany to occupy Lusatia and Meissen, and in 1003 made himself duke of Bohemia. The new emperor, Henry II, carried on long wars against Boleslav and ultimately forced the abandonment of Bohemia and Lusatia (1005). But in the Treaty of Bautzen (1018), Boleslav was given Lusatia as an imperial fief, and just before his death he was able to make himself king of Poland (1025)."1 He was Duke of the Polans between 25 May 992 and 17 June 1025.14,2 He was Margrave of Saxon Eastern March between 1002 and 1025.14 He was Duke of Bohemia between 1003 and 1004.14,2 He was King of Poland between 18 April 1025 and 17 June 1025.14,2

Family 1

Henilda (?) von Meissen
Children

Family 2

(?) (?) of Hungary b. c 969, d. a 987
Child

Family 3

Emnilde (?) Princess of the Western Slavs, Duchess of the Polans b. bt 970 - 975, d. bt 1013 - 1017
Children

Family 4

Oda (?) von Meissen d. 1025
Child

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 223. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mieszko I Dagon: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049952&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Boleslaw I Chrobry: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049956&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dobrawa|Dubrawka of Bohemia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049954&tree=LEO
  6. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubravka_of_Bohemia. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Judith of Hungary: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00422405&tree=LEO
  9. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#DaughterMBoleslawIPoland. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Emnilde: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049957&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Oda von Meissen: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00422388&tree=LEO
  12. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MEISSEN.htm#Odadied1025
  13. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 30 November 2019), memorial page for Boleslaw I King Of Poland (unknown–17 Jun 1025), Find A Grave Memorial no. 66462184, citing Archcathedral Basilica Of Saint Peter And Saint Pa, Pozna?, Miasto Pozna?, Wielkopolskie, Poland ; Maintained by Anne Shurtleff Stevens (contributor 46947920), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/66462184/boleslaw_i-king_of_poland. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boles%C5%82aw_I_the_Brave
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#BoleslawIdied1025B
  16. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page - The Piast family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00422393&tree=LEO

Emnilde (?) Princess of the Western Slavs, Duchess of the Polans1,2,3

F, #6703, b. between 970 and 975, d. between 1013 and 1017
FatherDobromir (?) Prince of The Western Slavs1,4,5 b. 942
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Emnilde (?) Princess of the Western Slavs, Duchess of the Polans was born between 970 and 975.6,4 She married Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland, son of Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland and Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia, in 987;
His 3rd wife.1,7,4
Emnilde (?) Princess of the Western Slavs, Duchess of the Polans died between 1013 and 1017.1,4
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "BOLES?AW of Poland, son of MIESZKO I Prince of Poland & his [second] wife Dobrava [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia ([967]-17 Jun 1025). The Chronicæ Polanorum names "Boleslavum" as son of "Meschonem [et] Dubrovcam"[79]. The Annales Kamenzenses name "Bolezlaum Magnum" as son of "Mesco…rex Polanorum" and his wife "Danbrovcam filiam ducis Boemie", born in 967[80]. The Annales Polanorum date the birth of "Boleslaus Chabri" in 967[81]. His father left him as a hostage at the German court after the Quedlinburg mediation of 973 following Prince Mieszko's defeat of Hodo Markgraf der Ostmark[82]. He succeeded his father in 992 as BOLES?AW I "Chrobry/the Brave" Prince of Poland. On his accession, he expelled his stepmother and half-brothers from Poland[83]. He offered safe passage through Poland for St Adalbert, expelled as Bishop of Prague, who entered Prussia to convert the pagans. After Adalbert's martyrdom in Apr 997, Boles?aw ransomed his body for its weight in gold and buried it in Gniezno cathedral[84]. In 1000, Emperor Otto III visited Gniezno, recognised Polish independence, and established the archbishopric of Gniezno as an independent church metropolis covering the whole of Poland, on the authority of a special bull issued by Pope Sylvester II[85]. After the election in 1002 of Heinrich II as King of Germany, a group of German nobles tried to assassinate Prince Boles?aw[86], triggering the Polish-German war which lasted until 1016. During the course of this, Boles?aw occupied Meissen, was invited into Prague by the population, deposed Boleslav III Duke of Bohemia, and installed his brother as duke in his place. After his brother died, Boles?aw assumed the position of duke of Bohemia himself until 1004 when he was driven out of Bohemia by Heinrich II King of Germany[87]. He captured Lausitz in 1007, confirmed in peace meetings at Merseburg in 1013 and Bautzen in 1018[88]. After the Polish-Russian war of 1013, peace was confirmed by the marriage of Duke Boles?aw's daughter to the Grand Prince of Kiev, and in [1017] Prince Boles?aw asked for the hand in marriage of the daughter of Grand Prince Vladimir, wishing to strengthen the bond between Poland and Russia, but this was refused[89]. He helped restore his son-in-law in Kiev in Jul/Aug 1018, forcing the temporary retreat of Iaroslav Vladimirovich to Novgorod[90]. After the death in 1024 of Emperor Heinrich II, with whom Prince Boles?aw had always had poor relations, Pope John XIX agreed to grant Boles?aw a royal crown and he was crowned King of Poland in 1024. The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "17 Jun" of "Bolizlauus dux"[91]. The Breve chronicon Silesiæ records the death in 1025 of "Bolezlaus magnus"[92].
     "m firstly ([984], divorced [985/86]) --- [von Meissen], daughter of RICDAG Markgraf [von Meissen] & his wife ---. The Annales Kamenzenses record the marriage of "Bolezlaus Magnus" in 984, presumably referring to his first marriage, but do not name his wife[93]. Thietmar records that Boleslaw married "the daughter of Markgraf Rikdag but later sent her away"[94].
     "m secondly (end 985, divorced [986/87]) [--- of Hungary, daughter of GÉZA Prince of Hungary & his first wife Sarolt of Transylvania]. Thietmar records that Boleslaw married "a Hungarian woman" after repudiating his first wife but "also sent her away"[95]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not so far been identified, but it is chronologically plausible for her to have been the daughter of Prince Géza. This marriage probably ended because of the deterioration in political relations between Poland and Hungary[96].
     "[m thirdly ([987/92]) HODICA, daughter of BILLUG Prince of the Obotrites & his wife ---. Helmold names "Hodicam" as the daughter of "regulus Obotritorum…Billug" and his wife, recording that her maternal uncle installed her as abbess of Mecklenburg[97]. Helmold records in a later passage that "Missizlaus, Obotritorum princeps…sororem suam…Hodicam" was removed from her monastery to marry Boles?aw of Poland, while many other nuns were sent "in terram Wilzorum sive Ranorum" and the monastery dissolved[98]. This is the only source so far identified which refers to this marriage of Prince Boles?aw.]
     "m [thirdly/fourthly] (987) EMNILDA, daughter of DOBROMIR [ruler of Lausitz and the lands of the Milseni][99] (-1017). Thietmar names "Emnilde a daughter of the venerable lord Dobromir" as third wife of Boleslaw[100]. The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Boleslaus" married "felix mulier et prudens" (unnamed), by whom he fathered "filium Meziconem secundum" in 990, in 984[101].
     "m [fourthly/fifthly] (Burg Cziczani 3 Feb 1018) ODA von Meissen, daughter of EKKEHARD I Markgraf von Meissen & his wife Schwanehild [Billung] (-1025). Thietmar records the marriage of "Oda, Markgraf Ekkehard's daughter" and Boleslav in Zützen in 1018 "after septuagesima" (2 Feb)[102]. The chronicler adds the comment "until now she has lived outside the law of matrimony and thus in a manner worthy only of a marriage such as this one", which suggests a reputation for moral dissolution.
Med Lands cites:
[80] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[81] Annales Polanorum II 967, MGH SS XIX, p. 615.
[82] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 142.
[83] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[84] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 156.
[85] Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 155-7 and 194-5.
[86] Thietmar 5.18, cited in Dzeciol, p. 238.
[87] Reuter, T. (1991) Germany in the early middle ages c.800-1056 (Longman), p. 260.
[88] Reuter (1991), p. 260.
[89] Gallus Chronicon, I, 7, quoted in Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 223.
[90] Franklin, S and Shepard, J. (1998) The Emergence of Rus 750-1200 (Longman), pp. 186-87. Michell, R. and Forbes, N (trans.) (1914) The Chronicle of Novgorod 1016-1471 (London) (“Novgorod Chronicle”) 1016, pp. 1-2.
[91] Althoff, G. (ed.) (1983) Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg (Hannover), Lüneburg.
[92] Breve chronicon Silesiæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34.
[93] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[94] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[95] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[96] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 215.
[97] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 13, MGH SS XXI, p. 20.
[98] Helmoldi Chronica Slavorum I, 15, MGH SS XXI, p. 22.
[99] Lexikon des Mittelalters, Vol. 3, pp. 1150-51, cited in Thietmar, p. 193 footnote 159. .
[100] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[101] Chronica principum Poloniæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 53.
[102] Thietmar 8.1, p. 361.8

; Per Genealogy.EU (Piast 1): "B2. [2m.] Boleslaw I "Chrobry" "the Brave", Ct of Poland (993-1024), became King of Poland (1024-25), Duke of Bohemia (1003-04), *967, +17.6.1025; 1m: 984 (div 985/6) N, a dau.of Mgve Rikdag of Meissen; 2m: 985 (div 987) Judith of Hungary; 3m: 987 Emnilde (+1017) dau.of the Sorb chieftain Dobromir; 4m: Czicania 3.2.1018 Oda (+1025) dau.of Mgve Ekkehard of Meissen."1

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:120.
2. Królewska Krew, Poznan, 1997 , Prinke, Rafal & Andrzej Sikorski. 234.4


; This is the same person as:
”Emnilda” at Wikipedia and as
”Emnilda s?owia?ska” at Wikipedia (PL).3,2 GAV29 EDV29. She was Duchess consort of the Polans between 992 and 1017.3

Family

Boleslaw I "Chrobry" (?) King of Poland b. 967, d. 17 Jun 1025
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (the Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  2. [S4764] Wikipedia - Wolna encyklopedia, online https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Strona_g%C5%82%C3%B3wna, Emnilda s?owia?ska: https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emnilda_s%C5%82owia%C5%84ska. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (PL).
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emnilda. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Emnilde: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049957&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dobromir: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049958&tree=LEO
  6. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Boleslaw I Chrobry: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049956&tree=LEO
  8. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#BoleslawIdied1025B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  9. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page - The Piast family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00422393&tree=LEO

Dobromir (?) Prince of The Western Slavs

M, #6704, b. 942
ReferenceGAV30 EDV31
Last Edited1 Dec 2019
     Dobromir (?) Prince of The Western Slavs was born in 942.1
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:120.2 GAV30 EDV31 GKJ31.

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dobromir: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049958&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (the Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Emnilde: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049957&tree=LEO

Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland1,2,3

M, #6705, b. 922, d. 25 May 992
FatherZiemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans2,4,5 b. 892, d. 964
ReferenceGAV28
Last Edited21 Jul 2020
     Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland was born in 922 at Poznan, Poland; Genealogics says b. ca 935; Wikipedia says b. ca 930; Med Lands says b. 920/930.6,7,2,5,8,9 He married unknown (?);
Possibly his 1st wife - if Adelajda was his daughter and not his sister.2,10,5,9 Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland married Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia, daughter of Boleslav I "the Cruel" (?) Duke of Bohemia and Biogata (?) von Stockow, between 965 and 966;
His 2nd wife.6,7,1,2,5,9,11,12 Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland married Oda von Haldensleben, daughter of Dietrich von Haldensleben Markgraf von der Nordmark, between 978 and 980;
His 3rd wife.2,3,9,13
Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland died on 25 May 992 at Poznan, Miasto Poznan, Wielkopolskie, Poland (now).6,1,2,5,8,9
Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland was buried after 25 May 992 at Archcathedral Basilica Of Saint Peter And Saint Paul, Poznan, Miasto Poznan, Wielkopolskie, Poland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown
     DEATH     unknown, Pozna?, Wielkopolskie, Poland
     Mieszko I (ca. 930 – 25 May 992), was a Duke of the Polans; King of Wends ON Vindakonungr from about 960 until his death. A member of the Piast dynasty, he was son of Siemomysl; grandchild of Lestek; father of Boleslaw I the Brave, the first crowned King of Poland; likely father of Swietoslawa (Sigrid), a Nordic Queen; and grandfather of her son, Cnut the Great.
     The first historical ruler of Poland, Mieszko I is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state. He continued the policy of both his father and grandfather, who were rulers of the pagan tribes located in the area of present Greater Poland. Either through alliances or by use of military force, Mieszko extended the ongoing conquests and early in his reign subordinated Kuyavia and probably Gdansk Pomerania and Masovia. For most of his reign, Mieszko I was involved in warfare for the control of Western Pomerania, eventually conquering it up to the vicinity of the lower Odra River. During the last years of his life he fought the Bohemian state, winning Silesia and probably Lesser Poland.
     Mieszko I's marriage in 965 to the Premyslid princess Dobrawa and his baptism in 966 put him and his country in the cultural sphere of Western Christianity. Apart from the great conquests accomplished during his reign (which proved to be fundamental for the future of Poland), Mieszko I was renowned for his internal reforms, aimed at expanding and improving the so-called war monarchy system.
     According to existing sources, Mieszko I was a wise politician, a talented military leader and charismatic ruler. He successfully used diplomacy, concluding an alliance with Bohemia first, and then with Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire. In foreign policy, he placed the interests of his country foremost, even entering into agreements with former enemies. On his death, he left to his sons a country of greatly expanded territory, with a well-established position in Europe.
     Mieszko I also appeared as "Dagome" in a papal document from about 1085, called Dagome iudex, which mentions a gift or dedication of Mieszko's land to the Pope (the act took place almost a hundred years earlier).
     Family Members
     Spouse
          Dobrawa Of Bohemia
     Children
          Boleslaw I King Of Poland unknown–1025
     BURIAL     Archcathedral Basilica Of Saint Peter And Saint Pail, Pozna?, Miasto Pozna?, Wielkopolskie, Poland
     Maintained by: Anne Shurtleff Stevens
     Originally Created by: Jerry Ferren
     Added: 4 Mar 2011
     Find A Grave Memorial 66462458.14
     ; Per Genealogics:
     "Mieszko was born about 935, the son of the semi-legendary Ziemomyse. He was the first historically known Piast duke of the Polans, who gave their name to the country that would later be called Poland. Mieszko was not the duke's actual name but was given to him later - contemporary documents called him Mesco, Misico, Mesico, Msko or similar, with one strange exception - he also appeared as Dagome in document called _Dagome iudex._
     "Mieszko's first wife's name is not recorded. In 965 he married Dobrawa/Dubrawka of Bohemia, daughter of Wratislaw I, duke of Bohemia, and they had a son Boleslaw and daughter Gunhild/Swjatoslawa/Sygryda, both of whom would have progeny. Swajatoslawa (generally accepted by historians as the best approximation of her Slavic name) was the wife (as Queen Sigrid 'the Haughty') of Eric Segersall 'the Victorious', king of Sweden and Denmark, and then (as Queen Gunhilda) of Svend I 'Forkbeard', king in Denmark, Norway and England, and mother of Knud 'den Store' (Canute), king of England, Denmark and Norway.
     "In 980 he married Oda von Haldensleben, daughter of Dietrich von Haldensleben, Margrave von der Nordmark, after abducting her from the monastery of Kalbe. They had three sons of whom only one, also called Mieszko, would have progeny.
     "The early career of Mieszko was dominated by fighting with the tribes of Wieletes and Volinians south of the Baltic Sea, and their ally, the Saxon count Wichman. Mieszko was baptised in 966, probably under the influence of his Christian first wife, or perhaps in order to avoid confrontation with the Holy Roman Empire to the west. He built a church dedicated to Saint George at Gniezno, and in 968 he founded the first Polish cathedral in Poznán dedicated to Saint Peter. Those events are also known as 'the Baptism of Poland'.
     "At the time of the reign of Mieszko no single place served as the capital; instead he built several castles around his country, of which the most important were Poznán, Gniezno and Ostrów Lednicki. The latter was a ring-fort some 460 feet in diameter, containing his residence, a fine stone palace which represented the country's first monumental architecture.
     "He probably had one sister of unknown name, and two brothers: one of them, name unknown, was killed in battle around 964; the second, named Czeibor, helped Mieszko to defeat Count Hodo in the Battle of Cedynia in 972.
     "Some historians suggest that Mieszko I had pledged allegiance to Emperor Otto I 'the Great', to Emperor Otto II and again to Emperor Otto III. However there is much dispute over this point from the Polish side - mainly whether his allegiance represented the whole of Poland, or only part (the disputed fragment is 'usque in Vurta fluvium' from the medieval chronicle _Thietmari chronicon._ This also stated that Mieszko pledged allegiance to Margrave Gero, but since the chronicle itself is believed to be an abstract of another which does not mention this, it is now generally considered to be a myth. Mieszko's reign began around 962 in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), in Kuyavia (Kujawy) and possibly in eastern Pomerania. In the 960s he probably at least partly conquered western Pomerania, and in the 990s he conquered Silesia and Little Poland (Malopolska).
     "Much of his military activity was along the Baltic coast, in territory later called Pomerania. He defeated Margrave Hodo of the Northern March at Cedynia in 972, and reached the mouth of the Oder (Odra) river in 976. The decisive battle, fought in 979, ensured Mieszko's position as ruler of the area (or forced him to an allegiance with Emperor Otto II). The following year he celebrated his temporary conquest by dedicating a fortress at Gdansk. Settlements there have existed for millennia, and Pomeranian and Prussian territories overlap at the mouth of the Vistula River.
     "In 981 Mieszko I lost land known only as Grody Czerwienskie to Vladimir I, prince of Kiev. In 986, after the death of Emperor Otto II in 983, he pledged allegiance to the Emperor Otto III after initially opposing him, and he helped Otto in wars against the Polabians. Shortly before his death he gifted his state to the pope and received it as a fief of the pope in a document usually called the _Dagome Iudex._ This document indexes the lands of Mieszko, referred to as 'Dagome' in the document, and his wife, the former nun Oda von Haldensleben and her sons by him. His son Boleslaw I from his previous marriage is not mentioned. On this basis, some historians have concluded that Mieszko's real name was Dago or Dagr, and that he was of the royal Daglinger of Norway.
     "Mieszko died on 25 May 992, and was succeeded by his son Boleslaw I."5

; Per Genealogy.EU: "Mieszko I, baptized in 966, Ct of Poland (962-993), *922, +Poznan 25.5.992, bur St.Peter, Poznan; 1m: NN; 2m: 965 Dobrava of Bohemia (*ca 937 +977); 3m: 979/980 Oda (+1023) dau.of Gf Dietrich von Haldensleben, Mgve of the Nordmark."2

Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: II 120.3

; Per Med Lands:
     "MIESZKO of Poland, son of ZIEMOMYS? of Poland & his wife Gorka --- ([920/30]-25 May 992[38]). The Chronicæ Polanorum names "Meschonem" as son of "Semimizl", specifying that he was first called by another name (not specified) and was blind for seven years from birth[39]. The Annales Polanorum state that "Semomislaus genuit Miscko cecum" in 920, and in 931 state that "Mesko dux mirabiliter illuminator"[40]. Dzieciol says that the traditional view of Polish historians is that Mieszko was aged about 70 when he died[41]. However, this appears old in light of the dates of his two known marriages and the dates of birth of his known children. He is cited in 963 as MIESZKO I Prince of Poland by the chronicler Widukind of Corvey who records his defeat in two battles by "the Slavs" led by Wichman[42]. In 965, Prince Mieszko formed an alliance with Boleslav I Duke of Bohemia, confirmed by his marriage to the latter's daughter, the new queen influencing her husband's baptism at Easter 966 and being instrumental in the start of Poland's conversion to Christianity[43]. In 967, Pope John XIII established a missionary bishopric at Poznan under Bishop Jordan[44]. According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Gero Markgraf von Ostmark obliged Prince Mieszko to pay tribute to Emperor Otto I "der Große"[45]. While it is unclear whether any relationship of vassalage to the empire resulted, after his conversion Mieszko was referred to as "amicum imperatoris"[46]. Widukind records that "Misacam" and his Bohemian allies defeated the western Pomeranians in 967 and killed their leader Wichman[47]. Thietmar records that Prince Mieszko was attacked by Hodo Markgraf der Ostmark but defeated him at Zehden [Cydyna] 24 Jun 972[48]. The dispute was mediated in Quedlinburg in 973 by Emperor Otto. Prince Mieszko left his son Boles?aw at the German court as a hostage, but placed him under the protection of the Holy See by sending a lock of his son's hair to the Pope[49]. Better relations with Germany appear to have been restored by Prince Mieszko's third marriage[50]. This probably gave the necessary diplomatic backing to Mieszko's conquest of Krakow and Silesia from the Bohemians towards the end of his reign[51]. The Russian Primary Chronicle records that in 981 Vladimir Grand Prince of Kiev invaded Polish territory and conquered Czerwie?, "Peremyshl" and other cities[52]. In [990], Prince Mieszko donated his whole country to the papacy, signalling an assertion of his autonomy from the empire (at that time still controlled by the regent Empress Theophano) while at the same time affirming papal pre-eminence[53]. "Dagome iudex et Ote senatrix et filii eorum Misica et Lambertus" donated "civitatem…Schinesghe" to the papacy by charter dated to [Aug 995/25 May 992][54]. Thietmar describes Mieszko as "senex" at his death[55].
     "[m firstly ---. The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Mesico" had seven wives whom he repudiated before marrying "christianisimam mulierem de Bohemia, Dubraucam" in 966[56], which suggests that they were polygamous marriages. While this is probably an exaggeration to contrast his previous pagan ways with his post-baptismal way of life, it does seem probable that Mieszko married earlier than 965 especially if he was born in the earlier part of the estimated birth date range shown above. There is, however, no evidence of any children born from an earlier marriage[57], unless one of them was Adelajda who is recorded elsewhere as Mieszko's sister (as discussed above).]
     "m [secondly] ([965/66]) DOBRAVA [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia, daughter of BOLESLAV I "der Grausame" Duke of the Bohemians & his wife Biagota --- ([940/45]-977). The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum" married "Danbrovcam filiam ducis Boemie" in 965[58]. The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Mesico" married "christianisimam mulierem de Bohemia, Dubraucam" in 966 and converted to Christianity[59]. Thietmar names "the sister of Boleslav the Elder…Dobrawa" as the wife of Mieszko of Poland[60]. The Chronicæ Polanorum names "unam christianissimam de Bohemia Dubrovcam nomine" as wife of "Meschonem"[61]. Bearing in mind that Dobrawa gave birth to [four] children, it is unlikely that she was born much earlier than [940/45]. Her marriage was arranged to confirm the alliance between her father and her prospective husband. After her arrival in Poland, she converted Prince Mieszko to Christianity and was instrumental in the conversion of the whole country in 966[62]. The Chronica Boemorum records the death in 977 of "Dubrauca" wife of "Poloniensi duci"[63].
     "m [thirdly] ([978/79]) ODA [von Haldensleben], daughter of DIETRICH Markgraf über den Gau der Heveller [Nordmark] & his wife --- (-1023). Thietmar records Mieszko's marriage to "Markgraf Dietrich's daughter…Oda", specifying that she was a nun at the convent of Calbe and married "without the approval of the church"[64]. Thietmar records that, after her husband's death, her stepson expelled her and her children from Poland[65].
Med Lands cites:
[38] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[39] Chronicæ Polanorum I.4, MGH SS IX, p. 427.
[40] Annales Polanorum II 920 and 931, MGH SS XIX, p. 612.
[41] Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 211 and 293 footnote 27.
[42] Widukind Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum MGH SS III, III 66, p. 463. Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 128, deduces that "the Volynians" were the western Pomeranians.
[43] Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 130-1 and 177.
[44] Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 138 and 184.
[45] Thietmar, 2.14, p. 102.
[46] Widukind Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum MGH SS III, III 69, p. 464. The point is discussed in Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 133-4.
[47] Widukind Rerum Gestarum Saxonicarum MGH SS III, III 69, p. 464.
[48] Thietmar 2.29, p. 114.
[49] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 142.
[50] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 144.
[51] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 148.
[52] The Primary Russian Chronicle, 981, Dzieciol highlighting, p. 285 footnote 87, that "Peremyshl" may have been either Przemy?l-on-San or Peremil-on-Styr.
[53] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 153.
[54] Appelt, H. (ed.) (1971) Schlesisches Urkundenbuch, Erster Nabd 971-1230 (Wien, Köln, Graz) (“Schlesisches Urkundenbuch“) I 971-1230, 2, p. 2.
[55] Thietmar 4.58, p. 193.
[56] Chronica principum Poloniæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 47.
[57] Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 212.
[58] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[59] Chronica principum Poloniæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 47.
[60] Thietmar 4. 55, p. 191.
[61] Chronicæ Polanorum I.5, MGH SS IX, p. 428.
[62] Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 130-1.
[63] Cosmæ Pragensis Chronica Boemorum I.27, MGH SS IX, p. 51.9


; Per Wikipedia:
     "Mieszko I (About this soundPolish (help·info); c.?930 – 25 May 992)[1] was the ruler of Poland[2] from about 960 until his death. A member of the Piast dynasty, he was a son of Siemomys?, and a grandson of Lestek. He was the father of Boles?aw I the Brave (the first crowned king of Poland) and of Gunhild of Wenden.[3] Most sources make Mieszko I the father of Sigrid the Haughty, a Scandinavian queen, though one source identifies her father as Skoglar Toste, and the grandfather of Canute the Great (Gundhild's son), and the great-grandfather of Gunhilda of Denmark, Canute the Great's daughter and wife of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.
     "While he was the first Christian ruler of Poland, he continued the policies of both his father and grandfather, who initiated the process of creation of the Polish state. Through both alliances and the use of military force, Mieszko extended ongoing Polish conquests and early in his reign subjugated Kuyavia and probably Gda?sk Pomerania and Masovia. For most of his reign, Mieszko I was involved in warfare for the control of Western Pomerania, eventually conquering it up to the vicinity of the lower Oder river. During the last years of his life, he fought the Bohemian state, winning Silesia and probably Lesser Poland.
     "Mieszko I's alliance with the Czech prince, Boleslaus I the Cruel, strengthened by his marriage in 965 to the Czech P?emyslid princess Dobrawa, and his baptism in 966 put him and his country in the cultural sphere of Western Christianity. Apart from the great conquests accomplished during his reign (which proved to be fundamental for the future of Poland) Mieszko I was renowned for his internal reforms, aimed at expanding and improving the so-called war monarchy system.
     "According to existing sources, Mieszko I was a wise politician, a talented military leader, and a charismatic ruler. He successfully used diplomacy, concluding alliances, first with Bohemia, then Sweden, and the Holy Roman Empire. In foreign policy, he placed the interests of his country foremost, even entering into agreements with his former enemies. On his death, he left to his sons a country with greatly expanded territories, and a well-established position in Europe.
     "Mieszko I also enigmatically appeared as "Dagome" in a papal document dating to about 1085, called Dagome iudex, which mentions a gift or dedication of Mieszko's land to the Pope (the act took place almost a hundred years earlier).
     "It is roughly his borders that Poland was returned to in 1945.
Date of birth
     "There is no certain information on Mieszko I's life before he took control over his lands. Only the Lesser Poland Chronicle gives the date of his birth as somewhere between the years 920–931 (depending on the version of the manuscript), however, modern researchers don't recognize the Chronicle as a reliable source. Several historians on the basis of their investigations postulated the date of Mieszko I's birth to have been between 922–945;[4] the activity of the Duke in his final years of life puts the date of his birth closer to the latter year.[5]
Name
     "There are three major theories concerning the origin and meaning of Mieszko I's name. The most popular theory, proposed by Jan D?ugosz, explains that Mieszko is a diminutive of Mieczys?aw, a combination of two elements or lexemes: Miecz meaning sword and S?aw meaning famous. Today, this theory is rejected by the majority of Polish historians, who consider the name Mieczys?aw to have been invented by D?ugosz to explain the origin of the name Mieszko. Today, we know that ancient Slavs never formed their names using either animal names or weapon names. Ancient Slavic names were abstract in nature. The same explanation rules out another theory about the origin of the name Mieszko, which links the name with the Polish word mi?/mi?ko meaning bear, as no animal names were used to form honorable Polish names among Polish nobility.[6]
     "The second most popular theory about the origin and sense of Mieszko's name can be traced to the very old legend, firstly described by Gallus Anonymus, according to which Mesco (the Latinized form used by the earliest sources) was blind during his first seven years of life. The chronicler related this story (a typical medieval allegory) as follows:
     "At that time (after Mieszko recovered his eyesight) Prince Siemomys? urgently asked the elderly people of his country whether his son's blindness conveyed some miraculous meaning. They explained that this blindness meant that Poland was blind back then, but from now was going to be illuminated by Mieszko and elevated over the neighboring nations.
This interpretation was a clear reference to the later baptism of the Duke:
     "Poland was indeed blind before, knowing nothing about the true God or the principles of the Catholic faith, but thanks to the enlightenment of Mieszko the country also had become enlightened, because when he adopted the faith, the Polish nation was saved from death and destruction.[7]
In addition, it is known that the Slavic word "mzec" can be interpreted as "having his eyes closed" or "be blind". Yet again, today it is almost certain that this legend was used as a metaphor, in allusion to the old Slavic pagan ceremony known as the "postrzy?yny": During that ceremony hair cutting was performed to every boy at the age of seven. In that symbolic rite a child became a man. That explains that Mieszko wasn't blind in fact. He was blind only metaphorically. Besides his son's name was also Mieszko and it is hard to believe that he was also blind. In addition, as we know today ancient Slavs used only abstract names among nobility.[6]
     "The third theory links the name of Mieszko with his other name, Dagome, as it appeared in the document called Dagome iudex. We know this document only from a copy prepared by an anonymous monk who was not familiar with Polish language or Polish names. It is possible that while copying the document he made a mistake and wrote down Dagome instead of Dagomer or even Dagomir. The name Dagomir is used to this day and its construction is similar to other Polish names like for example: W?adimir/W?odzimierz or Casimir/Kazimierz. The evolution of the "-mir" element to "-mierz" is due to two separate developments: first, the regular change of the vowel "i" to "(i)e" before "r", and second, the modification of the nominative case by the vocative for certain names (hence, Kazimierz replaced Kazimier based on the vocative Kazimierze). It is debatable whether the name Mieszko is a nickname formed from the second part of the name *Dago-mierz, since the merger in pronunciation of "sz" with the devoiced "rz" which would appear in this position is quite recent.[6] However, some historians believe that the word "Dagome" is a melding of two names: the Roman Catholic "Dago," for "Dagobert" (Mieszko's hypothetical baptismal name), and the Slavic "Me," for "Mieszko." The Latin word "iudex" ("judge") would be used in the meaning of "prince." Another interpretation is that "Dagome iudex" is a corruption of "Ego Mesco dux" ("I, Prince Mieszko").[8]
His Reign
Early reign
     "Mieszko I took over the tribal rule after his father's death ca. 950–960, probably closer to the latter date.[9] Due to the lack of sources it is not possible to determine exactly which lands he inherited. Certainly among them were the areas inhabited by the Polans and Goplans,[10] as well as the Sieradz-??czyca lands and Kuyavia.[11] It is possible that this state included also Masovia[12] and Gda?sk Pomerania.[13] Soon the new ruler had faced the task of integrating the relatively large, ethnically and culturally heterogeneous territory. Although the residents of areas controlled by Mieszko spoke mostly one language, had similar beliefs and reached a similar level of economic and general development, they were socially connected primarily by tribal structures. It appears that the elders cooperating with the Duke first felt the need for super-tribal unity, as expansion allowed them to broaden their influence.
     "Mieszko and his people were described around 966 by Abraham ben Jacob, a Sephardi Jewish traveller, who at that time visited the Prague court of Duke Boleslav I the Cruel.[14] Abraham presented Mieszko I as one of the four Slavic "kings",[15] reigning over a vast "northern" area, with a highly regarded and substantial military force at his disposal. More precise contemporary records regarding Mieszko were compiled by Widukind of Corvey, and half a century later, by Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg.
     "By the time Mieszko I took over from his father, the Polans' tribal federation of Greater Poland had for some time been actively expanding. Continuing this process, perhaps in the first years of Mieszko's reign, if it had not been done already by his father, Mieszko I conquered Masovia. Likely also during that period or earlier, at least partially Gda?sk Pomerania was obtained.[11] Mieszko's interests were then concentrated mainly on areas occupied by the eastern (near the Oder River) branches of the Polabian Slavs; some of them became soon subordinated by him. As Widukind of Corvey wrote, Mieszko ruled over the tribe called the Licicaviki, now commonly identified with the Polabian Lubusz Land.[16] Having the control over those more western (in respect to the original homeland of the Polans) tribes, Mieszko had entered the German sphere of influence.
     "In 963 the German Margrave Gero conquered territories occupied by the Polabian Lusatian and S?upian tribes, and as a result came into direct contact with the Polish state. At the same time (about 960) Mieszko I began his expansion against the Velunzani and Lutici tribes. The war was recorded by the chronicler Abraham ben Jacob. According to him, Mieszko I had fought against the Weltaba tribe, commonly identified with the Veleti. Wichmann the Younger, a Saxon nobleman who was then a leader of a band of Polabian Slavs, defeated Mieszko twice, and around 963 a brother of Mieszko, whose name is unknown, was killed in the fighting. The frontiers at the mouth of the Oder River were also desired by the German margraves. In addition, the Veleti Bohemia, which at that time possessed Silesia and Lesser Poland regions, constituted a danger for the young state of the Polans.
     "Margrave Gero's war; Mieszko's homage to the Emperor
The chronicle of Thietmar poses some problems of interpretation of the information regarding the attack of Margrave Gero on the Slavic tribes, as a result of which he purportedly subordinated to the authority of the Emperor Lusatia and the Selpuli (meaning the S?upian tribes) and also Mieszko with his subjects. According to the majority of modern historians,[17] Thietmar made an error summarizing the chronicle of Widukind, placing the Gero raid there instead of the fighting that Mieszko conducted at that time against Wichmann the Younger. Other sources make no mention of such conquest and of putting the Polans state on the same footing with the Polabian Slavs. On the other hand, the supporters of the Gero's invasion theory[18] believe that the Margrave did actually carry out a successful invasion, as a result of which Mieszko I was forced to pay tribute to the Emperor and also was compelled to adopt Catholicism through the German Church. The thesis that proposes the introduction of Catholicism as a result of this war finds no confirmation in German sources.
     "The homage is then a separate issue, since, according to the chronicle of Thietmar, Mieszko actually paid tribute to the Emperor from the lands usque in Vurta fluvium (up to the Warta River).[19] In all probability Mieszko decided to pay tribute in order to avoid an invasion similar to the one that Lusatia had suffered. This homage would take place in 965, or in 966 at the latest. Very likely the tribute applied only to the Lubusz land, which was in the German sphere of influence.[20] This understanding of the tribute issue explains why already in 967 Mieszko I was described in the Saxon chronicles as the Emperor's friend (or ally, supporter, Latin: amicus imperatoris).
Marriage and conversion to Catholicism
Probably in 964 Mieszko began negotiations with the Bohemian ruler Boleslav I the Cruel. As a result, in 965 Mieszko I married his daughter Dobrawa (also named Dobrava, Doubravka or D?brówka).[21] This political Polish-Bohemian alliance is likely to have been initiated by the Polish ruler. It is probable that the marriage was officially arranged in February 965.[22]
     "The next step was the baptism of Mieszko. There are different hypotheses concerning this event. Most often it is assumed that it was a political decision, intended to bring Mieszko's state closer to the Czechs and to facilitate his activities in the Polabian Slavs area. At the same time, the baptism decreased the likelihood of future attacks by German margraves and deprived them of the opportunity to attempt Roman Catholicization of Mieszko's lands by force. An additional reason could be Mieszko's desire to remove from power the influential pagan priest class, who may have been blocking his efforts to establish a more centralized rule.[23]
     "A different hypothesis is linked with the above-mentioned acceptance of the veracity of Gero's invasion of Poland. According to it, it was the attack of the Margrave that forced the Catholicization, which was to be an act of subordination to the Emperor, done without the mediation of the Pope.[24]
     "Still other motives were responsible according to Gallus Anonymus, who claimed that it was the Bohemian Princess Dobrawa who convinced her husband to change his religion. Likewise chronicler Thietmar attributes Mieszko's conversion to Dobrawa's influence. There are no reasons to negate Dobrawa's role in Mieszko's acceptance of Roman Catholicism; however crediting rulers' wives with positive influence over their husbands' actions was a common convention at that time.
     "It is generally recognized that the baptism of Mieszko I took place in 966.[25] The place is unknown; it could have had happened in any of the cities of the Empire (possibly Regensburg), but also in one of the Polish towns like Gniezno or Ostrów Lednicki.[26] The belief that the baptism was accomplished through the Czechs in order to avoid the dependence on Germany and the German Church is incorrect,[27] because Bohemia would not have its own church organization until 973. At the time of the baptism of Mieszko the existing Bohemian church establishment was a part of the Regensburg diocese. Thus, if the Polish ruler accepted the baptism through Prague's mediation, it had to be sanctioned in Regensburg. However, the religious vocabulary (words like baptism, sermon, prayer, church, apostle, bishop or confirmation) were adopted from the Czech language and had to come from Dobrawa's entourage and the church elements that arrived with her. Perhaps with her also came the first Polish bishop, Jordan. It could be that the reason for the Czech preference of Mieszko was the existence in Bohemia of a mission which followed the precepts of the Byzantine Greek brothers and later saints Cyril and Methodius, who developed and performed the liturgy in the Slavic rite, more readily understood by Mieszko and his subjects. The Slavic rite church branch had survived in Bohemia for another hundred years after Mieszko's baptism.
Conquest of Pomerania
     "After the normalization of relations with the Holy Roman Empire and Bohemia, Mieszko I returned to his plans of conquest of the more western part of Pomerania. On 21 September 967 the Polish-Bohemian troops prevailed in the decisive battle against the Wolinians led by Wichmann the Younger, which gave Mieszko the control over the mouth of the Odra River.[28] The German margraves had not opposed Mieszko's activities in Pomerania, perhaps even supported them; the death of the rebellious Wichmann, who succumbed to his wounds soon after the battle, may have been in line with their interests. A telling incident took place after the battle, a testimony to Mieszko's high standing among the Empire's dignitaries, just one year after his baptism: Widukind of Corvey reported that the dying Wichmann asked Mieszko to hand over Wichmann's weapons to Emperor Otto I, to whom Wichmann was related. For Mieszko the victory had to be a satisfying experience, especially in light of his past defeats inflicted by Wichmann.
     "The exact result of Mieszko's fighting in Western Pomerania is not known. Subsequent loss of the region by Mieszko's son Boles?aw Chrobry suggests that the conquest was difficult and the hold over that territory rather tenuous. In one version of the legend of St. Wojciech[29] it is written that Mieszko I had his daughter[30] married to a Pomeranian prince, who previously voluntarily was washed with the holy water of the baptism in Poland. The above information, as well as the fact that Boles?aw lost Western Pomerania, suggest that the region was not truly incorporated into the Polish state, but only became a fief. This conjecture seems to be confirmed in the introduction of the first volume of the chronicles of Gallus Anonymus concerning the Pomeranians: Although often the leaders of the forces defeated by the Polish duke sought salvation in baptism, as soon as they regained their strength, they repudiated the 'Christian' (that is, Roman Catholic) faith and started the war against Christian anew.
War against Margrave Odo I of Ostmark
     "In 972 Poland suffered the attack of Odo I, Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark. According to the chronicles of Thietmar, this attack was an arbitrary action, without the consent of the Emperor:
     "Meanwhile,[31] the noble Margrave Hodo, having collected his army attacked Mieszko, who has been faithfully paying tribute to the Emperor (for the lands) up the Warta river.[32]
     "There are different hypotheses concerning the reasons for this invasion. Possibly Margrave Odo wanted to stop the growing power of the Polish state. Very likely Odo wanted to protect the Wolinian state, which he considered his zone of influence, from the Polish take-over.[33] Possibly the Wolinians themselves called the Margrave and asked his help.[34] In any event, Odo's forces moved in and on 24 June 972 twice engaged Mieszko's army at the village of Cidini, commonly identified with Cedynia. At first, the Margrave defeated Mieszko's forces; subsequently the Duke's brother Czcibor defeated the Germans in the decisive stage, inflicting great losses among their troops. It may be that Mieszko intentionally staged the retreat, which was followed by a surprise attack on the flank of the German pursuing troops.[35] After this battle, Mieszko and Odo were called to the Imperial Diet in Quedlinburg in 973 to explain and justify their conduct. The exact judgment of the Emperor is unknown, but it's certain that the sentence wasn't carried out because he died a few weeks after the Diet. It is commonly assumed that the sentence was unfavorable to the Polish ruler. The Annals of Altaich indicates that Mieszko was not present in Quedlinburg during the gathering; instead, he had to send his son Boles?aw as a hostage.[citation needed]
     "Mieszko's conflict with Odo I was a surprising event because, according to Thietmar, Mieszko respected the Margrave highly. Thietmar wrote the following:
     "Mieszko would never wear his outdoor garment in a house where Odo was present, or remain seated after Odo had gotten up.
It is believed that in practical terms the victory at Cedynia sealed Western Pomerania's fate as Mieszko' dependency.
Acquisitions in the east
     "According to archaeological research, during the 970s the Sandomierz region and the Przemy?l area inhabited by the Lendians became incorporated into the Polish state.[36] None of it is certain for the lack of written sources. It is possible that especially the Przemy?l area, inhabited by the Lendians and the White Croats, belonged at that time to Bohemia, which supposedly extended up to the Bug River and Styr River.[37] The Primary Chronicle states that in 981 Vladimir of the Rurik Dynasty went towards the Lachy and took their towns: Przemy?l, Czerwie? and other strongholds (...) The exact interpretation of this passage is uncertain, because the Ruthenian word "Lachy" meant both the Poles in general and the southeastern Lendians tribe.[38] Mieszko's conquest of Sandomierz could also have taken place later, together with the take-over of the Vistulans (western and central Lesser Poland).[39]
     "Some historians suggest that the regions of Sandomierz, Lublin and Czerwie? (western Red Ruthenia) were indeed annexed by Mieszko's state in the 970s, as lands valuable for trade reasons and as a starting point for a future attack against what was to become Lesser Poland, then in the hands of Bohemia. Sandomierz under this scenario was the central hub of the area, with Czerwie?, Przemy?l and Che?m assuming the function of defensive borderland strongholds.[40]
Involvement in German internal disputes; Second marriage
     "After the death of Emperor Otto I in 973 Mieszko, like his brother-in-law, Duke Boleslav II of Bohemia, joined the German opposition in support of the attempted imperial succession of Henry II, Duke of Bavaria. Mieszko may have been motivated by revenge because of the (presumably) negative verdict of the Quedlinburg summit, but, more importantly, he may have wanted more favorable terms for his cooperation with Germany.[41] The participation of Mieszko in the conspiracy against Otto II was documented in only one source, the chronicles of the monastery in Altaich in its entry for the year 974. The Duke of Bavaria was defeated, and Emperor Otto II regained full power. Shortly afterwards, the young emperor waged a retaliatory expedition against Bohemia, in 978 forcing Duke Boleslav into submission.
     "In 977 Mieszko's wife, Dobrawa, died. At first there were no apparent repercussions, as the Polish ruler had maintained his alliance with Bohemia.
     "In 979 Otto II supposedly attacked Poland. Mention of this event can be found in the Chronicle of the Bishops of Cambrai from the 11th century. The effects of this expedition are unknown, but it is suspected that the Emperor did not succeed. Due to bad weather, the Emperor was back at the border of Thuringia and Saxony in December of that year. It is uncertain whether the invasion actually took place. The chronicle only stated that it was an expedition "against the Slavs". Archaeological discoveries appear to support the thesis of Otto II's invasion. In the last quarter of the 10th century there had been a radical expansion of the fortifications at Gniezno and Ostrów Lednicki, which may be associated with the Polish-German war, or the expectation of such.[42] The duration of the expedition suggests that it may have reached as far east as the vicinity of Pozna?.[43]
     "The Polish-German agreement was concluded in the spring or possibly summer of 980,[44] because in November of that year Otto II left his country and went to Italy. It appears that during this time Mieszko I married Oda, daughter of Dietrich of Haldensleben, Margrave of the Northern March, after abducting her from the monastery of Kalbe.[45] Chronicler Thietmar described the event as follows:
     "When Boles?aw's mother died his father married, without permission from the Church, a nun from the monastery in Kalbe, daughter of Margrave Dietrich. Oda was her name and her guilt was great. For she scorned her vows to God, and gave preference to the man of war before him (...) But because of the concern for the well-being of the homeland and the necessity to secure its peace, the event caused no break of relations, instead a proper way was found to restore concord. For thanks to Oda the legion of followers of Christ became augmented, many prisoners returned to their country, the shackled had their chains taken off, and the gates of prisons were opened for the trespassers.[46]
Although Thietmar made no mention of warfare that possibly took place on this occasion, the information on the return of the accord, acting for the good of the country and release of prisoners indicate that a conflict actually did occur.[47]
     "The marriage with Oda considerably affected the position and prestige of Mieszko, who entered the world of Saxon aristocracy. As a son-in-law of Margrave Dietrich, he gained an ally in one of the most influential politicians of the Holy Roman Empire. As the Margrave was a distant relative of the Emperor, Mieszko became a member of the circle connected to the imperial ruling house.
Cooperation with Sweden and the war against Denmark
     "Probably in the early 980s Mieszko allied his country with Sweden against Denmark. The alliance was sealed with the marriage of Mieszko's daughter ?wi?tos?awa with the Swedish king Erik. The content of the treaty is known from the not entirely reliable, but originating directly from the Danish court tradition account given by Adam of Bremen. In this text, probably as a result of confusion, he gives instead of Mieszko's name the name of his son Boles?aw:
The King of the Swedes, Erik, entered into an alliance with the very powerful King of the Polans, Boles?aw. Boles?aw gave Erik his daughter or sister. Because of this cooperation the Danes were routed by the Slavs and the Swedes.

     "Mieszko decided on the alliance with Sweden probably in order to help protect his possessions in Pomerania from the Danish King Harald Bluetooth and his son Sweyn. They may have acted in cooperation with the Wolinian autonomous entity. The Danish were defeated ca. 991 and their ruler was expelled. The dynastic alliance with Sweden had probably affected the equipment and composition of Mieszko's troops. Perhaps at that time the Varangian warriors were recruited; their presence is indicated by archaeological excavations in the vicinity of Pozna?.[48]
Participation in German civil war
     "In 982 Emperor Otto II suffered a disastrous defeat against the Emirate of Sicily. The resulting weakness of the imperial power was exploited by the Lutici, who initiated a great uprising of the Polabian Slavs in 983. The German authority in the area ceased to exist and the Polabian tribes began to threaten the Empire. The death of Otto II at the end of that year contributed further to the unrest. Ultimately the Lutici and the Obotrites were able to liberate themselves from the German rule for the next two centuries.
     "The Emperor left a minor successor, Otto III. The right to care for him and the regency powers were claimed by Henry II of Bavaria. Like in 973, Mieszko and the Czech duke Boleslav II took the side of the Bavarian duke. This fact is confirmed in the chronicle of Thietmar:
     "There arrived (at the Diet of Quedlinburg) also, among many other princes: Mieszko, M?ciwoj and Boleslav and promised to support him under oath as the king and ruler.[49]
     "In 984 the Czechs took over Meissen, but in the same year Henry II gave up his pretension to the German throne.
     "The role played by Mieszko I in the subsequent struggles is unclear because the contemporary sources are scarce and not in agreement. Probably in 985 the Polish ruler ended his support for the Bavarian duke and moved to the side of the Emperor. It is believed that Mieszko's motivation was the threat posed to his interests by the Polabian Slavs uprising. The upheaval was a problem for both Poland and Germany, but not for Bohemia. In the Chronicle of Hildesheim, in the entry for the year 985 it is noted that Mieszko came to help the Saxons in their fight against some Slavic forces, presumably the Polabians.[50]
     "One year later, the Polish ruler had a personal meeting with the Emperor, an event mentioned in the Annals of Hersfeld:
Otto the boy-king ravaged Bohemia, but received Mieszko who arrived with gifts.

     "According to Thietmar and other contemporary chronicles the gift given by Mieszko to the Emperor was a camel. The meeting consolidated the Polish-German alliance, with Mieszko joining Otto's expedition against a Slavic land, which together they wholly devastated (...) with fire and tremendous depopulation. It is not clear which Slavic territory was invaded. Perhaps another raid against the Polabians took place. But there are indications that it was an expedition against the Czechs, Mieszko's first against his southern neighbors.[51] Possibly on this occasion the Duke of the Polans accomplished the most significant expansion of his state, the take-over of Lesser Poland.[52]
     "Thietmar's narrative, however, raises doubts as to whether the joined military operation actually happened. The chronicler claims that a settlement was then concluded between the Emperor and the Bohemian ruler Boleslav II the Pious, which is not mentioned in any other source and is contrary to the realities of the political situation at that time.
     "Another debatable point is Thietmar's claim that Mieszko subordinated himself to the King.[53] Most historians believe that it was only a matter of recognition of Otto's royal authority.[54] Some suggest that a fealty relationship could in fact be involved.[55]
War against Bohemia; incorporation of Silesia and Lesser Poland
     "Whether or not the German-Polish invasion of Bohemia actually happened, the friendly relations between the Czechs and the Poles came to an end. Bohemia resumed its earlier alliance with the Lutici, which caused in 990 a war with Mieszko, who was supported by Empress Theophanu. Duke Boleslav II was probably the first one to attack.[56] As a result of the conflict Silesia was taken over by Poland. However, the annexation of Silesia possibly took place around 985, because during this year the major Piast strongholds in Wroc?aw, Opole and G?ogów were already being built.[57]
     "The issue of the incorporation of Lesser Poland is also not completely resolved. Possibly Mieszko took the region before 990, which is indicated by the vague remark of Thietmar, who wrote of a country taken by Mieszko from Boleslav.[58] In light of this theory, the conquest of Lesser Poland could be a reason for the war, or its first stage. Many historians[59] suggested that the Czech rule over Lesser Poland was only nominal and likely limited to the indirect control of Kraków and perhaps a few other important centers. This theory is based on the lack of archaeological discoveries, which would indicate major building investments undertaken by the Bohemian state.
     "Lesser Poland supposedly after its incorporation had become the partition of the country assigned to Mieszko's oldest son, Boles?aw, which is indirectly indicated in the chronicle of Thietmar.[60]
     "Some historians, on the basis of the chronicle of Cosmas of Prague, believe that the conquest of the lands around the lower Vistula River took place after Mieszko's death, specifically in 999.[61] There is also a theory according to which during this transition period Lesser Poland was governed by Boles?aw Chrobry, whose authority was granted to him by the Bohemian duke.[62]
Dagome iudex
     "At the end of his life (ca. 991-92), Mieszko I, together with his wife Oda and their sons, issued a document called Dagome iudex, where the Polish ruler placed his lands under the protection of the Pope and described their borders. Only a later imprecise summary of the document has been preserved.
     "There are two main theories concerning reasons behind the issuing of Dagome iudex:
** According to the first theory the document was an effort to transform the existing missionary bishopric into a regular organization of the Catholic Church, that would cover all of Mieszko's state. This understanding implies that the arrangement led to payment by Poland of Peter's Pence.[63]
** The second theory assumes that the document was created in order to protect the interests of Mieszko's second wife Oda and their sons (who were named in the document) after Mieszko's death. Boles?aw, Mieszko's eldest son, whose mother was Dobrawa, was not named in the document.[64] However, one of Mieszko's and Oda's sons, ?wi?tope?k, also was not mentioned.

     "Dagome iudex is of capital importance for Polish history because it gives a general description of the Polish state's geographical location at the end of Mieszko's reign.
Late reign, death and succession
     "During his last years of life Mieszko remained loyal to the alliance with the Holy Roman Empire. In 991 he arrived at a gathering in Quedlinburg, where he participated in the customary exchange of gifts with Otto III and Empress Theophanu. In the same year he took part in a joint expedition with the young king to Brandenburg.
     "Mieszko died on 25 May 992.[65] Sources give no reasons to believe that his death occurred from causes other than natural. According to Thietmar the Polish ruler died in an old age, overcame with fever. Probably he was buried in the Pozna? Cathedral. The remains of the first historical ruler of Poland have never been found and the place of his burial is not known with certainty.[66] In 1836–1837 a cenotaph was built for Mieszko I and his successor Boles?aw I the Brave in the Golden Chapel (Polish: Z?ota Kaplica) at the Pozna? Cathedral, where the damaged remains found in the 14th century tomb of Boles?aw were placed.
     "According to Thietmar Mieszko I divided his state before his death among a number of princes. They were probably his sons: Boles?aw I the Brave, Mieszko and Lambert.
     "In 1999 the archeologist Hanna Kó?ka-Krenz located what's left of Mieszko's palace-chapel complex in Pozna?.[67]
Organization of the Polish state
     "The basic structure of the early Polish state was Mieszko's military force. The ruler managed to create an army composed of about 3,000 mounted warriors. This increasingly powerful force allowed the Polans to attack weaker neighboring tribes and conquer their lands. A key factor promoting cohesion of the growing state was fear of the invaders impressed by them among local populations. The first Piasts reinforced their rule by burning local strongholds and replacing them with new larger fortresses, located in strategic positions. Archaeological studies show that this practice was abandoned only at the end of Mieszko's reign, when his position was already well-established.
     "The largest social group in Mieszko's state were free peasants (kmiecie), who cultivated their own land. They had to support the state by levies collected from them and by supporting the duke and his attendants as he traveled around the country. There were also service villages, specializing in production of certain types of items.
     "Many trade routes went through the Polish lands, which facilitated the development of trade. Amber, fur and salt (extracted in Kuyavia and around Ko?obrzeg) were exported to other countries, while cloth, crafts, tools and ornaments were imported.
Accomplishments
** Unification of Polish lands. Mieszko's state was the first state that could be called Poland. He is often considered the founder, the principal creator and builder of the Polish state.[68]
** Acceptance of Roman Catholicism and therefore inclusion of his country in the mainstream civilization and political structures of Roman Catholic Europe.
** Erection of churches. The Gniezno Cathedral was constructed during Mieszko's rule. Very likely the Duke also founded the church at Ostrów Tumski and the Pozna? Cathedral.[69]
** Possibly during Mieszko I's reign Poland began minting its own coin, the denarius.[70]
** At the end of his rule, Mieszko I left to his sons a territory at least twice as large as what he inherited from his father. The most significant were the additions of Silesia, Western Pomerania, and probably Lesser Poland including Kraków.
** The first ruler to conduct efficient foreign policy, which included agreements with Germany, Bohemia and Sweden, and prudently used his military resources.
Marriages and issue
     "According to Gallus Anonymus, before becoming a Roman Catholic Mieszko had seven pagan wives, whom he was required to relinquish, leaving Dobrawa as his only spouse. Nothing is known of the fates of any possible children from these relationships.[72] In 965, before his baptism, Mieszko married Dobrawa (b. 940/45 – d. 977), daughter of Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia. They had two children:
1. Boles?aw I the Brave (Chrobry) (b. 967 – d. 17 June 1025).
2. ?wi?tos?awa/Sigrid the Haughty (b. 968/72 – d. ca. 1016), married first to Eric the Victorious, King of Sweden and later to Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark. From her second marriage, she probably was the mother of Cnut the Great, King of Denmark, Norway and England. Some researchers,[3] comparing Scandinavian, Polish and German sources state it was Gunhild of Wenden who was the daughter of Mieszko I and Oda (not Dobrawa) and who became wife of Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark, England, and parts of Norway, mother of Cnut the Great, king of Denmark, England, Norway and parts of Sweden (the Anglo-Scandinavian or North Sea Empire), as well as Harald and ?wi?tos?awa. She was also the grandmother of Gunhild, the wife of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor.

     "According to one hypothesis there was another daughter of Mieszko, married to a Pomeranian Slavic Prince; she could be a daughter of Dobrawa or of one of the previous pagan wives.[73] Also, a theory exists (apparently based on Thietmar and supported by Oswald Balzer in 1895) that Vladivoj, who ruled as Duke of Bohemia in 1002–1003, was a son of Mieszko and Dobrawa.[74] Although most modern historians reject this claim, Bohemian historiography supported the Piast parentage of Vladivoj.[75]
     "In 978/79, Mieszko married Oda of Haldensleben (b. 955/60 – d. 1023), daughter of Dietrich of Haldensleben, Margrave of the Northern March. She was abducted by her future husband from the monastery of Kalbe. They had three sons:
1. Mieszko (b. ca. 979 – d. aft. 992/95).
2. ?wi?tope?k (b. ca. 980 – d. bef. 991?).
3. Lambert (b. ca. 981 – d. aft. 992/95).
     "After a struggle for power between Boles?aw I and Oda with her minor sons (Boles?aw's half-brothers), the eldest son of Mieszko I took control over all of his father's state and expelled his stepmother and her sons from Poland.
Bibliography
** Jasi?ski K., Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, Warszawa-Wroc?aw (1992), p. 54–70.
** Labuda G., Mieszko I, (in) Polski S?ownik Biograficzny, vol. 21, 1976.
** Labuda G., Mieszko I, Wyd. Ossolineum, Wroc?aw 2002, ISBN 83-04-04619-9
** Labuda G., Pierwsze pa?stwo polskie, Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza, Kraków 1989, ISBN 83-03-02969-X
** Philip Earl Steele Nawrócenie i Chrzest Mieszka I 2005, ISBN 83-922344-8-0
** Szczur S., Historia Polski ?redniowiecze, chap. 2.2.1 Pa?stwo gnie?nie?skie Mieszka I (p. 47–57) i 2.4.1 Dru?yna ksi???ca (p. 83–84), Wydawnictwo Literackie 2002, ISBN 83-08-03272-9
References (See the original Wikipedia article for detailed references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_I_of_Poland.8 ) GAV28 EDV31 GKJ31.

;      The Polish kingdom emerged in the 10th century, the result of the unification of some six tribes under the Polani, who were ruled by the members of the semimythical family of Piast. From the outset the Poles were obliged to fight against the encroachment of the Germans from the west, the Prussians from the north, the Bohemians from the south, and the Hungarians, also from the south.
     MIESZKO I, of the house of Piast, the first ruler for whom written evidence survives. He conquered the territory between the Oder and the Warthe Rivers, but was defeated by Markgraf Gero and obliged to recognize German suzerainty (973).
     Mieszko was converted to Christianity by Bohemian missionaries, probably for political reasons, to deprive the Germans of any further excuse for aggression. The acceptance of Latin Christianity meant the connection of Poland, like Bohemia and Hungary, with Roman-European culture. He was King of Poland. See attached map of Poland at time of Miescko's reign (from Wikipedia: By Poznaniak, Wa?pan (some vector elements) - Own work na podstawie: "Ilustrowany Atlas Historii Polski" i publikacji o badaniach na Ostrowie Tumskim w Poznaniu., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4579591) between 960 and 992.15,8,16

Family 1

unknown (?)
Child

Family 2

Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia b. bt 940 - 945, d. 977
Children

Family 3

Oda von Haldensleben b. bt 955 - 960, d. 1023
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Bohemia 1 page (The Premyslids): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/bohemia/bohemia1.html
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mieszko I Dagon: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049952&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ziemomyse: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049951&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mieszko I Dagon: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049952&tree=LEO
  6. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  7. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I28269
  8. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_I_of_Poland. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  9. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#MieszkoIdied992. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Adelajda of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00200286&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dobrawa|Dubrawka of Bohemia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049954&tree=LEO
  12. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubravka_of_Bohemia
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Oda von Haldensleben: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049955&tree=LEO
  14. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 29 November 2019), memorial page for Mieszko I King Of Poland (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 66462458, citing Archcathedral Basilica Of Saint Peter And Saint Pa, Pozna?, Miasto Pozna?, Wielkopolskie, Poland ; Maintained by Anne Shurtleff Stevens (contributor 46947920), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/66462458/mieszko_i-king_of_poland. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  15. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 223. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  16. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, Map: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_I_of_Poland#/media/File:Polska_960_-_992.svg
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Boleslaw I Chrobry: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049956&tree=LEO
  18. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 473 (Chart 31), 484-485. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gunhild|Swjatoslawa|Sygryda of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020255&tree=LEO
  20. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BOHEMIA.htm#Dobrawadied977

Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia1

F, #6706, b. between 940 and 945, d. 977
FatherBoleslav I "the Cruel" (?) Duke of Bohemia2,1,3,4,5,6 b. c 909, d. 15 Jul 967
MotherBiogata (?) von Stockow7,1,3,4,6,8 b. c 905
ReferenceGAV28 EDV31
Last Edited21 Jul 2020
     Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia was born between 940 and 945 at Prague, Okres Praha, Bohemia, Czech Republic.4 She married Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland, son of Ziemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans, between 965 and 966;
His 2nd wife.9,10,1,11,12,13,3,4
Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia died in 977.9,1,3,4
Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia was buried in 977 at Gniezno Cathedral, Poznan, Miasto Poznan, Wielkopolskie, Poland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown, Czech Republic
     DEATH     unknown, Poland
     Family Members
     Spouse
          Mieszko I King Of Poland
     Children
          Boleslaw I King Of Poland unknown–1025
     BURIAL     Gniezno Cathedral, Pozna?, Miasto Pozna?, Wielkopolskie, Poland
     Created by: Marti Utter
     Added: 5 Jul 2015
     Find A Grave Memorial 148692512.14
     ; Per Wikipedia:
     "Doubravka of Bohemia (Czech: Doubravka P?emyslovna, Polish: Dobrawa Przemy?lidka; ca. 940/45 – 977) was a Bohemian princess of the P?emyslid dynasty and by marriage Duchess of the Polans.
     "She was the daughter of Boleslaus I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia, whose wife may have been the mysterious Biagota.[1][2]
     "According to earlier sources, Doubravka urged her husband Mieszko I of Poland to accept baptism in 966, the year after their marriage. Modern historians believe, however, that the change of religion by Mieszko was one of the points discussed in the Polish-Bohemian agreement concluded soon before his marriage with Doubravka. Her role in his conversion is not considered now to be as important as it is often represented in medieval chronicles.
Life
Date of birth
     "Doubravka's date of birth is not known. The only indication is communicated by the chronicler Cosmas of Prague, who stated that the Bohemian princess at the time of her marriage with Mieszko I was an old woman.[3] The passage is regarded as tendentious and of little reliability, and some researchers believe that the statement was made with malicious intent.[4] It is possible that in the statement about Doubravka's age, Cosmas was making a reference to the age difference between her and her sister Mlada. That would give him a basis for determining Doubravka as "old." (The word Mlada means Young). It[citation needed] also found that Cosmas confuses Doubravka with Mieszko I's second wife Oda, who at the time of her marriage was around 19–25 years old, a relatively advanced age for a bride according to the customs of the Middle Ages. Some researchers have taken up speculative views, such as Jerzy Strzelczyk, who assumed that in the light of contemporary concepts and habits of marriage of that time (when as a rule marriages were contracted with teenage girls) is assumed that Doubravka had passed her early youth, so, it's probable that she was in her late teens or twenties.[5]
Early years
     "Nothing is known about Doubravka's childhood and youth. In 1895 Oswald Balzer refuted reports that previous to her marriage with Mieszko I, Doubravka was married to Gunther, Margrave of Merseburg and they had a son, Gunzelin. This view is based on the fact that Thietmar of Merseburg in his chronicles named Gunzelin, Gunther's son, brother of Boles?aw I the Brave, Doubravka's son.[6] Currently, historians believed that Gunzelin and Boles?aw I are in fact cousins or brothers-in-law.[7]
Marriage with Mieszko I and role in the Christianization of Poland
     "In the second half of 964[8] an alliance between Boleslav I the Cruel, Duke of Bohemia, and Mieszko I of Poland was concluded. In order to consolidate the agreement, in 965 Boleslav I's daughter Doubravka was married to Mieszko I. There was a difference of religion between the spouses; she was a Christian, he was a pagan.
     "Two independent sources attribute to Doubravka an important role in the conversion to Christianity of Mieszko I and Poland. The first is the chronicles of Thietmar, who was born two years before the death of Doubravka. He wrote that the Bohemian princess tried to persuade her husband to accept Christianity (even at the cost of breaking their marriage and with it the Polish-Bohemian Alliance). In the end, she finally obtained the conversion of Mieszko I and with him, of all Poland.[9]
     "In turn, the 12th century chronicler Gallus Anonymus says that Doubravka came to Poland surrounded by secular and religious dignitaries. She agreed to marry Mieszko I providing that he was baptized. The Polish ruler accepted, and only then was able to marry the Bohemian princess.
     "However, modern historians allege that the baptism of Mieszko I was dictated by political benefits and should not be attributed to any action of Doubravka, who according to the modern view had virtually no role in the conversion of her husband.[10] They note that the conversion of Mieszko I thanks to Doubravka formed part of the tradition of the Church which stressed the conversion of Pagan rulers through the influence of women.[11]
     "On the other hand, literature doesn't refuse to give Doubravka a significant role in the Christianization of the Poles. In her wedding procession, she arrived in Poland with Christian clergymen, among them possibly Jordan, ordained the first Bishop of Poland in 968. Tradition attributes to Doubravka the establishment of the Holy Trinity and St. Wit Churches in Gniezno and the Church of the Virgin Mary in Ostrów Tumski, Pozna?.
     "Doubravka marriage cemented the alliance of Mieszko I with Bohemia, which continued even after her death. On 21 September 967 Mieszko I was assisted by Bohemians in the decisive battle against the Wolinians led by Wichmann the Younger.
     "When, after the death of Emperor Otto I in 973, a struggle for the supremacy in Germany began, both Doubravka husband and brother Boleslaus II the Pious, Duke of Bohemia, supported the same candidate for the German throne, Duke Henry II of Bavaria.
Issue
     "The marriage of Mieszko I and Doubravka produced three children:
1. Boles?aw I the Brave (Chrobry) (b. 967 - d. 17 June 1025).
2. a daughter, ?wi?tos?awa, Sigrid the Haughty (b. 968/72 - d. ca. 1016), married firstly with Eric the Victorious, King of Sweden, and later wife of Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark, by whom the mother of Canute the Great, King of Denmark, Norway and England. Gunhilda of Poland, who married Swyen I "Forkbeard", King of Denmark and England, is usually identified with Sigrid.
3. There is an hypothesis asserting the existence of another daughter of Mieszko I who was married to a Pomeranian Slavic Prince. She could have been the daughter of either Doubravka or one of Mieszko's previous pagan wives.[12]
4. Also, a theory has been advanced (apparently recorded by Thietmar and supported by Oswald Balzer in 1895) that Vladivoj (c. 981 – January 1003), who ruled as Duke of Bohemia during 1002–1003, was another son of Doubravka and Mieszko I.[1] Although modern historians have rejected this hypothesis,[citation needed] Czech historiography has supported the notion of mixed Piast-P?emyslid parentage for Vladivoj.[13]

Death and burial
     "Doubravka died in 977. In his study of 1888, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski wrote that "her tomb was discovered in Gniezno Cathedral. It was a simple stone marked with a cross. Purple robes and a weighty gold loincloth were the only objects found in her tomb."[14] A similar view of Doubravka's burial place was expressed earlier, in 1843, by Edward Raczy?ski in his study Wspomnienia Wielkopolski to jest województw pozna?skiego, kaliskiego i gnie?nie?skiego (Memories of the Greater Poland districts of Pozna?, Kalisz and Gniezno).[15] However, the burial place of the Bohemian princess is now considered to be unknown.[16]
     "Doubravka's death weakened the Polish-Bohemian alliance, which finally collapsed in the mid-980s.
References
1. Cawley, Charles, BOHEMIA, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[self-published source][better source needed]
2. Marek, Miroslav. "Complete Genealogy of the P?emyslid dynasty". Genealogy.EU.[self-published source][better source needed]
3. Chronicle of Cosmas of Prague: translated, introduction and commentary developed by Maria Wojciechowska, Warsaw 1968, lib. I cap. 27, p. 149.
4. H. ?owmia?ski, Religia S?owian i jej upadek, Warsaw p. 338, footnote 889.
5. J. Strzelczyk, Boles?aw Chrobry, p. 15.
6. Thietmari chronicon, vol. V, cap. 18, p. 274; vol. V, cap. 36, p. 300; vol. VI, cap. 54, p. 390.
7. View, inter alia, of Herbert Ludat.
8. Date fixed by H. ?owmia?ski, Pocz?tki Polski, vol. V, p. 548.
9. Thietmari chronicon, vol. IV, cap. 56.
10. J. Dowiat, Metryka chrztu Mieszka I, p. 79; Andrzej Feliks Grabski, Boles?aw Chrobry. Zarys dziejów politycznych i wojskowych, p. 26; S. Trawkowski, Monarchia Mieszka I i Boles?awa Chrobrego, pp. 116-117; H. ?owmia?ski, Pocz?tki Polski, vol. V, p. 549.
11. A. F. Grabski, Mieszko I, Warsaw 1973, p. 93.
12. According to one theory, this unnamed daughter of Mieszko I and her Pomeranian husband were the parents of Zemuzil, Duke of Pomerania.
13. Krzemie?ska, Barbara (1999). B?etislav I.: ?echy a st?ední Evropa v prvé polovin? XI. století [Bretislaus I: Bohemia and Central Europe in 1st Half of the 11th Century] (in Czech) (2nd. ed.) Praha: Garamond. pp. 28–29. ISBN 80-901760-7-0.
14. J. I. Kraszewski, Wizerunki, p. 12
15. E. Raczy?ski, Wspomnienia Wielkopolski to jest województw pozna?skiego, kaliskiego i gnie?nie?skiego, Pozna? 1843, vol. II, pp 356-360.
16. K. Jasi?ski, Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, p. 78."4



Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 1.2 176; 2:120.3 GAV28 EDV31 GKJ31. Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia was also known as Doubravka (?) Princess of Bohemia.4

; Per Med Lands: "DOBRAWA [Dobroslawa] ([940/45]-977). Thietmar names "the sister of Boleslav the Elder…Dobrawa" as the wife of Mieszko of Poland[74]. Bearing in mind that Dobrawa gave birth to [four] children, it is unlikely that she was born much earlier than [940/45]. The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum" married "Danbrovcam filiam ducis Boemie" in 965[75]. The Chronica principum Polonie records that "Mesico" married "christianisimam mulierem de Bohemia, Dubraucam" in 966 and converted to Christianity[76]. The Chronicæ Polanorum names "unam christianissimam de Bohemia Dubrovcam nomine" as wife of "Meschonem"[77]. Her marriage was arranged to confirm the alliance between her father and her prospective husband. After her arrival in Poland, she converted Prince Mieszko to Christianity and was instrumental in the conversion of the whole country in 966[78]. The Chronica Boemorum records the death in 977 of "Dubrauca" wife of "Poloniensi duci"[79]. m ([965/66]) as his [second] wife, MIESZKO of Poland, son of ZIEMOMYS? & [Gorka] ([922]-25 May 992). He succeeded in 966 as MIESZKO I Prince of Poland. One child:
a) WLADIWOY of Poland (-[Jan/Mar] 1003)."

Med Lands cites:
[74] Thietmar 4. 55, p. 191.
[75] Pertz, G. H. (ed.) (1866) Annales Poloniæ, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hannover), Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[76] Chronica principum Poloniæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 47.
[77] Chronicæ Polanorum I.5, MGH SS IX, p. 428.
[78] Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 130-1.
[79] Cosmæ Pragensis Chronica Boemorum I.27, MGH SS IX, p. 51.15
She was Duchess consort of the Polans between 965 and 977.4

Family

Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland b. 922, d. 25 May 992
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Bohemia 1 page (The Premyslids): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/bohemia/bohemia1.html
  2. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I29050
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dobrawa|Dubrawka of Bohemia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049954&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubravka_of_Bohemia. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Boleslaw I 'the Gruesome': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020256&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BOHEMIA.htm#BoleslavIdied973976B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I29051
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Biagota von Stockow: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020257&tree=LEO
  9. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  10. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I28269
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mieszko I Dagon: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049952&tree=LEO
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#MieszkoIdied992
  14. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 30 November 2019), memorial page for Dobrawa Of Bohemia (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 148692512, citing Gniezno Cathedral, Pozna?, Miasto Pozna?, Wielkopolskie, Poland ; Maintained by Marti Utter (contributor 47720777), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/148692512/dobrawa-of-bohemia. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BOHEMIA.htm#Dobrawadied977
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Boleslaw I Chrobry: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049956&tree=LEO
  17. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 489 (Chart 33). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gunhild|Swjatoslawa|Sygryda of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020255&tree=LEO

Ziemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans1

M, #6707, b. 892, d. 964
FatherLeszek (?) Duke of the Polans1,2,3 b. bt 870 - 880
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited30 May 2020
     Ziemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans was born in 892.4
Ziemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans died in 964; Wikipedia says d. 950-960; Med Lands says d. bef 963; Genealogics says d. bef 964.4,5,2,6
     ; Per Wikipedia:
     "Siemomys? or Ziemomys? (died c.?950–960[1]) was the third duke of Poland of the Piast dynasty, and the father of Poland's first Christian ruler, Mieszko I. He was listed by Gallus Anonymous in his Gesta principum Polonorum and was the son of Lestek, the second known Duke of the Polans. According to Gallus' account and historical research, Siemomys? has been credited with leaving the lands of Polans, Goplans and Masovians to his son Mieszko I, who further expanded them during his reign.[2]
     "According to modern Polish historian Henryk ?owmia?ski, Siemomys? aided the Ukrani uprising against the Germans in 954 AD.
     "He supposedly reigned from around 930 (although some historians believe that he reigned from around 950). Siemomys? united the lands of Polanie, Goplanie, and Mazowszanie (however, some historians think that perhaps his father did it first). His burial place is unknown.
     "Siemomys?'s wife (or wives) is unknown. There is a theory that W?odzis?aw's (prince of the L?dzianie tribe) daughter could have been Siemomys?'s wife, but there is no historical evidence to support this. Formerly it was thought that his wife was named Gorka, but Oswald Balzer refuted this view in 1895.
Children
** Mieszko I of Poland
** Czcibor (died after 972)
** unknown son (died 963)

References
1. K. Jasi?ski, Siemomys?, Polski S?ownik Biograficzny, vol.. 37, 1996, p. 58-59.
2. Lukowski, Jerzy; Hubert Zawadzki (2006). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-521-61857-1."5

; Per Genealogy.EU: "Ziemomysl, Ct of Poland (922-962), +ca 962/963 (possibly a son of Leszek.)1"

Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:120.6

; Per Med Lands: "     " ZIEMOMYS? (-before 963). The Annales Polanorum state that "Listko genuit Semomil", specifying in an earlier passage dated 915 that he ruled "in regnum Polonie" after Leszek[27]. The Chronicæ Polanorum names "Semimizl filius Lestik", specifying that he succeeded his father[28]. He succeeded his father in [921] as ruler of the Polanians[29]. Emperor Constantine recorded the existence in [950] of a "White Croat state under its own pagan prince who recognised the authority of Emperor Otto I"[30]. m [firstly] GORKA, daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. [m secondly ---. No direct evidence of this supposed second marriage has yet been found. However, as noted below, if it is correct that Adelajda, wife of Geza Prince of Hungary, was the sister of Prince Mieszko, her estimated birth date range indicates the probability that she was born from a later marriage.]"
Med Lands cites:
[27] Annales Polanorum II 915 and 975, MGH SS XIX, pp. 612 and 615.
[28] Chronicæ Polanorum I.3, MGH SS IX, p. 427.
[29] Gallus Chronicon, I, 3, cited in Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 209.
[30] Dzi?cio? (1963), pp. 110-11, citing Emperor Constantine De Administrando imperio, 13, 30 and 32.2
GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-32. Ziemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans was also known as Ziemomyse (?)6 Ziemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans was also known as Siemomysl (?)5 As of between 922 and 962, Ziemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans lived at an unknown place ; Count of Poland.1

Family

Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#_Toc481253515. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lestek. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemomys%C5%82
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ziemomyse: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049951&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mieszko I Dagon: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049952&tree=LEO

Vazul/Vasul/Basil (?)1

M, #6708, b. between 976 and 978, d. 1038
FatherMihaly (?) Prince of Hungary, Regent of Poland1,2,3 b. bt 940 - 945, d. bt 976 - 978
MotherAdelajda/Adleta (?) of Poland1 b. c 955, d. a 997
ReferenceGAV28 EDV29
Last Edited18 Apr 2020
     Vazul/Vasul/Basil (?) married Katun Comitopuli of Bulgaria, daughter of Samuel I (?) Tsar of the Bulgarians and Agatha Chryselie.4,2 Vazul/Vasul/Basil (?) was born between 976 and 978.2,5
Vazul/Vasul/Basil (?) died in 1038.2
     ; Per Genealogics: "Vazul (mentioned in 1038) was a Hungarian noble of the Arpád family. He was the grandson of Taksony by his father Mihály. His brother was Laszlo of Hungary, also known as Laszlo 'the Bald'. He was a first cousin of Stephan I, king of Hungary. He took part in a conspiracy aimed at the murder of Stephan, as he was excluded from the royal succession in favour of Peter Orseolo, husband of a sister of Stephan, whose own son Emmerich was childless. The assassination attempt failed, and Vazul was blinded and his sons exiled. Of Vazul's three sons, András, Béla and Levente, the first two would ascend the throne after the dynastic struggle following the death of Stephan I. The line of Arpád kings following Stephan is therefore referred to as the Vazul line."2 GAV-28 EDV-29.

; Per Med Lands:
     "VÁSZOLY [Vazúl], son of MIHÁLY of Hungary Duke between March and Gran & his wife Adelajda of Poland ([976/78]-early 1037). The Gesta Hungarorum names "Wazul et Zar Ladislaum" as the sons of "Mihal…frater Geichæ"[379]. The Chronicon Varadiense names "ducem…Vazul et ducem Ladislaum calvum" as the two sons of "Michael dux"[380]. The Kronika W?giersko-Polska names "Stephanum, Mychl et Vanzul" as the three sons of "Geyza", adding that "Vanzul" was killed by "effosionem oculorem" by "reginam Gesla, consortem regis sancti Stephani"[381]. Duke between March and Gran. Representing the more conservative, traditional element of Hungarian society, he rebelled against King István I and his Catholic pro-western policies[382]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that, after the death of his son Imre, "rege Stephano" sent messengers to bring "Wazul filium sui patruelis" from his prison at "Nistriæ" to have him declared successor to the kingdom but that "Kysla regina" sent "comitem Sebus" to blind Vazúl and have moulten lead poured into his ears, after which Vazúl fled to Bohemia from where he was brought back to Hungary[383]. Bak dates this event to 1037, although this appears late if the events happened soon after Imre's death in 1031[384].
     "m (before [1012]) --- [of Bulgaria], daughter of [SAMUIL Tsar of the Bulgarians & his wife Agatha Chryselie]. The date of this marriage is estimated from the estimated birth date of the couple's eldest son. The primary source which confirms the marriage has not yet been identified. The Gesta Hungarorum reports claims that the three brothers Levente, András and Béla were "ex duce Wazul progenitos ex quadam virgine de genere Tatun [Tátony]" rather than legitimate[385]."
Med Lands cites:
[379] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101.
[380] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251.
[381] Kronika W?giersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 489.
[382] Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 225.
[383] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 44, pp. 103-5.
[384] Bak, 'Queens as Scapegoats', p. 225.6


Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. Page 104.2

Reference: Weis [1992:206] Line 243-5.7 Vazul/Vasul/Basil (?) was also known as Vászoly (?)8,6

Family

Katun Comitopuli of Bulgaria
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Vazul 'the Blind' of Hungary: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020693&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mihály of Hungary: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020704&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Katun Comitopuli or Katalin of Bulgaria: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00526203&tree=LEO
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#Vaszolydied1037A. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_ANDR%C3%81S_I_1047-1060,.
  7. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 243-5, p. 206. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  8. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vazul. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, András I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020694&tree=LEO

Mihaly (?) Prince of Hungary, Regent of Poland1

M, #6709, b. between 940 and 945, d. between 976 and 978
FatherTaksony (?) Prince of Hungary1,2,3 b. 931, d. bt 970 - 972
Mother(?) (?) Princess of the Kumans1,4 b. 932
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited17 Apr 2020
     Mihaly (?) Prince of Hungary, Regent of Poland was born between 940 and 945.5 He married Adelajda/Adleta (?) of Poland, daughter of Ziemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans, between 970 and 975;
Her 1st husband.6,5
Mihaly (?) Prince of Hungary, Regent of Poland died between 976 and 978; Med Lands says d. 976/78.7,1,5
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. Page 104.3

; Per Genealogy.EU: "Mihály (Michael), Duke between March and Gran, +ca 978/before 997; m.Adelajda of Poland (+after 997) dau./sister of Pr Mieszko I of Poland."1

; Per Med Lands:
     "MIHÁLY ([940/45]-[976/78]). The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Geisa, pater B. Stephani, secundus…Michael dux" as the two sons of "Toxin"[243]. The Kronika W?giersko-Polska names "Geyzan, Mychlemum et caluum Ladislaum" as the three sons of "Thoxon"[244]. The Gesta Hungarorum names "Mihal…frater Geichæ" when referring to his two sons[245]. Duke between March and Gran.
     "m ([970/75]) as her first husband, ADELAJDA [Adleta] of Poland, daughter of [ZIEMOMYS? Duke in Poland] & his [second wife ---] ([950/60]-after 997). The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[246], Adelajda was the daughter not sister of Mieszko I Prince of Poland, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. If this is correct, she was an otherwise unrecorded daughter by his first wife (name not known), assuming that Prince Mieszko's marriage to Dobroslawa of Bohemia is correctly dated to 965. Adelajda's birth date range is estimated from the supposed dates of birth of her two sons by her first husband (before his death in [976/78]) and of her three known daughters by her second marriage after [985]. The birth date range appears chronologically more consistent with her having been the daughter, rather than sister, of Mieszko, but this would be in direct contradiction to the sources quoted below. If she was Mieszko's sister, it is likely that they did not share the same mother, assuming that the estimated birth dates of Mieszko and Adelajda are both accurate. After her first husband died, she married secondly ([980]) her husband's older brother Prince Géza, a marriage which may have been arranged in accordance with the Magyar tradition that the oldest male relative should marry the widow of a deceased relative and take care of his children. The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie"[247]. The Breve chronicon Silesiæ names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie"[248]. The Kronika W?giersko-Polska records that "Iesse" married "sororem Meschonis ducis…Athleitam", adding that she was a Christian and converted her husband to Christianity[249]."
Med Lands cites:
[243] Florianus, M. (ed.) (1884) Chronicon Dubnicense, Historiæ Hungaricæ fontes domestici, Pars prima, Scriptores, Vol. III (Leipzig) Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251.
[244] Kronika W?giersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 488.
[245] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 43, p. 101.
[246] ES II 153. She is not shown in ES II 120.
[247] Pertz, G. H. (ed.) (1866) Annales Poloniæ, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hannover), Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[248] Breve chronicon Silesiæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34.
[249] Kronika W?giersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, 3, pp. 498-9.5


; Per Wikipedia:
     "Michael (Hungarian: Mihály;[1] after 960–995 or c. 997) was a member of the House of Árpád, a younger son of Taksony, Grand Prince of the Hungarians. Most details of his life are uncertain. Almost all kings of Hungary after 1046 descended from him.[2]
     "According to the Hungarian historian, György Györffy, Michael received a ducatus or duchy from his brother, Grand Prince Géza. Slovak historians specify that he administered the "Duchy of Nitra" between around 971 and 997. However, neither of these theories have universally been accepted by historians.
Life
     "Anonymus, the unknown author of the late 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum narrates that Michael's father, Taksony took his wife "from the land of the Cumans".[3][4] However, the lands which were dominated by the Cumans at Anonymus's time had been controlled by the Pechenegs up until the 1050s.[5] Accordingly, Györffy proposes that Taksony's wife was the daughter of a Pecheneg tribal leader.[5] Other historians, including Zoltán Kordé[4] and Gyula Kristó,[6] say that Anonymous's report may refer either to her Khazar or to her Volga Bulgarian origin.
     "Michael was Taksony's younger son.[7] Györffy writes that he was still a minor when he was baptized around 972.[8] He received baptism together with his elder brother, Géza, who succeeded their father as Grand Prince around that time.[9] Michael was named after the Archangel Michael.[8] According to Györffy, the frequent use of the name "Béla" by his descendants – four kings and two dukes from the House of Árpád bore this name – implies that it was Michael's original pagan name.[10] He also writes that the "a" ending of his name excludes that it was borrowed from a Slavic language, because "a" is a feminine ending in these languages.[10] Instead he proposes, that the name derived from the Turkic bojla title.[10]
     "According to Györffy, Michael was a close ally of his brother, since there is no proof that their relationship was ever tense.[11] Therefore, Györffy continues, Géza "probably gave one of the ducatus" in the Principality of Hungary to Michael, although there is no record of these events.[12] According to Steinhübel, Michael received the "Duchy of Nitra" around 971.[7] His colleague, Ján Luka?ka, adds that it was Michael who broke "the resistance of the native nobles" in this duchy.[13]
     "Michael's fate is unknown; Györffy proposes that he either died before his brother (who died in 997) or renounced of his duchy in favor of Géza's son, Stephen, without resistance.[14] On the other hand, Steinhübel writes that Michael was murdered in 995, an action "for which his brother Géza was probably responsible".[7] Luka?ka likewise says that Michael "was killed, apparently, on the orders of" Géza.[15] Finally, Vladimír Segeš also says that Géza had Michael murdered, according to him between 976 and 978, but he writes that Michael was succeeded by his own son, Ladislas the Bald.[16]
Family
     "The name of Michael's two sons, Vazul (Basil) and Ladislas have been preserved.[1][17] According to Györffy, "it is probable" that Michael's wife was related to Samuel of Bulgaria, because the names of his both sons were popular among Orthodox rulers, including the members of the Cometopuli family.[18] Györffy adds that Michael married his Bulgarian wife when he came of age around 980.[17]
Notes
*Whether Menumorut is an actual or an invented person is debated by modern scholars.
**A Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian lady.
***Györffy writes that she may have been a member of the Bulgarian Cometopuli dynasty.
****Kristó writes that she may have been a member of the Rurik dynasty from Kievan Rus' from Kievan Rus'.
References
1. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. Appendix 1.
2. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. Appendices 1-2.
3. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 57), p. 127.
4. Kordé 1994, p. 659.
5. Györffy 1994, p. 36.
6. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 24.
7. Steinhübel 2011, p. 19.
8. Györffy 1994, p. 52.
93 Györffy 1994, pp. 49, 52.
10. Györffy 2000, p. 98.
11. Györffy 1994, pp. 74, 76.
12. Györffy 1994, pp. 76-77.
13. Luka?ka 2011, p. 32.
14. Györffy 1994, p. 79.
15. Luka?ka 2011, p. 33.
16. Segeš 2002, p. 278.
17. Györffy 1994, p. 72.
18. Györffy 1994, pp. 71-72.
Sources
** Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (Edited, Translated and Annotated by Martyn Rady and László Veszprémy) (2010). In: Rady, Martyn; Veszprémy, László; Bak, János M. (2010); Anonymus and Master Roger; CEU Press; ISBN 978-963-9776-95-1.
** Györffy, György (1994). King Saint Stephen of Hungary. Atlantic Research and Publications. ISBN 0-88033-300-6.
** Györffy, György (2000). István király és m?ve [=King Stephen and his Work] (in Hungarian). Balassi Kiadó.
** Kordé, Zoltán (1994). "Taksony". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc (eds.) Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század) [=Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 659. ISBN 963-05-6722-9.
** Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [=Rulers of the House of Árpád] (in Hungarian). I.P.C. Könyvek. ISBN 963-7930-97-3.
** Luka?ka, Ján (2011). "The beginnings of the nobility in Slovakia". In Teich, Mikuláš; Ková?, Dušan; Brown, Martin D. (eds.) Slovakia in History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 30–37. ISBN 978-0-521-80253-6.
** Segeš, Vladimír (2002). "Nitra Appanage Duchy". In Bartl, Július; ?i?aj, Viliam; Kohútova, Mária; Letz, Róbert; Segeš, Vladimír; Škvarna, Dušan (eds.) Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Slovenské Pedegogické Nakladatel'stvo. p. 278. ISBN 0-86516-444-4.
** Steinhübel, Ján (2011). "The Duchy of Nitra". In Teich, Mikuláš; Ková?, Dušan; Brown, Martin D. (eds.) Slovakia in History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–29. ISBN 978-0-521-80253-6."8 GAV-29 EDV-29.

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Taksony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020706&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mihály of Hungary: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020704&tree=LEO
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_TAKSONY_955-970. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#Vaszolydied1037A
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#_Toc481253515
  7. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 227. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  8. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_of_Hungary. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Vazul 'the Blind' of Hungary: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020693&tree=LEO

Adelajda/Adleta (?) of Poland1

F, #6710, b. circa 955, d. after 997
FatherZiemoysl (?) Duke of the Polans1 b. 892, d. 964
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited7 Dec 2020
     Adelajda/Adleta (?) of Poland was born circa 955; Med Lands says b. 950/960.2,3 She married Mihaly (?) Prince of Hungary, Regent of Poland, son of Taksony (?) Prince of Hungary and (?) (?) Princess of the Kumans, between 970 and 975;
Her 1st husband.3,4 Adelajda/Adleta (?) of Poland married Géza (?) Prince of Hungary, son of Taksony (?) Prince of Hungary and (?) (?) Princess of the Kumans, circa 985;
Her 2nd husband; his 2nd wife. Genealogy.EU Pieast 1 page says m. 968; Med Lands says m. 985.5,1,3,6,7
Adelajda/Adleta (?) of Poland died after 997.5,1,3
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "[ADELAJDA [Adleta] ([950/60]-after 997). The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie" by whom she was mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie"[34]. The Breve chronicon Silesiæ names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie" and that she was the mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie" born in 975[35]. The Kronika W?giersko-Polska records that "Iesse" married "sororem Meschonis ducis…Athleitam", adding that she was a Christian and converted her husband to Christianity[36]. The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[37], Adelajda was the daughter not sister of Mieszko I Prince of Poland, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. If this is correct, she was an otherwise unrecorded daughter by his first wife (name not known), assuming that Prince Mieszko's marriage to Dobroslawa of Bohemia is correctly dated to 965. Adelajda's birth date range is estimated from the supposed dates of birth of her two sons by her first husband (before his death in [976/78]) and of her three known daughters by her second marriage after [985]. The date range appears chronologically more consistent with her having been the daughter, rather than sister, of Mieszko, but this would be in direct contradiction to the sources quoted above. If she was Mieszko's sister, it is likely that they did not share the same mother, assuming that the estimated birth dates of Mieszko and Adelajda are both accurate. It is probable that her second marriage was arranged in accordance with the Magyar tradition that the oldest male relative should marry the widow of a deceased relative (originally polygamously) and take care of his children. m firstly ([970/75]) MIHÁLY Prince of Hungary Duke between March and Gran, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Kuman Princess] (-[976/78]). m secondly ([985]) as his second wife, GEZA Prince of Hungary, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Kuman Princess] ([940/45]-1 Feb 997).]"
Med Lands cites:
[34] Pertz, G. H. (ed.) (1866) Annales Poloniæ, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum (Hannover), Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[35] Breve chronicon Silesiæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34.
[36] Bielowski, A. (ed.) (1864) Monumenta Poloniæ Historica (Lwów) Kronika W?giersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, 3, pp. 498-9.
[37] ES II 153. She is not shown in ES II 120.3


; Uzytkownik "Andrew S. Kalinkin" napisal w wiadomosci news:1108980910.300098.210090@l41g2000cwc.googlegroups.com...
Arkadiusz Bugaj wrote:
     "By contemporary historigraphy, Adelheid, an alleged Mieszko I sister, is believed to be a totally fictious figure. The sources calling her a and a sister of Mieszko and wife of king Geiza (of Hungary) thus St. Stephen mother, are late and unreliable. Oswald Balzer (Genealogia Piastów, Kraków 1895, s. 29-34) thought she was a daughter of Siemomysl, identifying her with Beleknegini (White princess) mentioned in Thietmar's chronicle. This view was overturned by K. Jasiñski (Bela Knegini, S³ownik Staro¿ytno¶ci S³owiañskich, t. 7 1986, cz. 2, s.129 and Idem, Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, Warszawa-Wroc³aw 1993), who identified Beleknegini with Sarolta, actual wife of Geiza."
     "How Jasinski explain Slavic name Beleknegini for Hungarian Sarolta ? I am sorry for staying in silence for so long, but I didn't have access to any reliable sources to quote. Jasinski, follows in this respect a view of Gerard Labuda, who also claims that Sarolta was the only one Geiza's wife. Jasinski in Beleknegini's short biography, published in mentioned Slownik Starozytnosci Slowianskich, is quoting Labuda's explanation that Sarolta in Turkish meant white-weasel (sar-oltu). Beleknegini can thusly be a tranlation of this name used by subjects of Hungarian kings. Itis also believed that it was just a nickname not a proper name. It is believed that Sarolta was a daughter of Gyula (i.e. prince-duke) of Sevenborough (Siebenburg). It is confirmed at year 1003 in by Annales Hildesheimenses, Hannovereae 1878, s. 29.
     "And what was the source for the often repeated claim that Adelheid before her marriage to Geiza was married to his brother Michael and was the mother of Laszlo the Bald and Vazul the Blind ? This claim wasn't yet known to Balzer, who doesn't even mention Michael in the chapter dedicated to Adelheid.
     "I don't have no knowledge in respect of this. I think you should check S. de Vajay, Grossfurst Geysa von Ungarn. Familie und Verwandschaft, Suedostforschungen, 21, 1962. I remember he provides rich literature so he can be useful as a guide book to track certain views. Nota bene Vajay is a proponent of opinion that Geiza was married twice: to Sarolta and Adelheid, but he is isolated in this opinion. Arkadiusz."8

Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:153.9

; NB Genealogics names Adelajda as a dau. of Mieszko I, following Europaische Stammtrafeln. However, Med Lands says she may have been his sister (both children of Ziemoysl), given her probable date of birth. I have chosen to follow the Med Lands lineage. GA Vaut.3,9,10 GAV-29 EDV-29 GKJ-30.
; Per Med Lands:
     "GÉZA, son of TAKSONY Prince of Hungary & his wife --- [Pss of the Kumans] ([940/45]-1 Feb 997). The Chronicon Varadiense names "dux Geisa, pater B. Stephani, secundus…Michael dux" as the two sons of "Toxin"[257]. The Kronika W?giersko-Polska names "Geyzan, Mychlemum et caluum Ladislaum" as the three sons of "Thoxon"[258]. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Geysam, quantum ducem Hungarie" as son of "dux Tocsun"[259]. He succeeded his father in [970] as Prince of Hungary. He sent ambassadors to the court of Emperor Otto I, with whom he established friendly relations. Géza was baptised in 974 as ISTVÁN [Stephen] by priests sent by Pilgrim Bishop of Passau, although he appears to have adopted Christianity more for political expediency than religious conviction as he never renounced his pagan beliefs entirely, declaring himself, according to Macartney, "rich enough to afford two gods" (although this alleged quote may represent an inaccurate report of comments by Thietmar, see below)[260]. He continued to use his pre-baptismal name Géza. He centralised Magyar government, based at Esztergom, where his bodyguard consisted of Bavarian knights. The alliance with Bavaria was confirmed after the accession in 985 of Duke Heinrich II, and sealed by the marriage of Duke Heinrich's daughter to Géza's heir in 996[261]. Thietmar names "Deuvix" as father of King István, describing him as "very cruel…when becoming a Christian…he turned his rage against his reluctant subjects [and] sacrificed both to the omnipotent God and to various false gods. When reproached by his priest for doing so, he maintained that the practice had brought him great wealth and power"[262]. The Chronicon Posoniense records the death in 998 of "Geyza princeps Ungarorum"[263].
Per Med Lands:
     "m firstly ([967], repudiated shortly after 975) SAROLT of Transylvania, daughter of GYULA Prince of Transylvania & his wife --- ([954]-after 988). The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "una…Caroldu et altera Saroltu" as the two daughters of "Geula", specifying that the Sarolt was mother of "sancti regis Stephani"[264]. Thietmar names "Beleknegini, the name means beautiful lady in Slavonic" as wife of "Deuvix", commenting that she "drank immoderately and rode a horse like a warrior" adding that "once in a fit of anger she killed a man"[265]. The primary source which confirms her name and parentage has not yet been identified. She had been baptised into the Orthodox faith by Bishop Hierotheos at her father's court[266]. Her marriage may have been arranged by her father to build an alliance against the more powerful Bulgars[267].
Per Med Lands:
     "m secondly ([985]) as her second husband, ADELAJDA [Adleta] of Poland, widow of his brother MIHÁLY of Hungary Duke between March and Gran, daughter of [ZIEMOMYS? Duke in Poland] & his [second wife ---] ([950/60]-after 997). The Annales Kamenzenses record that "Mesco…rex Polanorum…sororem…Atleydem" married "Iesse rex Ungarie" by whom she was mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie"[268]. The Breve chronicon Silesiæ names "Adilheidem" as sister of "primo dux Mesco", adding that she married "Jesse rex Ungarie" and that she was the mother of "Stephanum regem Ungarie" born in 975[269]. The Kronika W?giersko-Polska records that "Iesse" married "sororem Meschonis ducis…Athleitam", adding that she was a Christian and converted her husband to Christianity[270]. The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not yet been identified. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[271], Adelajda was the daughter not sister of Mieszko I Prince of Poland, although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified. If this is correct, she was an otherwise unrecorded daughter by his first wife (name not known), assuming that Prince Mieszko's marriage to Dobroslawa of Bohemia is correctly dated to 965. Adelajda's birth date range is estimated from the supposed dates of birth of her two sons by her first husband (before his death in [976/78]) and of her three known daughters by her second marriage after [985]. The date range appears chronologically more consistent with her having been the daughter, rather than sister, of Mieszko, but this would be in direct contradiction to the sources quoted above. If she was Mieszko's sister, it is likely that they did not share the same mother, assuming that the estimated birth dates of Mieszko and Adelajda are both accurate. It is probable that her second marriage was arranged in accordance with the Magyar tradition that the oldest male relative should marry the widow of a deceased relative (originally polygamously) and take care of his children."
Med Lands cites:
[257] Chronicon Varadiense, 2, p. 251.
[258] Kronika W?giersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, p. 488.
[259] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 57, p. 54.
[260] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1.
[261] Macartney (1962), Chapter 1.
[262] Thietmar 8.4, p. 364.
[263] Endlicher, S. L. (ed.) (1849) Rerum Hungaricarum, Monumenta Arpadiana (Sangalli), Chronicon Posoniense, p. 55.
[264] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 27, p. 26.
[265] Thietmar 8.4, p. 364.
[266] Kosztolnyik (2002), p. 34.
[267] Lázár (1996), p, 30.
[268] Annales Kamenzenses, p. 7.
[269] Breve chronicon Silesiæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 34.
[270] Kronika W?giersko-Polska, De sancto rege Ladislao, 3, pp. 498-9.
[271] ES II 153. She is not shown in ES II 120.7

; Per Genealogy.EU (Arpad): "Géza, Great Prince of Hungary (ca 972-997), *ca 945, +1.2.997; 1m: ca 967 Sarolta (repudiated shortly after 975, +after 988), dau.of Prince Gyula of Transylvania; 2m: ca 985 Adelajda (+after 997), widow of his brother Michael."5

Family 1

Mihaly (?) Prince of Hungary, Regent of Poland b. bt 940 - 945, d. bt 976 - 978
Children

Family 2

Géza (?) Prince of Hungary b. bt 940 - 945, d. 1 Feb 997
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  2. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#_Toc481253515. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#Vaszolydied1037A
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Geisa: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020709&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_G%C3%89ZA_970-997,_ISTV%C3%81N.
  8. [S1878] Arkadiusz Bugaj, "Bugaj email 7 April 2005: "Re: Polish Nobility"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 7 April 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Bugaj email 7 April 2005."
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Adelajda of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00200286&tree=LEO
  10. [S1549] "Author's comment", various, Gregory A. Vaut (e-mail address), to unknown recipient (unknown recipient address), 10 may 2020; unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as "GA Vaut Comment."

Leszek (?) Duke of the Polans

M, #6711, b. between 870 and 880
FatherZiemowit (?) Duke of the Polans1,2 b. 835, d. 892
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited17 Apr 2020
     Leszek (?) Duke of the Polans was born between 870 and 880.3
Leszek (?) Duke of the Polans died between 930 and 940; Wikipedia says d. 930/940; Med Lands says d. 921.3,2
     ; Per Wikipedia:
     "Lestek (also Leszek, Lestko) was the second duke of Poland, and son of Siemowit, born c. 870–880. Although proof of his actual existence is unclear, if he did exist, he must have been an influential person, because the tribes that lived in present-day Poland were known as Lestkowici.[citation needed]
     "The origin of his name is not known, it can be derived from the old Polish word l?cie which means "crafty". It is believed this is a diminutive of the Slavic name L?cimir or L?cis?aw. Lestek's wife (or wives or consorts) is unknown. A theory by Stanis?aw Zakrzewski claims Lestek (or Lestko) could have been married to a Moravian princess. Another theory (inferred from the descriptions of a Belgian chronicler from the 14th century) is that a Saxon princess could have been Lestek's wife and that they had a son, Ewraker, later the Bishop of Leodium. Lestko's son, Siemomys?, was the next ruler of the early pagan Polish state.[citation needed]
Bibliography
** Kazimierz Jasi?ski, Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, Warszawa-Wroc?aw (1992).
** Feliks Koneczny, Dzieje Polski za Piastów, Kraków 1902, p. 28.
** Henryk ?owmia?ski, Dynastia Piastów we wczesnym ?redniowieczu, Pocz?tki Pa?stwa Polskiego, Pozna? 1962.
** Henryk ?owmia?ski, Pocz?tki Polski, b. 5, Warszawa 1973.
** Jerzy Wyrozumski, Dzieje Polski piastowskiej (VIII w. - 1370) (History of Polish Piast (8th Century - 1370)), Kraków 1999, p. 70."3

; Per Med Lands: "LESZEK (-[921]). The Annales Polanorum state that "Semovith genuit Lisekonem"[24]. The Chronicæ Polanorum names "Lestik filius Semovith", specifying that he succeeded his father[25]. He succeeded his father in [892] as ruler of the Polanians, until 913[26]. m ---. The name of Leszek's wife is not known. Leszek & his wife had one child:
i) ZIEMOMYS? (-before 963)."

Med Lands cites:
[24] Annales Polanorum II 975, MGH SS XIX, p. 615.
[25] Chronicæ Polanorum I.3, MGH SS IX, p. 427.
[26] Gallus Chronicon, I, 3, cited in Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 209.2
GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-33. Leszek (?) Duke of the Polans was also known as Lestek.3

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemowit. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#_Toc481253515. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lestek
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html

Ziemowit (?) Duke of the Polans

M, #6712, b. 835, d. 892
FatherPiast 'the Wheelwright' (?)1,2 d. c 861
MotherRepka (?)1,3
ReferenceGAV32 EDV32
Last Edited18 Apr 2020
     Ziemowit (?) Duke of the Polans was born in 835.4
Ziemowit (?) Duke of the Polans died in 892.4
     GAV-32 EDV-32 GKJ-34.

; Per Wikipedia:
     "Siemowit (Polish pronunciation: [???m?vit], also Ziemowit [???m?vit]) was, according to the chronicles of Gallus Anonymus, the son of Piast the Wheelwright and Rzepicha. He is considered to be the first ruler of the Piast dynasty.[1]
     "He became the Duke of the Polans in the 9th century after his father, Piast the Wheelwright, son of Cho?cisko, refused to take the place of legendary Duke Popiel. Siemowit was elected as new duke by the wiec.[2] According to a popular legend, Popiel was then eaten by mice in his tower on Gop?o lake.[3]
     "The only mention of Siemowit, along with his son, Lestek, and grandson, Siemomys?, comes in the medieval chronicle of Gallus Anonymus.[4]
     "Siemowit's great grandson, Mieszko I, was the first Christian ruler of Poland.
References
1. K. Jasi?ski, Rodowód pierwszych Piastów, p. 47.
2. Janusz Roszko (1980). Kolebka Siemowita. "Iskry". p. 170. ISBN 978-83-207-0090-9. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
3. Jan Bondeson. Two-Headed Boy, and Other Medical Marvels. Cornell University Press. pp. 91–2. ISBN 978-0-8014-8958-7.
4. (in English) (in Latin) Gallus Anonymus; Knoll, Schoer; Bisson, Schaen. The Chronicles and Deeds of the Dukes or Princes of the Poles. Central European University Press. pp. 17–22. ISBN 978-963-9241-40-4."5

; Per Med Lands:
     "ZIEMOWIT (-[892]). The Annales Polanorum state that "Peast genuit Semovith de domna Repeka"[20]. The Chronica principum Polonie names "Symovith" as son of "Kosiskonis filius…Past" and his wife "mulier quedam Repisa"[21]. The Chronicæ Polanorum names "Semovith filius Pazt Chossistcomis"[22]. He overthrew the house of Popiel, previous rulers of Polania, and became ruler of the Polanian state whose borders he extended[23]. m ---. The name of Ziemowit's wife is not known. Ziemowit & his wife had one child:
a) LESZEK (-[921]).

Med Lands cites:
[20] Annales Polanorum II 975, MGH SS XIX, p. 615.
[21] Chronica principum Poloniæ, Silesiacarum Scriptores I, p. 45.
[22] Chronicæ Polanorum I.3, MGH SS IX, p. 427.
[23] Gallus Chronicon, I, 3, cited in Dzi?cio? (1963), p. 208, which highlights the legendary character of the early parts of the chronicle.1
Ziemowit (?) Duke of the Polans was also known as Siemodwit (?) Duke of the Polans.5

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#_Toc481253515. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piast_the_Wheelwright. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rzepicha
  4. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemowit

Taksony (?) Prince of Hungary1

M, #6713, b. 931, d. between 970 and 972
FatherZoltán/Zaltas (?) Prince of Hungary2,1,3 b. c 896, d. bt 948 - 949
MotherNN (?) of Bihar4,1 b. 900
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited18 Apr 2020
     Taksony (?) Prince of Hungary was born in 931.5,1 He married (?) (?) Princess of the Kumans in 947; GAV-23.6,3
Taksony (?) Prince of Hungary died between 970 and 972.7,5,1,3
     ; Per Wikipedia:
     "Taksony ([?t?k?o?], also Taxis or Tocsun[1]; before or around 931 – early 970s) was the Grand Prince of the Hungarians after their catastrophic defeat in the 955 Battle of Lechfeld. In his youth he had participated in plundering raids in Western Europe, but during his reign the Hungarians only targeted the Byzantine Empire. The Gesta Hungarorum recounts that significant Muslim and Pecheneg groups settled in Hungary under Taksony.
Early life
     "Taksony was the son of Zoltán (the third grand prince of the Hungarians), according to the Gesta Hungarorum (written around 1200).[2] The same source adds that Taksony's mother was an unnamed daughter of Menumorut, a local ruler defeated by the conquering Hungarians[3] shortly before 907.[4] Its unknown author also says that Taksony was born "in the year of Our Lord's incarnation 931".[5][6] The Gesta Hungarorum reports that Zoltán abdicated in favor of Taksony in 947,[7] three years before his own death.[8]
     "However, modern historians have challenged existing information on Taksony's early life. A nearly-contemporaneous source – Liudprand of Cremona's Retribution[9] – narrates that Taksony led a plundering raid against Italy in 947, which suggests that he was born considerably earlier than 931.[6] His father's reign was preserved only in the Gesta Hungarorum; its anonymous author lists Zoltán among the grand princes, and all later Hungarian monarchs were descended from him.[10] The Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus wrote around 950 that Fajsz, Taksony's cousin, was grand prince of the Hungarians at that time.[11]
     "In that time Taxis, king of the Hungarians came to Italy with a large army. Berengar gave him ten measures of coins not from his own money, but from an exaction on the churches and paupers. —?Liudprand of Cremona: Retribution[12]

Reign
     "A later source, Johannes Aventinus,[3] writes that Taksony fought in the Battle of Lechfeld on August 10, 955. There, future Holy Roman Emperor Otto I routed an 8,000-strong Hungarian army.[13] If this report is reliable, Taksony was one of the few Hungarian leaders to survive the battlefield.[3] Modern historians, including Zoltán Kordé[3] and Gyula Kristó,[6] suggest that Fajsz abdicated in favor of Taksony around that time. After that battle the Hungarians' plundering raids in Western Europe stopped, and they were forced to retreat from the lands between the Enns and Traisen rivers.[14] However, the Hungarians continued their incursions into the Byzantine Empire until the 970s.[15][14]
     "According to the Gesta Hungarorum, "a great host of Muslims" arrived in Hungary "from the land of Bular"[16][17] under Taksony.[18] The contemporaneous Abraham ben Jacob also recorded the presence of Muslim merchants from Hungary in Prague in 965.[19][20] Anonymous also writes of the arrival of Pechenegs during Taksony's reign; he granted them "a land to dwell in the region of Kemej as far as the Tisza".[16][21] The only sign of a Hungarian connection with Western Europe under Taksony is a report by Liudprand of Cremona.[19] He writes about Zacheus, whom Pope John XII consecrated bishop and "sent to the Hungarians in order to preach that they should attack"[22] the Germans in 963.[19][23] However, there is no evidence that Zacheus ever arrived in Hungary.[19] Taksony arranged the marriage of his elder son Géza to Sarolt, daughter of Gyula of Transylvania,[19] before his death during the early 970s.[19]
Family
     "Taksony's marriage to a woman "from the land of the Cumans"[16] was arranged by his father, according to the Gesta Hungarorum.[3][6] Although this reference to the Cumans is anachronistic, modern historians argue that the Gesta seems to have preserved the memory of the Turkic – Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian – origin of Taksony's wife.[3][6] Historian György Györffy proposes that a Pecheneg chieftain, Tonuzoba, who received estates from Taksony near the river Tisza, was related to Taksony's wife.[24] The names of two of Taksony's sons (Géza and Michael) have been preserved.[25]
Notes
*Whether Menumorut is an actual or an invented person is debated by modern scholars.
**A Khazar, Pecheneg or Volga Bulgarian woman
***Kristó writes that she may have been a member of the Rurik dynasty from Kievan Rus'
References
1. McKitterick, Rosamond; Reuter, Timothy; Fouracre, Paul; Abulafia, David; Allmand, C. T; Luscombe, David Edward; Jones, Michael; Riley-Smith, Jonathan (23 March 1995). "The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 3, C.900-c.1024". Cambridge University Press – via Google Books.
2. Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 22, 24.
3. Kordé 1994, p. 659.
4. Madgearu 2005, p. 26.
5. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 55), p. 121.
6. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 24.
7. Engel 2001, p. 19.
8. Tóth 1994, p. 741.
9. Györffy 2002, pp. 212, 220.
10. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 21.
11. Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 22–23.
12. Liudprand of Cremona: Retribution (ch. 5.33), p. 194.
13. Spinei 2003, p. 81.
14. Spinei 2003, p. 82.
15. Engel 2001, p. 15.
16. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 57), p. 127.
17. Györffy 2002, pp. 180, 291.
18. Berend 2006, p. 65.
19. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 25.
20. Berend 2006, pp. 65–66.
21. Spinei 2003, p. 126.
22. Liudprand of Cremona: King Otto (ch. 6.), p. 224.
23. Berend, Laszlovszky & Szakács 2007, p. 329.
24. Györffy 1994, p. 36.
25. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. Appendix 1.
26. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. Appendices 1–2.
Sources
Primary sources
** Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (Edited, Translated and Annotated by Martyn Rady and László Veszprémy) (2010). In: Rady, Martyn; Veszprémy, László; Bak, János M. (2010); Anonymus and Master Roger; CEU Press; ISBN 978-963-9776-95-1.
** Liudprand of Cremona: Retribution and King Otto (2007). In: The Complete Works of Liudprand of Cremona (Translated by Paolo Squatriti); The Catholic University of Press; ISBN 978-0-8132-1506-8.
Secondary sources
** Berend, Nora (2006). At the Gate of Christendom: Jews, Muslims and "Pagans" in Medieval Hungary, c. 1000-c.1300. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02720-5.
** Berend, Nora; Laszlovszky, József; Szakács, Béla Zsolt (2007). "The kingdom of Hungary". In Berend, Nora (ed.) Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus', c.900–1200. Cambridge University Press. pp. 319–368. ISBN 978-0-521-87616-2.
** Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.
** Györffy, György (1994). King Saint Stephen of Hungary. Atlantic Research and Publications. ISBN 978-0-88033-300-9.
** Györffy, György (2002). A magyarok el?deir?l és a honfoglalásról: kortársak és krónikások hiradásai [=On the Forefathers of the Hungarians and their Conquest of the Carpathian Basin: Reports by Contemporaries and Chroniclers] (in Hungarian). Osiris Kiadó. ISBN 963-389-272-4.
** Kordé, Zoltán (1994). "Taksony". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc (eds.) Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9–14. század) [=Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th–14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 659. ISBN 963-05-6722-9.
** Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [=Rulers of the House of Árpád] (in Hungarian). I.P.C. Könyvek. ISBN 963-7930-97-3.
** Madgearu, Alexandru (2005). The Romanians in the Anonymous Gesta Hungarorum: Truth and Fiction. Romanian Cultural Institute, Center for Transylvanian Studies. ISBN 973-7784-01-4.
** Spinei, Victor (2003). The Great Migrations in the East and South East of Europe from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Century. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies) and Museum of Br?ila Istros Publishing House. ISBN 973-85894-5-2.
** Tóth, Sándor László (1994). "Zaltas". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc (eds.) Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9–14. század) [=Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th–14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 741. ISBN 963-05-6722-9.8 "

; Per Genealogics: "In 955 he was defeated by Emperor Otto the Great"
     "Taksony was born about 931, the son of Zoltan, prince of Hungary. He was the _fejedelem_ (ruling prince) of Hungary between 955 and 970. His policies were a change from the previous habit of the Hungarian leaders of conducting rapid raids on neighbouring countries, as he was probably present at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, in which the German king Otto I 'the Great' decisively defeated an invasion by the Magyars, who lost their leader Bulcsu. Fought on the Lechfeld, a plain near present-day Augsburg in Germany, it marked the last Hungarian effort to invade Germany.
     "Relations with the Byzantine empire progressively deteriorated, possibly due to propaganda from Otto I, now the Holy Roman Emperor, who depicted the Hungarians as ungodly. In the second half of his reign Taksony increasingly pursued campaigns against the Byzantine empire. Taksony asked the pope to send a bishop to Hungary (a request which was thwarted by Otto). However he did not follow an open policy favourable to the spreading of Christianity within his realm.
     "Taksony arranged the marriage of his son Geisa to Sarolt von Siebenburgen (Transylvania), the daughter of Gyula, Fürst von Siebenburgen; their son Geisa became the father of St. Stephan, king of Hungary (969-1038), one of the iconic figures of Hungarian history. Taksony's other son Mihály was the father of Vazul, founder of a long line of Hungarian kings.
     "Taksony died about 972."1

Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference: Page 104.9 GAV-30 EDV-30.

; Per Med Lands:
     "TAKSONY, son of ZOLTÁN Prince of Hungary & his wife --- (-[970/72]). The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "Taxin" as the son of "Arpade…quartus Zaltas filium", another passage stating that "omnes quidem Arpade filii mortui sunt" survived by "eorum nepotibus Phale et Tase cum patrueli eorum Taxi"[233]. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records the birth of "dux Zulta…filium…Tocsun" in 931[234]. He allied the Magyars with the Pechenegs [Kumans], to whom he gave land around the River Tisza, in order to strengthen his armed forces and secure the defences of his western border[235]. Liutprand records "Taxis Hungariorum rex" invading Italy with his army[236]. The Magyars were defeated in battle by Otto I King of Germany at Augsburg in 955[237]. The Gesta Hungarorum names "Tocsun" as leader of a Hungarian raid into Greece and Bulgaria, recorded after its report of the defeat at Augsburg, but states that this was their last raid "while living as pagans"[238]. From about this time, he was accepted as TAKSONY Prince of Hungary.
     "m (947) ---, from the Pechenegs. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "dux Zulta" arranged the marriage of his son "Tocsun" with "uxorem de terra Cumanorum"[239]. Horváth states that, in allying himself with the Pechenegs, Prince Taksony brought back a wife for himself from their land[240]."
Med Lands cites:
[233] Konstantinos Porphyrogenitos De Administrando Imperio 40, p. 175.
[234] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 55, p. 51.
[235] Horváth, András Pálóczi (1989) Pechenegs, Cumans, Iasians: Steppe peoples in medieval Hungary (Corvina), pp. 7 and 10. This marriage is not mentioned in ES II 153.
[236] Liudprandi Antapodosis V.33, MGH SS III, p. 336.
[237] Thietmar 2.10 and 2.11, pp. 97-8.
[238] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 42, pp. 99-101.
[239] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 57, p. 53.3
He was Prince of Hungary between 947 and 972.5,1

Family

(?) (?) Princess of the Kumans b. 932
Children

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Taksony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020706&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Zoltán: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020707&tree=LEO
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_TAKSONY_955-970. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Bihar: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020708&tree=LEO
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
  6. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  7. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 227. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  8. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taksony_of_Hungary. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Taksony: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020706&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mihály of Hungary: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020704&tree=LEO
  11. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., pp. 226-7.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Geisa: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020709&tree=LEO

(?) (?) Princess of the Kumans1

F, #6714, b. 932
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited7 Apr 2020
     (?) (?) Princess of the Kumans was born in 932.2 She married Taksony (?) Prince of Hungary, son of Zoltán/Zaltas (?) Prince of Hungary and NN (?) of Bihar, in 947; GAV-23.2,1
     ; Per Med Lands: "m (947) ---, from the Pechenegs. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "dux Zulta" arranged the marriage of his son "Tocsun" with "uxorem de terra Cumanorum"[239]. Horváth states that, in allying himself with the Pechenegs, Prince Taksony brought back a wife for himself from their land[240]."
Med Lands cites:
[239] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 57, p. 53.
[240] Horváth (1989), p. 10. This marriage is not mentioned in ES II 153.1
GAV-30 EDV-30. (?) (?) Princess of the Kumans was also known as (?) of the Pechenegs.1

Family

Taksony (?) Prince of Hungary b. 931, d. bt 970 - 972
Children

Citations

  1. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_TAKSONY_955-970. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  2. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html

Zoltán/Zaltas (?) Prince of Hungary1,2

M, #6715, b. circa 896, d. between 948 and 949
FatherÁrpád (?) Prince of Hungary1,2,3,4 b. 850, d. 907
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited18 Apr 2020
     Zoltán/Zaltas (?) Prince of Hungary was born circa 896.5,2,6 He married NN (?) of Bihar, daughter of Maroth (?) Prince of Bihar, before 908; WFT Est.7
Zoltán/Zaltas (?) Prince of Hungary died in 947.8
Zoltán/Zaltas (?) Prince of Hungary died between 948 and 949.2,6
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference: Page 104.9

; Per Genealogics:
     "Zoltán was born about 896, the youngest of (at least) five sons of Arpád, prince of the Magyars. Also known as Zolta, Zaltas, or Zsolt, he may be the only son or Arpád to have recorded issue. He was the father of Taksony, and possibly another son Jutas. _Gesta Hungarorum_ names Zolta as the son and successor of Arpád.
     "Although he ruled Hungary from 907 to 946, Zoltán's leadership meant much less than was the case with previous leaders; during his time the tribal leaders had most of the powers. Later researchers have questioned his position as a ruler, and some prefer other sons of Arpád. However it is known that he was a Magyar leader involved in the invasion of western and southern Europe. He was defeated by the Saxons near Merseburg in 933. He died in 949."2

; Per Med Lands: "ZOLTÁN [Zaltas] (896-948). The De Administrando Imperio of Konstantinos Porphyrogenetos names "primus Tarcatzus, secundus Ielech, tertius Iutotzas, quartus Zaltan" as the four sons of "Arpadem magnum Turciæ principem"[218]. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Zulte" as son of "Arpad"[219]. Prince of Hungary 907-945. The Magyars suffered their first important defeat during their raids on western Europe at the hands of Heinrich I "the Fowler" King of Germany at the battle of Riade near Merseburg in 933. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "dux Zulta" installed "filium suum Tocsun" as duke "super totum regnum Hungarie" and died three years later "de ergastulo"[220], which suggests that his abdication had not been voluntary. m ---, daughter of MENUMOROUT [Ménmarót]. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records the marriage of "dux Arpad…filius suus Zulta" and "Menumorout…filiam suam", and that his father-in-law gave Zoltán "Byhor castrum" and, dying without sons, bequeathed all his estates to his son-in-law[221]."
Med Lands cites:
[219] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 51, p. 47.
[220] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 57, p. 54.
[221] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 51, p. 47.3


; Per Wikipedia:
     "Zoltán (Hungarian pronunciation: [?zolta?n]; c. 880 or 903 – c. 950), also Zolta,[1][2] is mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum as the third Grand Prince of the Hungarians who succeeded his father Árpád around 907. Although modern historians tend to deny this report on his reign, because other chronicles do not list him among the Hungarian rulers, there is consensus that even if Zoltán never ascended the throne, all monarchs ruling in Hungary from the House of Árpád after around 955 were descended from him.
Life
Zoltán in the Gesta Hungarorum
     "Modern historians' main source of Zoltán's life is the Gesta Hungarorum, a late 12th-century chronicle whose writer is now known as Anonymous.[3] According to this source, Zoltán was the only son of Árpád, Grand Prince of the Hungarians.[3] In contrast, the nearly contemporary Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus writes that "Zaltas"[4] was Árpád's fourth son.[3] Zoltán's name seemingly derived from the Arabian sultan title with Turkic mediation, but modern scholars have not unanimously accepted this etymology.[3]
     "According to Anonymous, Zoltán was born after 903, during his father's second campaign against Menumorut.[1] The latter was one of the many local rulers who are solely mentioned in the Gesta Hungarorum among the opponents of the Hungarians during their conquest of the Carpathian Basin.[5] In the Gesta Hungarorum's narration, Menumorot was forced to surrender and to give his daughter in marriage to Zoltán[1][6] in 904 or 905.[2] When Menumorut died, Zoltán inherited his father-in-law's duchy east of the river Tisza, which Anonymous claims was inhabited by "the peoples that are called Kozár".[7][8] Anonymous also states that Zoltán, still a minor, succeeded his father who died around 907.[3] Zoltán, in turn, later abdicated in favour of his son Taksony and died "in the third year of his son's reign".[9][3]
     "And his son Zolta succeeded [Árpád], who was similar to his father in character but dissimilar in appearance. Prince Zolta was a little lisping and pale, with soft, blonde hair, of middling stature; a warlike duke, brave in spirit, merciful to his subjects, sweet of speech, but covetous of power, whom all the leading men and warriors of Hungary loved marvelously. Some time later, when Zolta was thirteen, all the leading men of the realm by their common counsel and of their equal wish appointed rectors of the kingdom beneath the prince to mend through the guidance of customary law the conflicts and lawsuits of litigants.
—?Anonymous: Gesta Hungarorum[10]

Modern historians' views
     "Nowadays historians reject most details of Zoltán's life presented by Anonymous. For instance, the Hungarian historian Gyula Kristó says that Zoltán was born around 880 instead of around 903.[11] His Romanian colleague Alexandru Madgearu likewise writes that either Zoltán was born many years earlier than 903 or his marriage must have happened years after 904.[1]
     "Zoltán's father-in-law's identity is also debated. Medievalist Pál Engel says that Menumorut is one of the "imaginary figures"[5] invented by Anonymous in order to describe the conquering Hungarians' heroic wars against them. Historian Charles R. Bowlus writes that he was a Moravian ruler whose daughter's marriage with Zoltán symbolized the end of "Great Moravia".[1] Medievalist Tudor S?l?gean also says that Menumorut was a real person, the ruler of a one-time duchy inhabited by Romanians, Slavs and many other peoples at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.[8]
     "Anonymous's statement that Zoltán succeeded his father as grand prince, or even the idea that Zoltán ever ruled the federation of the Hungarian tribes have also been challenged. For instance, historian Sándor L. Tóth writes that Zoltán, being the youngest among Árpád's four sons, could hardly precede his elder brothers in the line of succession.[3] Kristó also says that other Hungarian chroniclers do not make mention of Zoltán's rule, implying that Anonymous only inserted Zoltán into the incompletely preserved list of the grand princes because he knew that all Hungarian monarchs from the House of Árpád descended from him.[11]
References
1. Madgearu 2005, p. 26.
2. Bowlus 1994, p. 254.
3. Tóth 1994, p. 741.
4. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (ch. 40), p. 179.
5. Engel 2001, p. 11.
6. S?l?gean 2005, p. 146.
7. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 11), p. 33.
8. S?l?gean 2005, p. 140.
9. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 57), p. 127.
10. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 53), p. 115.
11. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 21.
12. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. Appendix 1.
Sources
Primary sources
** Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (Edited, Translated and Annotated by Martyn Rady and László Veszprémy) (2010). In: Rady, Martyn; Veszprémy, László; Bak, János M. (2010); Anonymus and Master Roger; CEU Press; ISBN 978-963-9776-95-1.
** Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (Greek text edited by Gyula Moravcsik, English translation by Romillyi J. H. Jenkins) (1967). Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. ISBN 0-88402-021-5.
Secondary sources
** Bowlus, Charles R. (1994). Franks, Moravians and Magyars: The Struggle for the Middle Danube, 788–907. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3276-3.
** Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.
** Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [=Rulers of the House of Árpád] (in Hungarian). I.P.C. Könyvek. ISBN 963-7930-97-3.
** Madgearu, Alexandru (2005). The Romanians in the Anonymous Gesta Hungarorum: Truth and Fiction. Romanian Cultural Institute, Center for Transylvanian Studies. ISBN 973-7784-01-4.
** S?l?gean, Tudor (2005). "Romanian Society in the Early Middle Ages (9th–14th Centuries AD)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan (eds.) History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 133–207. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
** Tóth, Sándor László (1994). "Zaltas". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc (eds.) Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század) [=Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 741. ISBN 963-05-6722-9."10 GAV-31 EDV-31. He was Prince of Hungary. See attached maps of Kingdom of Hungary ca 900-925 between 907 and 948.1

Family

NN (?) of Bihar b. 900
Child

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Zoltán: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020707&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#Taksonydied970A. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Arpád: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020710&tree=LEO
  5. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#_TAKSONY_955-970
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Bihar: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020708&tree=LEO
  8. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 227. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Zoltán: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020707&tree=LEO
  10. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zolt%C3%A1n_of_Hungary. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Taksony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020706&tree=LEO

NN (?) of Bihar1

F, #6716, b. 900
FatherMaroth (?) Prince of Bihar2 b. c 880
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited7 Apr 2020
     NN (?) of Bihar was born in 900.3 She married Zoltán/Zaltas (?) Prince of Hungary, son of Árpád (?) Prince of Hungary, before 908; WFT Est.1
     GAV-31 EDV-31.

Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference: Page 104.4

Family

Zoltán/Zaltas (?) Prince of Hungary b. c 896, d. bt 948 - 949
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Bihar: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020708&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Maroth: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00280738&tree=LEO
  3. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Bihar: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020708&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Taksony: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020706&tree=LEO

Maroth (?) Prince of Bihar1

M, #6717, b. circa 880
ReferenceGAV32 EDV32
Last Edited7 Apr 2020
     Maroth (?) Prince of Bihar was born circa 880 at Hungary (now).1
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von, Reference: Page 104.
2. Gesta Hungorarum Published 12th or 13th century.2


; Per Genealogics:
     "Maroth was born about 880. He was a leader (Khagan) of the Khazars, Caspian Sea Turkic people who lived between the rivers Tisza and Szamos in today's Hungary and Romania. The Khazars came into existence as a people shortly after the breakup of the Turkic empire located near China and arrived north of the Caspian soon thereafter. They were known for their religious tolerance, and at least some of their leaders converted to Judaism.
     "Nothing is recorded about Maroth other than he appears to be among those who converted to Judaism. His daughter, whose name is not recorded, was the wife of Zoltán, youngest of the five sons of Arpád, prince of the Magyars. Their son was Taksony, prince of Hungary."2

; Per Wikipedia:
     "Zoltán's father-in-law's identity is also debated. Medievalist Pál Engel says that Menumorut is one of the "imaginary figures"[5] invented by Anonymous in order to describe the conquering Hungarians' heroic wars against them. Historian Charles R. Bowlus writes that he was a Moravian ruler whose daughter's marriage with Zoltán symbolized the end of "Great Moravia".[1] Medievalist Tudor S?l?gean also says that Menumorut was a real person, the ruler of a one-time duchy inhabited by Romanians, Slavs and many other peoples at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.[8]"
References
1. Madgearu 2005, p. 26.
5. Engel 2001, p. 11.
8. S?l?gean 2005, p. 140.3 GAV-32 EDV-32. He was Khagan of Jewish Khazars beteen the rivers Theiss and Szamos.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Maroth: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00280738&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Maroth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00280738&tree=LEO
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zolt%C3%A1n_of_Hungary. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.

Árpád (?) Prince of Hungary1,2

M, #6718, b. 850, d. 907
FatherAlmos (?)1,3 b. bt 819 - 820, d. bt 892 - 895
ReferenceGAV32 EDV32
Last Edited17 Apr 2020
     Árpád (?) Prince of Hungary was born in 850.4,3
Árpád (?) Prince of Hungary died in 907.4,1,3
     ; Per Genealogics:
     "Arpád was born about 850, the son of Almos, leader of the Magyar tribes; his mother's name and descent are not known. In 894 Arpád and his fellow leader Kurszán negotiated with the representatives of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI 'the Wise', the terms under which the confederation of the Magyar tribes was willing to assist the Byzantine empire against Emperor Simeon I of Bulgaria.
     "In the spring of 895 the Magyar tribes attacked the Bulgarian empire and defeated Simeon, obliging him to conclude peace with Byzantium. Simeon, however, entered into an alliance with the Pechenegs, the eastern neighbours of the Magyar tribes, and he attacked the Magyar army. In the Battle of Southern Buh, Simeon defeated the Magyars; shortly afterwards, the Pechenegs attacked and pillaged the Magyar territories. The Magyar tribes were obliged to leave Etelköz and move to the Carpathian Basin, where they settled.
     "The catastrophic defeats during the wars with the Bulgarian empire and the Pechenegs caused the death of Almos, who was probably either assassinated or sacrificed. The leaders of the seven Hungarian tribes proclaimed Arpád the High Prince of the Magyars; therefore Arpád is considered traditionally as leader of their occupation of their new homeland. In 896 the Hungarian tribes occupied the Upper Tisza river; from there they undertook numerous looting raids in central and western Europe, and in 900/901 they moved to Pannonia. The Magyars entering the Pannonian fields in 896 represented about 200,000-250,000 people.
     "Arpád died after 900, possibly in 907, and was probably succeeded by his nephew Szabolcs, who in turn was succeeded by Arpád's grandson Fajsz (Fales, Falitzi).
     "Arpád is not considered the founder of the kingdom of Hungary - that was his descendant Stephen I - but he is generally thought of as the forefather of the Hungarians, and is often affectionately referred to as 'our father Arpád'. He was the founder of the dynasty named after him, which would rule over the kingdom of Hungary until 1301."3



Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. Page 104/.3

; Per Med Lands: "ÁRPÁD (-907). The Gestis Hungarorum Liber names "Arpad" as son of "Almus" & his wife, specifying that his father brought him "in Pannoniam"[206]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that "Hunni sive Hungari" divided into seven armies, each having 30,000 warriors and a single commander, and that "Arpad, filius Almi filii Elad filii Vger de genere Turul" was the most powerful of the seven Hungarian commanders[207]. As leader of part of the Magyar armies, he crossed the Verecke and other passes in 895 into the fields of the Carpathian basin[208]. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records that "Arpad dux" invaded "terram…inter Thisciam et Budrug usque ad Ugosam" and besieged "castrum Borsoa"[209]. The Gesta Hungarorum records that Árpád was the first Hungarian commander to cross the Ruthenian Alps and settle by the river Ung before crossing the Danube and entering Pannonia where he set up his tent "ubi…Albensis civitatas [Székesfehérvár]" was founded[210]. The Gestis Hungarorum Liber records the death of "dux Arpad" in 807[211], presumably an error for 907. m ---. The name of Árpád's wife is not known."
Med Lands cites:
[206] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 4, p. 6.
[207] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 26 and 27, pp. 79 and 81.
[208] Lázár, I. (1993), trans. Albert Tezla, Hungary - A Brief History (Budapest, Corvina), Introduction, Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, consulted at Corvinus Library of Hungarian History, (20 Jul 2003).
[209] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 14, p. 15.
[210] Simonis de Kéza Gesta Hungarorum 26 and 27, pp. 79 and 81-3.
[211] Gestis Hungarorum Liber 52, p. 48.5


; Per Wikipedia:
     "Árpád (Hungarian pronunciation: [?a?rpa?d]; c. 845 – c. 907) was the head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. He might have been either the sacred ruler or kende of the Hungarians, or their military leader or gyula, although most details of his life are debated by historians, because different sources contain contradictory information. Despite this, many Hungarians refer to him as the "founder of our country", and Árpád's preeminent role in the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin has been emphasized by some later chronicles. The dynasty descending from Árpád ruled the Kingdom of Hungary until 1301.
Biography
Early life
     "Árpád was the son of Álmos who is mentioned as the first head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes by all Hungarian chronicles.[1][2] His mother's name and family are unknown.[3] According to historian Gyula Kristó, Árpád was born around 845.[4] His name derived from the Hungarian word for barley, árpa, which is of Turkic origin.[4]
     "The Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus (r. 913–959) states that the Hungarians "had never at any time had any other prince" before Árpád, which is in sharp contrast to the Hungarian chronicles' report of the position of Árpád's father.[5][6] In Porphyrogenitus's narration, the Khazar khagan initiated the centralization of the command of the Hungarian tribes in order to strengthen his own suzerainty over them.[6][7] The khagan initially wanted to appoint a chieftain named Levedi to lead the Hungarians.[8] However, Levedi did not accept this offer and suggested that either Álmos or Árpád should be promoted instead of him.[7] The khagan approached the Hungarians with this new proposal.[9] They preferred Árpád to his father, because he was "greatly admired for wisdom and counsel and valour, and capable of this rule".[5][7] Thereafter, Árpád was made "prince according to the custom ... of the Chazars, by lifting him upon a shield."[5][9] Constantine Porphyrogenitus refers to Árpád as "great prince of Turkey" (referring to Hungary) (Greek: ? ????? ???????? ?????).[10][11][12]
     "The reliability of the Byzantine emperor's report of Árpád's election is debated by modern historians: for instance, Victor Spinei states that it is "rather vague and scarcely credible", but András Róna-Tas writes that its core is reliable.[7][13] The latter historian adds that Árpád's election was promoted by Álmos who forced Levedi kende to renounce. Accordingly, in Róna-Tas's view, Árpád succeeded Levedi as sacred ruler or kende, which enabled his father to preserve his own position of the actual leader of the Hungarians or gyula.[13]
Towards the Hungarian Conquest
     "The earliest reliable source of Árpád's life is an early 10th-century document, the Continuation of the Chronicle by George the Monk.[4][14][15] It narrates that the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise (r. 886–912) sent his envoy Nicetas Sclerus to the Hungarians in 894 or 895 "to give presents" and incite them against the Bulgarian Empire.[15] Sclerus met with their two leaders, Árpád and Kurszán, at the Lower Danube.[15][16] Sclerus's mission succeeded: a Hungarian army soon crossed the Danube on Byzantine ships against Bulgaria.[16][17] An interpolation in Porphyrogenitus's text suggests that the invading Hungarians were under the command of Árpád's son, Liüntika.[16]
     "The positions held by Árpád and Kurszán at the time of their negotiations with Sclerus are debated by historians. Spinei wrote that Árpád was the gyula, and Kurszán was the kende.[16] In contrast, Kristó said that Kurszán was the gyula and Árpád represented his father, Álmos kende.[15] [18]
At that time, the Bulgarians had disregarded the peace treaty and were raiding through the Thracian countryside. Justice pursued them for breaking their oath to Christ our God, the emperor of all, and they quickly met up with their punishment. While our forces were engaged against the Saracens, divine Providence led the [Hungarians], in place of the Romans, to campaign against the Bulgarians. Our Majesty's fleet of ships supported them and ferried them across the Danube. [Providence] sent them out against the army of the Bulgarians that had so wickedly taken up arms against Christians and, as though they were public executioners, they decisively defeated them in three engagements, so that the Christian Romans might not willingly stain themselves with the blood of the Christian Bulgarians.
—?Leo the Wise: Tactics[19]

     "The Hungarian army defeated the Bulgarians, but the latter hired the Pechenegs against them.[16][20] The Bulgarians and Pechenegs simultaneously invaded the Hungarians' territories in the western regions of the Pontic steppes in 895 or 896.[21] The destruction of their dwelling places by the Pechenegs forced the Hungarians to leave for a new homeland across the Carpathian Mountains towards the Pannonian Plain.[22]
     "The Illuminated Chronicle says that Árpád's father Álmos "could not enter Pannonia, for he was killed in Erdelw" or Transylvania.[1][23][24] Engel, Kristó and Molnár, who accept the reliability of this report, wrote that Álmos's death was a ritual murder, similar to the sacrifice of the Khazar khagans in case of a disaster affecting their people.[1][22][25] In contrast with them, Róna-Tas states that even if the report on Álmos's murder "reflects true event, the only possible explanation would be that Árpád or someone in his entourage" killed the aged prince.[23] Spinei rejects the Illuminated Chronicle's report on Álmos's murder in Transylvania, because the last mention of Álmos in the contrasting narration of the Gesta Hungarorum is connected to a siege of Ungvár (Uzhhorod, Ukraine) by the Hungarians.[26] The latter chronicle says that Álmos appointed Árpád "as leader and master" of the Hungarians on this occasion.[27][28]
Reign
     "Árpád's name "is completely unknown" to all sources written in East Francia, which was one of the main powers of the Carpathian Basin at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.[11] These sources, including the Annales Alamannici and the Annales Eisnidlenses, only mention another Hungarian leader, Kurszán.[11] According to Kristó and other historians, these sources suggest that Kurszán must have been the gyula commanding the Hungarian forces, while Árpád succeeded his murdered father as the sacred kende.[11][30] Proposing a contrasting theory, the Romanian historian Curta wrote that Kurszán was the kende and Árpád gyula only succeeded him when Kurszán was murdered by Bavarians in 902 or 904.[11][31]
     "In contrast to nearly contemporaneous sources, Hungarian chronicles written centuries after the events—for instance, the Gesta Hungarorum and the Illuminated Chronicle—emphasize Árpád's pre-eminent role in the conquest of the Carpathian Basin.[1][32] The Gesta Hungarorum also highlights Árpád's military skills and his generosity.[33] This chronicle also emphasizes that Tétény, one of the heads of the seven Hungarian tribes, acquired "the land of Transylvania for himself and his posterity" only after Árpád had authorized him to conquer it.[34][35]
Having crossed the Danube, they encamped beside the Danube as far as Budafelhévíz. Hearing this, all the Romans living throughout the land of Pannonia, saved their lives by flight. Next day, Prince Árpád and all his leading men with all the warriors of Hungary entered the city of King Attila and they saw all the royal palaces, some ruined to the foundations, others not, and they admired beyond measure the stone buildings and were happier than can be told that they had deserved to take without fighting the city of King Attila, of whose line Prince Árpád descended. They feasted every day with great joy in the palace of King Attila, sitting alongside one another, and all the melodies and sweet sounds of zithers and pipes along with all the songs of minstrels were presented to them ... Prince Árpád gave great lands and properties to the guests staying with them, and, when they heard this, many guests thronged to him and gladly stayed with him.
—?Anonymous: Gesta Hungarorum[36]

     "The Gesta Hungarorum says that Árpád took "an oath of the leading men and warriors of Hungary," and "had his son, Prince Zoltán elevated" to prince in his life.[37][38] However, the reliability of this report and the list of the grand princes in the Gesta Hungarorum is dubious.[12] For instance, it ignores Fajsz, who ruled when Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus was completing his De Administrando Imperio around 950.[39]
Death
     "The date of Árpád's death is debated.[40] The Gesta Hungarorum states that he died in 907.[1][40] However, Kristó wrote that he actually died in 900 or later because the Gesta says 903 is the starting date of the Hungarian "land-taking" instead of its actual date around 895.[40] If the Gesta's report on his funeral is reliable, Árpád was buried "at the head of a small river that flows through a stone culvert to the city of King Attila" where a village, Fehéregyháza, developed near Buda a century later.[37][40]
Legacy
     "The Hungarians arrived in their new homeland within the Carpathians under Árpád.[38] Árpád is the principal actor in the Gesta Hungarorum, which attributes "almost all memorable events" of the "Hungarian land-taking" to him.[41] Furthermore, until the extinction of the male line of his dynasty in 1301, Hungary was ruled by "a single line of princes", all descending from Árpád.[22] Árpád is known among Hungarians as honalapító or the "founder of our homeland".[38]
Family
     "Porphyrogenitus says Árpád "had four sons: first, Tarkatzous; second, Ielech; third, Ioutotzas; fourth, Zaltas".[12][38][42] However, he also refers to one "Liuntikas, son of" Árpád; Kristó wrote that Liuntikas (Liüntika) was an alternative name of Tarkatzous (Tarhos).[38][43] The name and family of the mother of Árpád's sons are unknown.[44]
Footnotes
1. Engel 2001, p. 19.
2. Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 11–12, 17, Appendix 1.
3. Kristó & Makk 1996, pp. 17, Appendix 1.
4. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 17.
5. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (ch. 38), p. 173.
6. Kristó 1996, pp. 160–161.
7. Spinei 2003, p. 33.
8. Spinei 2003, pp. 33, 40.
9. Kristó 1996, p. 160.
10. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (ch. 40), pp. 178–179.
11. Kristó 1996, p. 201.
12. Engel 2001, p. 20.
13. Róna-Tas 1999, p. 330.
14. Róna-Tas 1999, pp. 54–55.
15. Kristó 1996, p. 183.
16. Spinei 2003, p. 52.
17. Kristó 1996, pp. 183–184.
18. Kristó 1996, p. 186.
19 The Taktika of Leo VI (18.40), p. 453.
20. Curta 2006, p. 178.
21. Engel 2001, pp. 11–12.
22. Molnár 2001, p. 13.
23. Róna-Tas 1999, p. 344.
24. The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle (ch. 28), p. 98.
25. Kristó 1996, pp. 191–192.
26. Spinei 2009, p. 72.
275. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 15.
28. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 13), p. 37.
29. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians, note 1 on p. 8.
30. Molnár 2001, p. 201.
31. Curta 2006, p. 189.
32. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 18.
33. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 19.
34. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 24), p. 59.
35. Madgearu 2005, pp. 91–92.
36. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 46), pp. 100–101.
37. Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (ch. 52), p. 115.
38. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 21.
39. Engel 2001, pp. 19–20.
40. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. 20.
41. Madgearu 2005, p. 25.
42. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (ch. 40), p. 179.
43. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (ch. 40), p. 177.
44. Kristó & Makk 1996, p. Appendix 1.
References
Primary sources
** Anonymus, Notary of King Béla: The Deeds of the Hungarians (Edited, Translated and Annotated by Martyn Rady and László Veszprémy) (2010). In: Rady, Martyn; Veszprémy, László; Bak, János M. (2010); Anonymus and Master Roger; CEU Press; ISBN 978-963-9776-95-1.
** Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio (Greek text edited by Gyula Moravcsik, English translation by Romillyi J. H. Jenkins) (1967). Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. ISBN 0-88402-021-5.
** The Hungarian Illuminated Chronicle: Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum (Edited by Dezs? Dercsényi) (1970). Corvina, Taplinger Publishing. ISBN 0-8008-4015-1.
** The Taktika of Leo VI (Text, translation, and commentary by George T. Dennis) (2010). Dumbarton Oaks. ISBN 978-0-88402-359-3.
Secondary sources
** Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89452-4.
** Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1-86064-061-3.
** Kristó, Gyula (1996). Hungarian History in the Ninth Century. Szegedi Középkorász M?hely. ISBN 1-4039-6929-9.
** Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [Rulers of the House of Árpád] (in Hungarian). I.P.C. Könyvek. ISBN 963-7930-97-3.
** Madgearu, Alexandru (2005). The Romanians in the Anonymous Gesta Hungarorum: Truth and Fiction. Romanian Cultural Institute, Center for Transylvanian Studies. ISBN 973-7784-01-4.
** Molnár, Miklós (2001). A Concise History of Hungary. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66736-4.
** Róna-Tas, András (1999). Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History (Translated by Nicholas Bodoczky). CEU Press. ISBN 978-963-9116-48-1.
** Spinei, Victor (2003). The Great Migrations in the East and South East of Europe from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Century. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies) and Museum of Br?ila Istros Publishing House. ISBN 973-85894-5-2.
** Spinei, Victor (2009). The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth century. Koninklijke Brill NV. ISBN 978-90-04-17536-5.
External links
** Marek, Miroslav. "arpad/arpad1.html". Genealogy.EU." http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
** Árpád, painting from the 19th century: http://www.aeg.c3.hu/diakok/tanf/ARPA/KEPTAR/arpad.jpg.2 "



; Per Genealogy.EU: "Árpád, Prince of Hungary, +907; he settled in what is now Hungary in about 900, though they continued to ravage western Europe til their defeat by Emperor Otto I in 955."1

GAV-32 EDV-32 GKJ-33.

; Per Enc. of World History: "The Hungarians, or Magyars, organized in a number of tribes, occupied the valley of the middle Danube and Theiss (Tisza). Under Arpad (d. 907) they had come from southern Russia by way of Moldova, driven on by the Patzinaks (Pechenegs) and other Asian peoples. The Hungarians were themselves nomads of the Finno-Ugrian family. For more than half a century after their occupation of Hungary, they continued their raids, both toward the east and toward the west. In 906 the Hungarians destroyed the rising Slavic kingdom of Moravia."6

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Arpad 1 page (Arpad family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/arpad/arpad1.html
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%81rp%C3%A1d. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Arpád: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020710&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#Taksonydied970A. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 226. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Zoltán: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020707&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Tarhos: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079940&tree=LEO

Thibaud (?) Comte d'Arles & Vienne1,2

M, #6719, b. circa 854, d. 895
FatherHugbert (?) Cte et Abbe de St. Maurice de Valois, Count of Arles3,4,5,1,2,6,7 b. 820, d. 864
ReferenceGAV30 EDV31
Last Edited26 Nov 2020
     Thibaud (?) Comte d'Arles & Vienne was born circa 854; Genealogy.EU says b. c 860; Wikipedia says b ca 854; Genealogics says b. ca 850.3,5,1 He married Bertha de Lorraine, daughter of Lothaire II "The Saxon" (?) King of Lorraine and Waldrada (?), circa 879;
Her 1st husband; Med Lands says m. 879/880; Genealogics says m. ca 879.8,3,9,5,10,11,1,2
Thibaud (?) Comte d'Arles & Vienne died in 895; Genealogics says d. aft Jun 887; Med Lands says d. June 887/895; Genealogy.EU says d. 895.3,1,2
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 109.12,8

; Per Genealogics:
     "Theotbald was the son of Hugbert, count of Arles, lay abbot of Saint-Maurice in Valais. About 879 he married Bertha de Lorraine, the illegitimate daughter of Lothar II, king of Lorraine, by his mistress Waldrada. Of their four children, Teutberga, Hugo and Boso would have progeny.
     "Theotbald was a count of Arles until about 879/880; he was among the entourage of Boso, count of Vienne, king of Lower-Burgundy, who was his kinsman. The _Annales Vedastini_ report that _Teutbaldum filium Hucbert_ (Theotbald, son of Hugbert) was seriously wounded by Henricus in the battle against _Bosonem tyrannum_ (the tyrant Boso) in 880, and that there were even rumours that he had died. According to Jean-Pierre Poly, the French historian of the Middle Ages, this battle took place near Attigny in the Ardennes. With his brother-in-law Hugues, known as Hugues 'le bâtard', the brother of his wife Bertha, Theobald was then pursued by loyalist troops and took refuge in Provence. In 883, however, he was among the counts supporting the new rebellion by Hugues. But after the final defeat of Hugues in 885 and the reprisals against his supporters, Theotbald probably fled to the estates of his kinsman Boso in Provence.
     "His presence is attested in the region after the death of Boso in 887, in a charter from a place called 'Asine-villa' at the time Emperor Charles III 'the Fat', king of The East- and West-Franks, held authority in Provence. This charter is the last document referring to Theotbald.
     "The date of his death is uncertain; it was after June 887 but before 898, by which time his widow Bertha was married to Adalbert, margrave of Tuscany, count of Canossa."12

; This is the same person as ”Theobald of Arles” at Wikipedia and as ”Théobald d'Arles” at Wikipédia (FR).5,13 GAV-30 EDV-31 GKJ-32. Thibaud (?) Comte d'Arles & Vienne was also known as Theotbald (?) Count of Arles.12 Thibaud (?) Comte d'Arles & Vienne was also known as Theobald/Theodebert (?) Comte d'Arles.14,3,15

; Per Med Lands:
     "THEOTBALD [Thibaut] (-[Jun 887/895]). The Annales Vedastini record that "Teutbaldum filium Hucberti" was gravely wounded by "Heinricus" in the battle against "Bosonem tyrannum" in 880[119]. "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis" subscribed the charter dated 25 Jul 879 under which "Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender[120]. Comte d'Arles.
     "m ([879/80]) as her first husband, BERTA of Lotharingia, illegitimate daughter of LOTHAIRE II King of Lotharingia & his mistress Waldrada --- ([863]-8 Mar 925, bur Lucca). "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[121]. "Berte" is also named as mother of "Hugo rex" in the latter's donation to Cluny for the souls of his parents dated 8 Mar 934[122]. Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Hugonem Lotharii iunioris filium" and “sororium illius Theutbaldum” in 880[123]. Her origin and second marriage are confirmed by the epitaph of "Comitissæ…Bertha" which specifies that she was "uxor Adalberti Ducis Italiæ…regalis generi…filia Lotharii" and records her death in 925[124]. Liudprand provides the proof that Berta, who married Marchese Adalberto, was the widow of Theotbald when he names "Berta matre regis Hugonis", specifying that she was previously married to Adalberto, when recording her death[125]. She was regent of Tuscany after the death of her second husband in 915. She married secondly ([890/98]) Adalberto II Marchese of Tuscany."
Med Lands cites:
[119] Annales Vedastini 880, MGH SS II, p. 518.
[120] Recueil Actes Provence 16, p. 31.
[121] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689.
[122] Cluny Tome I, 417, p. 403.
[123] Annales Bertiniani III 880.
[124] RHGF IX, p. 105.
[125] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.18, MGH SS III, p. 306.2


; Per Genealogy.EU (Bosonides): “B1. Theobald/Theodebert, Cte d'Arles (879-895), *ca 860, +895; m.879 Berthe of Lotharingia(*866 +925)”.16

; Per Genealogy.EU (Carolin 1): “D2. Bertha, *ca 863, +898/8.3.925; 1m: Cte Theodebert de Provence (+895); 2m: 898 Mgve Adalbert II of Tuscany, Gf of Canossa (*855 +19.9.915)”.17

; Per Weis: “Bertha, of Lorraine, b. 863, d. 8 Mar. 925; m. (1) abt. 879, Theobald, Count of Arles, d. 887/895.”.18

; Per Med Lands:
     "BERTA ([863]-8 Mar 925, bur Lucca, Santa Maria). "Hugo comes et marchio" names "patris mei Teutbaldi et matris meæ Berthe…" in a donation by charter dated 924[67]. "Berte" is also named as mother of "Hugo rex" in the latter's donation to Cluny for the souls of his parents dated 8 Mar 934[68]. Her parentage and first marriage are confirmed by the Annales Bertiniani which name "Hugonem Lotharii iunioris filium" and “sororium illius Theutbaldum” in 880[69]. Her origin and second marriage are confirmed by the epitaph of "Comitissæ…Bertha" specifies that she was "uxor Adalberti Ducis Italiæ…regalis generi…filia Lotharii" and records her death in 925[70]. Liudprand provides the proof that Berta, who married Marchese Adalberto, was the widow of Theotbald when he names "Berta matre regis Hugonis", specifying that she was previously married to Adalberto, when recording her death[71]. She was regent of Tuscany after the death of her second husband in 915.
     "m firstly ([879/80]) THEOTBALD [Thibaut] Comte d’Arles, son of HUBERT d'Arles, Comte de Transjuranie & his wife --- (-[Jun 887]/[895]).
     "m secondly ([895/98]) ADALBERTO II Marchese of Tuscany, Conte e Duca di Lucca, son of ADALBERT I Marchese of Tuscany & his wife Rothildis of Spoleto (-[10/19] Sep 915, bur Lucca Cathedral)."
Med Lands cites:
[67] Diplomata Hugonis Comitis Provinciæ et Regis Italiæ I, RHGF IX, p. 689.
[68] Bernard, A. and Bruel, A. (eds.) (1876-1903) Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Cluny ( Paris), Tome I, 417, p. 403.
[69] Annales Bertiniani III 880.
[70] RHGF IX, p. 105.
[71] Liudprandi Antapodosis III.18, MGH SS III, p. 306.11
He was Comte d'Arles between 879 and 895.3,5

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theotbald: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020455&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#Theotbalddied887895. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hucbert. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobald_of_Arles
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hugbert: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020459&tree=LEO
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#Hugbertdied864B
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 145-17, p. 128. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertha de Lorraine: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020454&tree=LEO
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LOTHARINGIA.htm#BertaM1ThibautArlesM2AdalbertIITuscany
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theotbald: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020455&tree=LEO
  13. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Théobald d'Arles: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Th%C3%A9obald_d%27Arles. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  14. [S752] Marcellus Donald Alexander R. von Redlich, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941 (1988 reprint)), p. 183. Hereinafter cited as von Redlich [1941] Charlemagne Desc. vol I.
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theotbald: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020455&tree=LEO
  16. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Bosonides: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html#TT
  17. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolinginans 1: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html#BLo2
  18. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 145-17, p. 141. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  19. [S752] Marcellus Donald Alexander R. von Redlich, von Redlich [1941] Charlemagne Desc. vol I, p. 251.
  20. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. 181. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hugo of Arles: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020677&tree=LEO
  22. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#UgoKingItalyB.
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Boso of Arles: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020456&tree=LEO
  24. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#BosoAvignonVaisindied936
  25. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Teutberga of Arles: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00218649&tree=LEO
  26. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#TeutbergaMWarnariusSensdied924

Richard (?)

M, #6720, b. circa 850, d. between 879 and 941
FatherTheodoric VI 'le Trésorier' (?) Comte d'Autun1 b. c 825
Last Edited26 Jun 2020
     Richard (?) was born circa 850.2
Richard (?) died between 879 and 941; date is WFT estimate.2

Citations

  1. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Theodericdied882. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  2. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).