Saint Edith/Eadgyth (?)1,2,3

F, #16021, b. between 895 and 902, d. circa 927
FatherEdward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
MotherEcgwynn (?)1,3,4,5,6,8 d. bt 901 - 902
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
     Saint Edith/Eadgyth (?) was born between 895 and 902; Genealogy.EU says b. ca 900; Med Lands says b. 895-902.3,6 She married Sihtric Cáech (?) King of Dublin and York, son of Sitric I (?) King of Dublin, circa 30 January 926
;
His 2nd wife.1,3,10,5,11,6
Saint Edith/Eadgyth (?) died circa 927 at Tamworth, Staffordshire, England.2,3
Saint Edith/Eadgyth (?) was buried at Tamworth, Staffordshire, England.3
      ; Per Med Lands:
     "EADGYTH ([895/902]-, bur Tamworth). The Book of Hyde names "Athelstanum…et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna", specifying that Eadgyth married "Sirichio regi Northanhymbrorum" and was buried at Tamworth[1655]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that "King Athelstan [gave] Sihtric king of Northumbria…his sister in marriage" at Tamworth 30 Jan 925[1656]. Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance which Sihtric King of York proposed to her brother. After her husband's death, she became a nun at Polesworth Abbey, Warwickshire in 927, transferring to Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire where she was elected Abbess. Later canonised as St Edith of Polesworth or St Edith of Tamworth, her feast day is 15 or 19 July[1657].
     "m (Tamworth 30 Jan 926) as his second wife, SIHTRIC "Caoch" Danish King of York, son of --- (-[926/27])."
Med Lands cites:
[1655] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 111.
[1656] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 925.
[1657] Attwater (1970), p. 109.6


Reference: Genealogics cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:78.5 Saint Edith/Eadgyth (?) was also known as Eadgyth of Wessex.6

; Per Genalogy.EU: "E7. [1m.] St.Edith, after husband's death became Abbess of Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire, *ca 900, +Tamworth 927, bur there; m. 30.1.925/6 Sihtric Caoch, King of Northumbria (+927.)3"

; Per Med Lands:
     "SIHTRIC "Caoch" (-[926/27]). The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1250]. King of Dublin: the Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar” defeated “Niall son of Aed king of Ireland…in the battle of Cenn Fuait” in 917 and that he “entered Ath Cliath” in the same year[1251]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar abandoned Ath Cliath” in 920[1252]. He invaded Mercia in 920 with an army from Dublin, destroying Davenport in Cheshire[1253]. Simeon of Durham records that "King Sihtric stormed Devonport" in 920[1254]. He succeeded his [first cousin] in 921 as SIHTRIC King of York. He proposed an alliance to Æthelstan King of Wessex, which was sealed in 926 by his marriage to King Æthelstan's sister. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 927 of "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners…at an immature age"[1255]. The comment relating to his age is difficult to explain. Assuming that the birth date of Sihtric´s son Olaf is correctly estimated to [900] as shown below, it is likely that Sihtric would have been in his forties or early fifties when he died. Simeon of Durham records the death of "Sihtric king of the Northumbrians" died in 926[1256]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 925 of “Sitric son of Imhar lord of the Dubhghoill and Finnghoill”[1257]. The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 922 the death of "Sittrick o´Himer prince of the new and old Danes"[1258]. Florence of Worcester records the death of "Northanhymbrorum rex Sihtricus", undated but dateable to [926/27] from the context[1259].
     "m firstly ---. The name of Sihtric's first wife is not known but the fact of this earlier marriage is dictated by the chronology of his son Olaf.
     "m secondly (Tamworth 30 Jan 926) EADGYTH of Wessex, daughter of EDWARD I “the Elder” King of Wessex & his first wife Ecgwynn ([895/902]-, bur Tamworth). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that "King Athelstan [gave] Sihtric king of Northumbria…his sister in marriage" at Tamworth 30 Jan 925[1260]. The Book of Hyde names "Athelstanum…et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna", specifying that Eadgyth married "Sirichio regi Northanhymbrorum" and was buried at Tamworth[1261]. Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance which Sihtric King of York proposed to her brother. After her husband's death, she became a nun at Polesworth Abbey, Warwickshire in 927, transferring to Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire where she was elected Abbess. Later canonised as St Edith of Polesworth or St Edith of Tamworth, her feast day is 15 or 19 July[1262]."
Med Lands cites:
[1250] Annals of Ulster, 917.2, p. 367.
[1251] Annals of Ulster, 917.3 and 917.4, p. 367.
[1252] Annals of Ulster, 920.5, p. 371.
[1253] Stenton, F. M. (2001) Anglo-Saxon England 3rd edn (Oxford UP), p. 334.
[1254] Simeon of Durham, p. 482.
[1255] Annals of Ulster, 927.2, p. 380.
[1256] Simeon of Durham, p. 502.
[1257] Annals of the Four Masters 925.9, p. 617.
[1258] Annals of Clonmacnoise, 922, p. 148.
[1259] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 130.
[1260] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 925.
[1261] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 111.
[1262] Attwater, D. (1970) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (Penguin Books), p. 109.11

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), appendix. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 473 (Chart 31). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331066&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#EadgythMSihtricYorkdied927. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B.
  9. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sitric ua Imair: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00424557&tree=LEO
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/IRELAND.htm#OlafSihtricsondied981

Sihtric Cáech (?) King of Dublin and York1,2,3

M, #16022, b. circa 885
FatherSitric I (?) King of Dublin3,4 d. 896
ReferenceGAV29
Last Edited15 Aug 2020
     Sihtric Cáech (?) King of Dublin and York was rebaptized; Genealogics cites:
1. The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131, 1984, Dublin , Mac Airt, S. & G. Mac Niocaill (editors).
2. The Kings of the Isle of Man, Gen-Medieval/soc.genealogy.medieval , Baldwin, Stewart.
3. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:78.5
He was born circa 885.5 He married Unknown (?)
;
His 1st wife.6 Sihtric Cáech (?) King of Dublin and York married Saint Edith/Eadgyth (?), daughter of Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex and Ecgwynn (?), circa 30 January 926
;
His 2nd wife.1,7,5,8,6,9
Sihtric Cáech (?) King of Dublin and York died in 927.10,6
      ; Per Genalogy.EU: "E7. [1m.] St.Edith, after husband's death became Abbess of Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire, *ca 900, +Tamworth 927, bur there; m. 30.1.925/6 Sihtric Caoch, King of Northumbria (+927.)7"

; Per Genealogics:
     "In old Norse his name is Sigtryggr
     "Sitric, whose old Norse name was Sigtryggr, was born about 885. He was king of Dublin and York. His wife is unknown. Baldwin notes that Sitric married a sister of Aethelstan of England in 926, but it is not chronologically feasible for her to have been the mother of Sitric's son Amlaib Cuaran, who succeeded him as king of Dublin and York.
     "The kingdom of Dublin was established by the Norse invaders of Ireland in the ninth century. By the early tenth century it had become a hereditary kingdom ruled by the descendants of the ninth century ruler Ivar (died 873). The kings of Dublin were also often kings of York during the early period, and cadet branches of this dynasty appear to have also ruled Limerick, Waterford, the Isles and Man. The principal Dublin branch descends from Sitric, who is consistently referred to in the Irish annals as a grandson of Ivar, the intervening generation being uncertain.
     "The only event with which Sitric's name is associated is the Battle of Cennfuait in 917. There he was said to have killed Augaire mac Ailella (of the Ui Muiredaig branch of Ui Dunlainge), king of Laigin. Sitric himself died in 927."5 GAV-29 EDV-29.

; This is the same person as Sitric Cáech at Wikipedia.11

; Per Baldwin: "Sitric ua Ímair (Old Norse Sigtryggr), king of Dublin and York, d. 927 [AU]. AU = The Annals of Ulster to A.D. 1131, edited by S. Mac Airt and G. Mac Niocaill (Dublin, 1984), also available (without English translation) at the CELT (Corpus of Electronic Texts) website (http://www.ucc.ie/celt/).
Note: Sitric married a sister of Æthelstan of England in 926, but it is not chronologically feasible for her to be the mother of Amlaib Cuaran."10 Sihtric Cáech (?) King of Dublin and York was also known as Sigtryggr Gále King of Dublin and York.4 Sihtric Cáech (?) King of Dublin and York was also known as Sitric ua Ímair King of Dublin and York.10,5

; Per Med Lands:
     "SIHTRIC "Caoch" (-[926/27]). The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar landed with his fleet at Cenn Fuait on the coast of Laigin” and “Ragnall grandson of Imar with his second fleet moved against the foreigners of Loch dá Chaech” in 917[1250]. King of Dublin: the Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar” defeated “Niall son of Aed king of Ireland…in the battle of Cenn Fuait” in 917 and that he “entered Ath Cliath” in the same year[1251]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Sitriuc grandson of Imar abandoned Ath Cliath” in 920[1252]. He invaded Mercia in 920 with an army from Dublin, destroying Davenport in Cheshire[1253]. Simeon of Durham records that "King Sihtric stormed Devonport" in 920[1254]. He succeeded his [first cousin] in 921 as SIHTRIC King of York. He proposed an alliance to Æthelstan King of Wessex, which was sealed in 926 by his marriage to King Æthelstan's sister. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 927 of "Sitriuc grandson of Ímar, king of the dark foreigners and the fair foreigners…at an immature age"[1255]. The comment relating to his age is difficult to explain. Assuming that the birth date of Sihtric´s son Olaf is correctly estimated to [900] as shown below, it is likely that Sihtric would have been in his forties or early fifties when he died. Simeon of Durham records the death of "Sihtric king of the Northumbrians" died in 926[1256]. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death in 925 of “Sitric son of Imhar lord of the Dubhghoill and Finnghoill”[1257]. The Annals of Clonmacnoise record in 922 the death of "Sittrick o´Himer prince of the new and old Danes"[1258]. Florence of Worcester records the death of "Northanhymbrorum rex Sihtricus", undated but dateable to [926/27] from the context[1259].
     "m firstly ---. The name of Sihtric's first wife is not known but the fact of this earlier marriage is dictated by the chronology of his son Olaf.
     "m secondly (Tamworth 30 Jan 926) EADGYTH of Wessex, daughter of EDWARD I “the Elder” King of Wessex & his first wife Ecgwynn ([895/902]-, bur Tamworth). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that "King Athelstan [gave] Sihtric king of Northumbria…his sister in marriage" at Tamworth 30 Jan 925[1260]. The Book of Hyde names "Athelstanum…et Elfredum et Edgytham" as the children of King Eadweard "ex concubina Egwynna", specifying that Eadgyth married "Sirichio regi Northanhymbrorum" and was buried at Tamworth[1261]. Her marriage was arranged to seal the alliance which Sihtric King of York proposed to her brother. After her husband's death, she became a nun at Polesworth Abbey, Warwickshire in 927, transferring to Tamworth Abbey, Gloucestershire where she was elected Abbess. Later canonised as St Edith of Polesworth or St Edith of Tamworth, her feast day is 15 or 19 July[1262]."
Med Lands cites:
[1250] Annals of Ulster, 917.2, p. 367.
[1251] Annals of Ulster, 917.3 and 917.4, p. 367.
[1252] Annals of Ulster, 920.5, p. 371.
[1253] Stenton, F. M. (2001) Anglo-Saxon England 3rd edn (Oxford UP), p. 334.
[1254] Simeon of Durham, p. 482.
[1255] Annals of Ulster, 927.2, p. 380.
[1256] Simeon of Durham, p. 502.
[1257] Annals of the Four Masters 925.9, p. 617.
[1258] Annals of Clonmacnoise, 922, p. 148.
[1259] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 130.
[1260] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 925.
[1261] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 111.
[1262] Attwater, D. (1970) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (Penguin Books), p. 109.6
He was King of Dublin
See attached map of the British Isles in the early 10th century (from Wikipedia: By Ikonact - Bristish islands blank.svgFor the coastline at the time, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27960071) between 917 and 920.11 He was King of Dublin, [Ashley, pp. 462-463] SITRIC or SIGTRYGG CAECH (THE SQUINT-EYED) Dublin, 917-21; York, 921-7. Sitric was the brother of RAGNALL and a grandson of IVARR THE BONELESS. With Ragnall and other Norse Vikings he was expelled from Dublin in 902 and he probably accompanied Ragnall on his forays around the western coast of Scotland. Sitric may be one of the grandsons of Ivarr referred to in the Irish annals as defeating a Pictish king in 903 and 904. By 917, however, Sitric had regained Dublin and established himself as king. In 921, though, with the death of Ragnall, Sitric handed the kingdom of Dublin over to his brother Gothfrith, and succeeded as king of York. It is likely that Sitric included the Isle of Man as part of his York domain, but this is not certain. It may at some stage, and certainly by the time of his death, have passed to Gothfrith. Unlike Ragnall, Sitric did not recognize EDWARD THE ELDER as his overlord, but when Edward died in 924, Sitric realised that his successor, ATHELSTAN, who had been raised in Mercia and had strong support throughout middle England, was a much more dangerous adversary. Rather than fight, Sitric agreed a treaty with Athelstan at Tamworth on 30 January 926. Part of the arrangement included Sitric's acceptance of Christianity, and his marriage to Athelstan's sister Edith (Eadgyth). But within only a few months Sitric had renounced his faith and sent Edith packing to Polesworth Abbey in Warwickshire. Sitric died soon after, in March 927. The Irish annals record that he died young, yet by Viking standards he must already have been reaching middle age, and the youngest he could have been was in his mid-thirties. He was succeeded in Dublin by his brother Gothfrith, who endeavoured to regain York but was driven out by Athelstan. Sitric's son, OLAF, would eventually rule York twenty years later. between 917 and 921.12 He was King of Northumbria
See attached map of the British Isles in the early 10th century (from Wikipedia: By Ikonact - Bristish islands blank.svgFor the coastline at the time, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27960071) between 921 and 927.11

Family 1

Child

Family 3

Saint Edith/Eadgyth (?) b. bt 895 - 902, d. c 927

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), appendix. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S2073] The Kings of the Isle of Man, Compiled by Steward Baldwin, online http://www.rootsweb.com/~medieval/man.htm, http://sites.rootsweb.com/~medieval/man.htm. Hereinafter cited as Baldwiin: The Kings of the Isle of Man.
  3. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 420 (Chart 25). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  4. [S1527] GEN-MEDIEVAL/soc.genealogy.medieval: "Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ancestor table", online http://www.rootsweb.com/~medieval/llywelyn.htm, http://sites.rootsweb.com/~medieval/llywelyn.htm. Hereinafter cited as Baldwin: Llywelyn ap Iorweth Ancestor Table.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sitric ua Imair: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00424557&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/IRELAND.htm#OlafSihtricsondied981. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331066&tree=LEO
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#EadgythMSihtricYorkdied927.
  10. [S1527] Baldwin: Llywelyn ap Iorweth Ancestor Table, online http://www.rootsweb.com/~medieval/llywelyn.htm
  11. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitric_C%C3%A1ech. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  12. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, pp. 420 (Chart 25), 462-463, 736.
  13. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, pp. 420 (Chart 25), 464-465.
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Amlaib Cuarán: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00250084&tree=LEO
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/IRELAND.htm#OlafSihtricsondied981B

Berthaid/Berta/Bothaidis (?)1,2

F, #16023, b. between 800 and 810, d. before 814
FatherPepin/Pippin I Karlmann (?) King of Italy1,2 b. Apr 773, d. 8 Jul 810
MotherChrothais (?)1,2
Last Edited12 Nov 2003
     Berthaid/Berta/Bothaidis (?) was born between 800 and 810.1
Berthaid/Berta/Bothaidis (?) died before 814.1
      ; Leo van de Pas cites: Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference 67.2

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Berthaid/Berta/Bothaidis: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331026&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Aelfweard (?)1,2,3

M, #16024, b. circa 904, d. 1 August 924
FatherEdward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,4,2,5,6,3 b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
MotherElfleda|Aelflaed (?)1,4,2,6 b. c 878, d. 918
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
     Aelfweard (?) was born circa 904.7
Aelfweard (?) died on 1 August 924 at Oxford, Oxfordshire, England.1,4,2
Aelfweard (?) was buried after 1 August 924 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.4
      ; According to The Henry Project: "Ælfweard, d. prob. August 924, king of Wessex?
     "Ælfweard survived his father for only a short period, only sixteen days according to the Worcester manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ["Her Eadweard cyning gefor on Myrcum æt Farndune. & Ælfweard his sunu swyþe hraðe þæs gefor ymbe .xvi. dagas æt Oxanforda. & hyra lic lið æt Wintanceastre." ASC(D) s.a. 924 ("Here King Edward died at Farndon in Mercia; and very soon, 16 days after, his son Ælfweard died at Oxford; and their bodies lie at Winchester." ASC(Eng), 105); "Non multo post filius ejus Ælfwardus apud Oxenfordam decessit, et sepultus est ubi et pater illius." John Worc., s.a. 924 (1: 130)]. He is evidently the son called Æthelweard by William of Malmesbury [see below]. Ælfweard is included as king in a regnal list in the twelfth century manuscript Textus Roffensis, which has him surviving for four weeks ["Ða feng Ælfwerd Eadwardes sunu to & heold .iiii. wucan." Dumville (1986), 29]. A reign by Ælfweard is also suggested by a passage in the Hyde Register ["Quem etiam egregium patrem duo pignora filiorum .Aeðeluuerdus. scilicet atque .Aelfuuerdus. haud dispari gloria . in sepulterae consortio secuti sunt . quorum unus clito . alter uero regalibus infulis redimitus. inmatura ambo morte preuenti sunt." Lib. Vit. Hyde, 6]. Birch suggested that the phrase "regalibus infulis redimitus" may mean that Ælfweard had been associated with his father as king [Lib. Vit. Hyde, x]. The Book of Hyde has a passage about a supposed son of Eadweard by Ecgwynn named "Elfredus" who was said to be crowned during his father's lifetime but did not long survive [Lib. Monast. Hyde, 113; see the Commentary section below under Ælfred]. If there is any truth to this story, it is probably a garbled tale about Ælfweard. [See also Plummer, ASC 2: 121; Williams (1978), 149-151]"
Bibliography
** Dumville (1986) = David N. Dumville, "The West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List: Manuscripts and Texts", Anglia 104 (1986): 1-32.
** John Worc. = Benjamin Thorpe, ed., Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis, 2 vols., (London, 1848-9). (The work formerly attributed to Florence of Worcester is now generally attributed to John of Worcester.) Also edited more recently in Darlington & McGurk, eds., The Chronicle of John of Worcester, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1995-). I do not have easy access to the latter edition, and most of the citations are given from Thorpe's edition.
** Lib. Monast. Hyde = Edward Edwards, ed., Liber Monasterii de Hyda: a Chronicle and Chartulary of Hyde Abbey, Winchester, 455-1023 (Rolls Series 45, London, 1866).
** Lib. Vit. Hyde = Walter de Gray Birch, Liber Vitae: Register and Martyrology of New Minister and Hyde Abbey Winchester (London, 1892).
** Williams (1978) = Ann Williams, "Some Notes and Considerations on Problems Connected with the English Royal Succession, 860-1066, Proceedings of the Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 1 (1978): 144-167, 225-233.
** Wm. Malmes, Gesta Pont. = N. E. S. A. Hamilton, ed., Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi de Gestiis Pontificum Anglorum libri quinque (Rolls Series 52, London, 1870).
** Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum = William Stubbs, ed., Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi De gestis regum Anglorum. libri quinque; Historiæ Novellæ libri tres, 2 vols. (Rolls series 90, 1887-9). Aelfweard (?) was also known as Elfweard (?)7,2
; According to The Henry Project: "Ælfred. (probably a mistake for Ælfweard)
     "The Book of Hyde mentions a supposed son by Ecgwynn who was crowned in his father's lifetime ["Inclitus igitur ac devotissimus rex Edwardus, dictus Senior, sex habuit filios, quorum quatuor extiterunt sceptrigeri. Ex nobili foemina, Egwyna nomine, Athelstanum habuit et Elfredum. Elfredus, quem pater præ cæteris paternali amore dilexit, ipsomet sceptrigerante, exemplo beati David regis, qui Domino super omnia gratias egit eo quod meruit seipso superstite filium suum in solio paterno residentem videre, inunctus in regem ac coronatus est. Sed idem Elfredus non multo post superfuit. Moriebatur enim antequam pater suus naturæ functus sit munere." Lib. Monast. Hyde, 113]. He does not appear in any of the earlier sources, and is probably a mistake for Ælfweard. As was pointed out by Todd Farmerie, there is a charter supposedly signed by an "Elfred, filius regis" which may explain the Book of Hyde's error [Lib. Monast. Hyde, 114-6; also #S366, Sawyer (1968), 161; Cart. Sax. 2: 251 (#598); probably a mistake for Ælfweard, cf. Lib. Monast. Hyde, 98-101; #S365, Sawyer (1968), 161; Cart. Sax. 2: 249 (#597)]."
Bibliography
** Cart. Sax. = Walter de Gray Birch, ed., Cartularium Saxonicum, 4 vols. (1885-99).
** Lib. Monast. Hyde = Edward Edwards, ed., Liber Monasterii de Hyda: a Chronicle and Chartulary of Hyde Abbey, Winchester, 455-1023 (Rolls Series 45, London, 1866).
** Sawyer (1968) = P. H. Sawyer, Anglo-Saxon Charters. An Annotated List and Bibliography (London, 1968).3 He was King of Wessex: [Ashley, p. 472] ELFWEARD Wessex, 17 July - 1 August 924. Elfweard was the third surviving son of EDWARD THE ELDER, and some sources suggest that he was elected the heir to the throne of Wessex by the witan. If this is so, then it was a strange choice, as Elfweard had been a bookish boy. He had been born sometime around the year 904 and was supposed to be a hermit in Bridgnorth. If he was elected, he had little chance to assume the crown. He died - there is a suggestion that he may have been murdered, perhaps at the suggestion of his brother ATHELSTAN - sixteen days later at Oxford, presumably on his way back to Winchester, where he was buried. in 924.7

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Æthelred Mucil/Mucel: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/aethe003.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 473 (Chart 31), 472. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.

Ælfgifu or Ealdgyth (Adiva) (?)1,2

F, #16025
FatherEdward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,3,2 b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
MotherElfleda|Aelflaed (?)1,3,2 b. c 878, d. 918
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
      ; According to The Henry Project: "Ælfgifu or Ealdgyth (Adiva); m. NN, a prince near the Alps.
(see the Commentary section)
     "In 929 or soon before, king Æthelstan sent two of his sisters to king Heinrich I of Germany with the purpose that one of them should marry his son Otto. Of the two girls, Otto ended up marrying Eadgyth (see above). The other girl is called Adiva by Hrotsvith von Gandersheim ["Necnon germanam secum transmisit Adivam..." Gesta Oddonis, line 112, MGH SS 4: 321]. According to the chronicler Æthelweard, she married a king by the Jupiter Mountains ["Alteram etiam subiunxit cuipiam regi iuxta Iupitereos montes, de cuius prole nulla nobis notitia extat..." Æthelweard, Prologue, 2, see above]. William of Malmesbury states that she married a duke by the Alpes, which appears to be essentially the same information (except for the title) ["... Edgitham et Elfgivam idem germanus misit Henrico Alamannorum imperatori, quarum secundam Othoni filio ille locavit, alteram cuidam duci juxta Alpes. Wm. Malmes. Gesta Regum, c. 126 (1: 137), see below for a fuller quote; "... Henricus, qui misit ad Athelstanum regem Anglorum pro duabus sororibus suis Aldgitha et Edgitha; quarum posteriorem filio suo Othoni collocavit, alteram cuidam duci juxta Alpes nuptum dedit." ibid., c. 112 (1: 117)]. As can be seen from the above accounts, there is some doubt about her name. Æthelweard does not give her name. In his main account on the children of Eadweard, William of Malmesbury erroneously gives her the name of Otto's wife Eadgyth. Assuming the error secundam for primam, it seems likely that he meant to say her name was Ælfgifu. However, at another place he calls her Ealdgyth (this time getting the name of Otto's wife right). Much ink has been used speculating on the identity of this Alpine son-in-law of Eadweard, and numerous candidates have been put forward, none of whom can be accepted with a great deal of confidence. See the Commentary section for more details."
Bibliography
AC = John Williams ab Ithel, ed., Annales Cambriæ (Rolls Series 20, London, 1860).
Æthelweard = A. Campbell ed., Chronicon Æthelweardi/The Chronicle of Æthelweard, (New York, 1962).
Angus (1938) = W. S. Angus, "The Chronology of the Reign of Edward the Elder", English Historical Review 53 (1938): 194-210.
AU = Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, eds., The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983).
Beaven (1917) = Murray L. R. Beaven, "The Regnal Dates of Alfred, Edward the Elder, and Athelstan", English Historical Review 32 (1917): 517-531.
Besly (1840) = Jean Besly, Histoire des comtes de Poictou et ducs de Guyenne (new ed., Paris, 1840, orig. publ. 1647).
Cart. Sax. = Walter de Gray Birch, ed., Cartularium Saxonicum, 4 vols. (1885-99).
Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).
Chaume (1931) = Maurice Chaume, "Le problème des origines de la maison de Savoie" (Études carolingiennes, II), Annales de Bourgogne 3 (1931): 120-161.
Coronini (1770) = Rudolph Coronini, Specimen genealogico-progonologicum ad illustrandam augustam Habsburgo-Lotharingicam prosapiam ... (Vienna, 1770).
Crawford Charters = A. S. Napier & W. H. Stevenson, Anecdota Oxoniensia - The Crawford Collection of Early Charters and Documents (Oxford, 1895).
CS = W. M. Hennessy, ed. & trans., Chronicum Scotorum (Rolls Series 46, London, 1866).
Dümmler (1876) = Rudolf Köpke & Ernst Dümmler, Kaiser Otto der Große (Leipzig, 1876).
Dümmler (1877) = Ernst Dümmler, ed., Liudprandi episcopi Cremonensis opera omnia (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1877).
Dumville (1986) = David N. Dumville, "The West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List: Manuscripts and Texts", Anglia 104 (1986): 1-32.
Fiala (1889) = Eduard Fiala, Beschreibung der Sammlung böhmischer Münzen und Medaillen des Max Donebauer (Prague, 1889).
Germond (1982) = Arthur Germond, "The Daughters of King Edward the Elder", Journal of Ancient and Medieval Studies 1 (1982): 91-. [Not seen by me]
HBC = F. Maurice Powicke & E. B. Fryde, eds., Handbook of British Chronology (2nd ed., London 1961).
Hlawitschka (1976) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Die verwandtschftlichen Verbinderungen zwischen dem hochburgundischen und dem niederburgundischen Königshaus. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Geschichte Burgunds in der 1. Hälfte des 10. Jahrhunderts", in Schlügl und Herde, Grundwissenschaften und Geschichte. Festschrift für Peter Acht (Münchener historische Studien Abtielun geschichtl. Hilfswissenschaften 15, 1976), 28-57.
Hlawitschka (2006) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Die Ahnen de hochmittelalterlichen deutschen Könige, Kaiser und ihrer Gemahlinnen. Ein kommentiertes Tafelwerk. Band I: 911-1137, 2 vols. (MGH Hilfsmittel, 25, Hannover, 2006).
John Worc. = Benjamin Thorpe, ed., Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis, 2 vols., (London, 1848-9). (The work formerly attributed to Florence of Worcester is now generally attributed to John of Worcester.) Also edited more recently in Darlington & McGurk, eds., The Chronicle of John of Worcester, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1995-). I do not have easy access to the latter edition, and most of the citations are given from Thorpe's edition.
Kelley (1989) = David H. Kelley, "The House of Aethelred", in Lindsay L. Brook, ed., Studies in Genealogy and Family History in Tribute to Charles Evans On the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday (Association for the Promotion of Scholarship in Genealogy, Occasional Publication No. 2, Salt Lake City, 1989), 63-93.
Lauer (1900) = Ph. Lauer, Le Règne de Louis IV d'Outre-Mer (Paris, 1900).
Lib. Monast. Hyde = Edward Edwards, ed., Liber Monasterii de Hyda: a Chronicle and Chartulary of Hyde Abbey, Winchester, 455-1023 (Rolls Series 45, London, 1866).
Lib. Vit. Hyde = Walter de Gray Birch, Liber Vitae: Register and Martyrology of New Minister and Hyde Abbey Winchester (London, 1892).
Mathieu (2006) = Jean-Noël Mathieu, "La lignée maternelle du pape Léon IX et ses relations avec les premiers Montbéliard", in Georges Bischoff & Benoît-Michel Tock, eds., Léon IX et son temps (Turnhout, Belgium, 2006), 77-110.
MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series (H I = Heinrich I).
MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.
Mem. Dunstan = William Stubbs, ed., Memorials of Saint Dunstan Archbishop of Canterbury (Rolls Series 63, London, 1874).
Nelson (1991) = Janet Nelson, "Reconstructing a Royal Family: Reflections on Alfred, From Asser, chapter 2", in Ian Wood & Niels Lund, eds., People and Places in Northern Europe 500-1600 - Essays in Honour of Peter Hayes Pawyer (Woodbridge, 1991), 47-66.
Onom. Anglo-Sax. = William George Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cambridge, 1897). Spellings of Anglo-Saxon names on this page have been standardized according to this source.
Orna (1965) = Bernard Orna, "Tracing a lost princess", Coins and Medals 2.2 (October 1965): 94-6.
Poole (1911) = Reginald L. Poole, "Burgundian Notes I: The Alpine Son-in-Law of Edward the Elder", English Historical Review 26 (1911): 310-7.
Poupardin (1901) = René Poupardin, Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (Paris, 1901).
R. Diceto = William Stubbs, ed., Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundonensis Opera Historica - The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto Dean of London, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 68, London 1876).
Rec. actes Lothair & Louis V = Louis Halphen & Ferdinand Lot, eds., Recueil des actes de Lothaire et de Louis V rois de France (Paris, 1908).
Richard (1903) = Alfred Richard, Histoire des comtes de Poitou 778-1204, 2 vols. (Paris, 1903).
Robinson (1923) = J. Armitage Robinson, The Times of Saint Dunstan (Oxford, 1923).
Rog. Hoveden = William Stubbs, ed., Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, 4 vols. (Rolls Series 51, 1868-71). For an English translation, see Henry T. Riley, trans., The Annals of Roger de Hoveden, 2 vols. (London, 1853). Citations are from the edition of Stubbs.
Rog. Wendover = Henry O. Coxe, ed., Rogeri de Wendover Chronica, sive Flores Historiarum, 2 vols. (London, 1841).
Sawyer (1968) = P. H. Sawyer, Anglo-Saxon Charters. An Annotated List and Bibliography (London, 1968).
Searle (1899) = William George Searle, Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings and Nobles (Cambridge, 1899).
Sim. Durh. = Thomas Arnold, ed., Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 75, 1882-5).
Vaughan (1954) = Richard Vaughan, "The Chronology of the Parker Chronicle, 890-970", English Historical Review 69 (1954): 59-66.
Wainwright (1945) = F. T. Wainwright, "The Chronology of the 'Mercian Register' ", English Historical Review 60 (1945): 385-392.
Weir (1989) = Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families - The Complete Genealogy (London, 1989).
Williams (1978) = Ann Williams, "Some Notes and Considerations on Problems Connected with the English Royal Succession, 860-1066, Proceedings of the Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 1 (1978): 144-167, 225-233.
Wm. Malmes, Gesta Pont. = N. E. S. A. Hamilton, ed., Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi de Gestiis Pontificum Anglorum libri quinque (Rolls Series 52, London, 1870).
Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum = William Stubbs, ed., Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi De gestis regum Anglorum. libri quinque; Historiæ Novellæ libri tres, 2 vols. (Rolls series 90, 1887-9).
Wood (2004) = Michael Wood, "Anglo-Saxon Pedigrees Annotated", Foundations 1 (2004): 269-274, 375-385, 445-457.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin
     First uploaded 20 June 2010.
     Revision uploaded 23 June 2010, giving additions and corrections thanks to comments on the original version by Todd Farmerie and Peter Stewart which appeared on soc.genealogy.medieval. Changes were made to the sections on Sitric's wife, John of Worcester, the false son Ælfred, and sons-in-law Boleslav II and Eberhard, and the account of Roger of Wendover was added. Also, a table was added comparing the various sources on Eadweard's children.
     Minor revision uploaded 25 June 2010. Additions were made to the section on Boleslav II, with thanks to Peter Stewart for sending me a copy of the Orna article. Also, interpolations from the Bury St. Edmunds manuscript of John of Worcester, along with a few other miscellaneous additions, were added courtesy of comments by Todd Farmerie.
     Minor revision uploaded 27 December 2010. Short section on Burkhard added."2

; According to The Henry Project:
     "Conjectured son-in-law (long chronology, unconvincing): Boleslav II, d. 7 February 999, duke of Bohemia.
     "The theory that Adiva married Boleslav II of Bohemia was reported in a 1965 article by Bernard Orna [Orna (1965); thanks are due to Peter Stewart for sending a copy of the article, and to Todd Farmerie, for earlier giving an outline], who attributed the hypothesis to Dr. Pavel Radom?rský of the National Museum in Prague. The author describes and gives an illustration of a Bohemian coin having a figure of a woman and an inscription which reads "+V+DIV?+V" around the circumference of the coin. Since letters on coins were frequently upside-down or backwards during that period, Orna states that Radom?rský would see the inscription as reading "ADIVEA", with the first and last "V" representing an "A". Thus, the coins would supposedly name Eadweard's daughter Adiva, further identified with Boleslav's queen Emma/Hemma (d. 1006), who is known from the chronicler Cosmas [Cosmas, Chron. Boemorum, i, 33, MGH SS 9: 55; obit. at ibid., i, 39, s.a. 1006, p. 62] and from coins [Fiala (1889), 16]. This last identification is made on the strength of the supposition that Elfgifa (i.e., Ælfgifu) was the English form of Emma (Elfgifa having previously been given as the English form of Adiva's name). However, even though there was a queen who was known as both Ælfgifu and Emma (Emma of Normandy, wife successively of Æthelred II and Cnut), the names Emma and Ælfgifu are not interchangeable in general. Also, as noted above, identifying Ælfgifu as the English form of Adiva's name requires an emendation of William of Malmesbury. The known Anglo-Saxon features of some of the coinage of Boleslav II suggests some sort of connection between England and Bohemia during the late tenth century [see Fiala (1889), 13-15, showing a number of coins of Boleslav II in the type of Æthelred II], but even if that connection was a royal marriage, there seems to be no convincing reason to place it in the generation of Eadweard's children. Indeed, the chronology of this theory seems rather long, especially if Boleslav is being suggested as the husband of Adiva, who, as noted above, almost certainly married before 940. Boleslav II succeeded his father Boleslav I as duke on 15 July 967 [Cosmas, Chron. Boemorum, i, 21, MGH SS 9: 48], and did not die until 7 February 999 [ibid., i, 33, MGH SS 9: 56]. Thus, his floruit seems rather late for a supposed husband of Adiva, although too little is known about his birthdate to rule out the relationship on this basis alone. Thus, the evidence for this relationship seems very weak."4
; Per Med Lands:
     "Duke Boleslav has been suggested as the possible husband of Ælfgifu of Wessex, daughter of Edward "the Elder" King of Wessex & his second wife Ælfleda ---. Hroswitha of Gandersheim describes her as "Adiva … younger in years and likewise inferior in merit" [to her older sister Eadgyth, whom she accompanied to Germany to provide an alternative choice of bride for Otto of Germany[42]. According to William of Malmesbury, she married "a certain Duke near the Alps"[43], who has not been identified. It seems improbable chronologically that her husband could have been Duke Boleslav. Although the duke's birth date is not known, his younger brother Strakhvas was born 28 Sep 929[44]. It therefore seems unlikely that Boleslaw could have been born much earlier than 925 at the earliest, whereas Ælfgifu was probably born in the range [910/15] assuming that she was of marriageable age when she went to Germany with her sister.] "
Med Lands cites:
[42] Hroswitha of Gandersheim, Gesta Ottonis, quoted in Hill, B. H. (1972) Medieval Monarchy in Action: The German Empire from Henry I to Henry IV (London), p. 122.
[43] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) II, 126, p. 110.
[44] ES I.I 176.5

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm
  5. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BOHEMIA.htm#BoleslavIIdied999

Eadred (?) King of England1,2,3

M, #16026, b. circa 923, d. 23 November 955
FatherEdward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,2,3,4,5,6 b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
MotherEadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent1,2,3,7,5 b. c 903, d. 25 Aug 968
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
     Eadred (?) King of England was born circa 923; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1 page) says b. ca 924/5.8,2
Eadred (?) King of England was buried circa 955 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.8
Eadred (?) King of England died on 23 November 955 at Frome, co. Somerset, England.1,8,2,3
Eadred (?) King of England was buried after 23 November 955 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.2
      ; Edred, King of England (946-955) -cr Kingston-upon-Thames 16.8.946, *ca 924/5, +Frome, Somerset 23.11.955, bur Winchester Cathedral.2

; According to The Henry Project: "Eadred, d. 23 November 955, king of Wessex and Mercia, 946-955.
Eadred succeeded on the assassination of his brother Eadmund in 946, and was consecrated king at Kingston on 16 August ["Her Eadmund cyning forðferde... & þa feng Eadred æþeling his broþor to rice" ASC(A,D) s.a. 946; ASC(E) s.a. 948; "Mox proximus hæres Edredus, fratri succedens, regnum naturale suscepit, et XVII. kal. Septembris, die Dominica, in Cingestune a S. Odone Dorubernensi archiepiscopo rex est consecratus." John Worc., s.a. 946 (1: 134); Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum, c. 146 (1: 162)]. He died on 23 November 955, and was succeeded by his nephew Eadwig ["Her forþferde Eadred cining, on Sce. Clementes mæssedæg ón Frome, & he rixsade teoþe healf gear; & þa feng Eadwig to rice. Eadmundes sunu cinges." ASC(A) s.a. 955; ASC(D,E) s.a. 955; John Worc., s.a. 955 (1: 136)]."6 Eadred (?) King of England was also known as Edred.9 He was the henry Project: King of Wessex and Mercia

[Ashley, pp. 476-477] EADRED King of the English, 26 May 946-23 November 955. Crowned: Kingston-upon-Thames, 16 August 946. Born: c923. Died: Frome, Somerset, 23 November 955, aged 32. Buried: Winchester Cathedral. Although Eadred was a physically weak king, almost unable to eat his food, he was every bit the warrior like his brothers EDMUND and ATHELSTAN and his father EDWARD (THE ELDER). Most of his short reign was involved with the Norse kingdom of York. Edmund had ejected the Norse kings and brought York under his control. At the start of his reign Eadred travelled north and sought the fealty of Wulfstan, the archbishop of York, and of York's witan (council). Although they professed loyalty, within a few months they had appointed the Norse adventurer, ERIK BLOODAXE, as their king. Eadred regarded this as treachery and immediately raised an army and invaded Northumbria. He avoided attacking York but instead laid waste to the surrounding lands. On his return to Mercia his rearguard was attacked by Norse troops. Eadred was livid. His weak constitution had nevertheless created a man of iron will, vicious temper and little patience. His troops turned back on York and Eadred threatened to destroy the kingdom. The elders of York knew he was capable of it and they agreed to eject Erik. Satisfied, Eadred returned to Wessex. However, within months the former king of York, OLAF SITRICSON, returned and was re-installed. Rather than inflict another invasion Eadred bargained with Olaf, prepared to let him remain provided he patrolled the shores against other Norse and Danish pirates, particularly Erik Bloodaxe. The people of York did not seem to know what they wanted, and the internal politics of Wulfstan's party were becoming intolerable. In 952 Wulfstan ejected Olaf and brought Erik back into power. Infuriated Eadred invaded York in 954. Wulfstan was imprisoned. Erik was expelled, and on his way back to Orkney he was slain. The English, Norse and Danes of York readily accepted Eadred as their king and the Scandinavian kingdom of Jorvik was at an end. Eadred ruled it directly, whilst he allowed Oswulf a high degree of autonomy in ruling Bernicia as an earl. With the final expulsion of the Norse kings, Eadred could justifiably be called king of all the English. Like his brother, though, he would not live to enjoy his glory. He died in November 955, aged only 32 or so. Despite his valour in battle he was a strongly religious man, suffering his pains with piety. He apparently never married and after his death the throne passed to his even weaker nephews, EDWY and EDGAR. between 26 May 946 and 23 November 955.1,10,8,3

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO
  8. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 473 (Chart 31), 476-477. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  9. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.
  10. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 181. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.

Eadgifu/Edgiva (?)1,2

F, #16027, b. circa 923
FatherEdward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,2,3,4,5 b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
MotherEadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent1,6,4 b. c 903, d. 25 Aug 968
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
     Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) married Louis III "The Blind" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Lower-Bourgogne and Italy, son of Boson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine and Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence,
; Welf 1 page says that it was a Graf Ludwig im Thurgau, son of Rudolf I, who married Edgiva; Cerdic 1 page says she "m.in infancy Louis III the Blind, King of Provence (*ca 880, +5.6.928) /OR Ebehard, Count of Nordgau (+ca 960.)1,2,7" Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) was born circa 923.2
      ; According to The Henry Project: "Supposed additional child by Eadgifu (existence uncertain):
     "FEMALE Eadgifu (a supposed second daughter of this name) said to have m. Louis, prince of Aquitaine (otherwise unknown). She is mentioned by William of Malmesbury as a daughter of Eadweard and Eadgifu [Wm. Malmes. Gesta Regum, c. 126 (1: 136-7), c. 135 (1: 149-150)]. Her name invites doubt because there was already a well documented daughter named Eadgifu (wife of Charles the Simple, above), and because it was not common at that time for a child to be named after a parent. Further doubt is invited by the fact that no Louis of Aquitaine ("de genere Caroli magni superstes" according to William) is known from other records. Richard suggests that this Eadgifu is a confusion of the other Eadgifu, mother of Louis IV [Richard (1903), 2: 475]. Suggested identifications will be discussed below in the Commentary section."
Bibliography
** Richard (1903) = Alfred Richard, Histoire des comtes de Poitou 778-1204, 2 vols. (Paris, 1903).
** Wm. Malmes, Gesta Pont. = N. E. S. A. Hamilton, ed., Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi de Gestiis Pontificum Anglorum libri quinque (Rolls Series 52, London, 1870).5

; Edgiva, *ca 923, +?; m.in infancy Louis III the Blind, King of Provence (*ca 880, +5.6.928) /OR Ebehard, Count of Nordgau (+ca 960.)2 Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) was also known as Edgiva (?)8

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis III: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020443&tree=LEO
  8. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 473 (Chart 31). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.

Otto (?) von Habsburg1

M, #16028, d. after 16 June 1254
FatherRudolf I/III "der Scheigsame" (?) Graf von Habsburg-Laufenburg1 d. 6 Jun 1249
MotherGertrud von Regensberg1
Last Edited10 Feb 2004
     Otto (?) von Habsburg died after 16 June 1254.1
      ; Leo van de Pas cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: 1-1 39.1

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Otto von Habsburg: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00310296&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Aethelfleda (?) of Damerham, Queen of England1,2,3

F, #16029, d. after 975
FatherAelfgar (?) Ealdorman in Devon4,5,2,6 d. 962
Last Edited11 Jul 2020
     Aethelfleda (?) of Damerham, Queen of England married Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England, son of Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex and Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent, circa 946
;
His 2nd wife; Her 1st husband.1,4,5,2,7,8,6 Aethelfleda (?) of Damerham, Queen of England married Athelstan (?) Ealdorman of Essex after 946
;
Her 2nd husband.9
Aethelfleda (?) of Damerham, Queen of England died after 975 at Shaftesbury Abbey, England; buried there.5,6,10
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "EADMUND (921-murdered Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire 26 May 946, bur Glastonbury Abbey[1694]). "Eadmundus regis frater" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated 931 and 939, under the latter also being the grantee of land at Droxford, Hampshire[1695]. He fought with his half-brother King Æthelstan at Brunanburh in 937[1696]. He succeeded his half-brother in 939 as EDMUND King of Wessex, crowned 29 Nov 939 at Kingston-upon-Thames. Olaf Guthfrithson King of Dublin invaded England in 939 and by the end of that year had occupied York. In raids on northern Mercia the following year, King Olaf took Tamworth and nearby land, and under a treaty agreed with King Edmund took the whole of modern Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. King Olaf continued by invading Northumbria over the Tees, but died before the end of 940. King Edmund regained the lost territories from Olaf's successor Olaf Sihtricson in 942. King Edmund brought Northumbria under his control in 944, expelling both Olaf Sihtricson and Rægnald Guthfrithson from York. From that time he may be regarded as king of a united England. He ravaged Strathclyde in 945. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Augustine's day 946 of King Edmund[1697]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund was killed "VII Kal Jun" in 946 and buried at Glastonbury[1698]. Florence of Worcester records that he was stabbed to death by Leof "a ruffianly thief" while attempting to defend his steward from being robbed[1699].
     "[m firstly] ([940]) ÆLFGIFU, daughter of --- & his wife Wynflæd --- (-Shaftesbury Abbey after 943). "Alfgifu concubine regis" subscribed a 943 charter of King Edmund[1700]. This reference suggests that Ælfgifu was not married to King Edmund, corroborated by another charter of the same year1704 in which his [second] wife is differentiated by the epithet "regina" and the dating of which (if accurate) suggests that the king's relationship with both "wives" was simultaneous. If this is correct, Ælfgifu's date of death cannot necessarily be assumed to be [944/46]. She was popularly reputed a saint after her death as St Elgiva[1701]. Ælfgifu was probably the daughter of Wynflæd as "Wynflæd aua mea" is named in King Edgar's grant of confirmations to Shaftesbury Abbey dated 966[1702].
     "m [secondly] (943 or before) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ÆLFGAR Ealdorman of the Wilsaetas & his wife --- (Damerham, Wiltshire ----Shaftesbury Abbey [after 975/92], bur Shaftesbury Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Æthelflæd of Damerham, daughter of ealdorman Ælfgar" as queen of King Edmund in 946[1703]. "Eadmundus rex" granted "Æthelflæd regina sua" lands in Hampshire and Dorset by charter dated 943[1704]. She became a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey."
Med Lands cites:
[1694] Florence of Worcester, 946, p. 99.
[1695] S 414 and S 446.
[1696] Florence of Worcester, 938, p. 97.
[1697] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and D, 946.
[1698] Simeon of Durham, p. 504.
[1699] Florence of Worcester, 946, p. 99.
[1700] S 516.
[1701] Weir (2002), p. 17.
[1702] S 776.
[1703] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 946.
[1704] S 513.8

; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1): “E5. [3m.] Edmund I "the Magnificent", King of England (939-946), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 29.11.939, *ca 921, +murdered at Pucklechurch, Dorset 26.5.946, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Dorset; 1m: ca 940 St.Elgiva (+Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset ca 944, bur there), her origins are unknown; 2m: ca 946 Ethelfleda (+as a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset after 975, bur there), dau.of Alfgar, Ealdorman of the Wilsaetas; all issue by 1m:”.5 Aethelfleda (?) of Damerham, Queen of England was also known as Ethelfleda (?)11

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.6

; This is the same person as ”Æthelflæd of Damerham” at Wikipedia.3 Aethelfleda (?) of Damerham, Queen of England was also known as Æthelflæd (?) of Damerham, Queen of England.3

; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆTHELFLÆD (Damerham, Wiltshire ----Shaftesbury Abbey [after 975/91], bur Shaftesbury Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Æthelflæd of Damerham, daughter of ealdorman Ælfgar" as queen of King Edmund in 946[10]. "Eadmundus rex" granted "Æthelflæd regina sua" lands in Hampshire and Dorset by charter dated 943[11]. The will of "Ælfgar" dated to [946/51] bequeaths estates at Cockfield, Ditton, Lavenham and Baythorn to "my daughter Æthelflæd", although it does not specify that she had been the queen of King Edmund[12]. She became a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey. The will of "Æthelflæd" dated to [962/91], probably after 975, bequeathed numerous estates to "ealdorman Brihtnoth and my sister", "ten hides at Wickford to my kinsman Sibriht" and an "estate at Waldingfield to my kinswoman Crawe"[13]. [The will of "Ælflæd", dated to [1000/02], includes a reference to masses for the soul of her (unnamed) sister[14]. It is not certain whether this bequest refers to Ælflæd´s known sister Æthelflæd (see above) or to another otherwise unknown sister. The other documentation quoted in this section suggests that there were only two sisters.]
     "m firstly ([946]) as his second wife, EDMUND King of Wessex, son of EDWARD King of Wessex & his third wife Eadgifu --- (921-murdered Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire 26 May 946, bur Glastonbury Abbey[15])."
Med Lands cites:
[10] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 946.
[11] S 513.
[12] S 1483.
[13] S 1494.
[14] S 1486.
[15] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London), 946, p. 99.10
She was Queen consort of England between 944 and 26 May 946.3

Family 1

Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England b. 921, d. 26 May 946

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelfl%C3%A6d_of_Damerham. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 473 (Chart 31), 475-476. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelflaed of Damerham: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020089&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_I
  8. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied946. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Athelstan: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020091&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#Aethelflaeddied975.
  11. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.

Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England1

M, #16030, b. before 943, d. 1 October 959
FatherEdmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England1,2,3,4 b. 921, d. 26 May 946
MotherSaint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?)1,2,4,5 b. c 922, d. 18 May 944
Last Edited11 Jul 2020
     Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England was born before 943; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1 page) says b. ca 941.1,2 He married Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?), daughter of Aethelfrith (?) Ealdorman and Æthelgyth (?), circa 957.1,6,2

Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England died on 1 October 959 at Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England.1,6,2
Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England was buried after 1 October 959 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.2
      ; Edwy "the Fair", King of England (955-959) -cr Kingston-upon-Thames ca 26.1.956, *ca 941, +Gloucester 1.10.959, bur Winchester Cathedral; m.winter of 955/6 Elgiva (+Gloucester IX.959, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of Ethelgiva, an apparent descendant of Ethelred I.2 Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England was also known as Edwy (?)7 He was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 477-478] EDWY or EADWIG ALL-FAIR King of the English, 23 November 955-1 October 959. Crowned: Kingston-upon-Thames 26 January 956. Born: c941. Died: Gloucester, 1 October 959, aged 18. Buried: Winchester Cathedral. Married: c957, Elgiva (descendant of Athelred I) (d 959): annulled, no children. Edwy was the eldest son of EDMUND I and with the untimely death of EADRED he ascended the throne at the age of only fourteen. The ASC states that Edwy succeeded to Wessex and his brother EDGAR succeeded to Mercia and Northumbria, but as Edgar was almost two years Edwy's junior, his succession was held in abeyance until he was older. In effect the two kings, and particularly Edwy, were advised by a strong council, which included Dunstan, the abbot of Glastonbury. Since these two were as headstrong as each other, and as intransigent, it led to considerable personal conflict. Edwy's relationship with Dunstan started poorly -apparently at his coronation Edwy disappeared from the council and was found consorting with a young lady - and got worse. Edwy could not work with Dunstan and had him banished from England in 957. All of Edwy's reign seemed to be a jockeying for position between himself and his council of elders, most of whom had the upper hand. Edwy himself never achieved anything. He married his childhood sweetheart, Elgiva, but this was annulled within a year on the grounds of consanguinity - they were third cousins. It suggests that the elders, particularly Oda, the archbishop of Canterbury, did not want Edwy to father children, perhaps because of the continuing problem of health or, more likely, because these would threaten his brother's right to the throne, and it seems that by 959 the elders were now firmly behind Edgar. It thus may have come as a relief when Edwy died in October 959. He was only eighteen, and it has usually been accepted that he died of the inherent family malady, but the growing opposition to him may suggest he was helped on his way. Most of the churchmen who wrote Edwy's obituaries had less than fond memories of him, but his brother-in-law, who became Athelweard the Chronicler, believed he was much misunderstood. It was Athelweard who called Edwy "All-Fair", or "the Fair", a word which in Saxon did not just refer to his fair complexion, but which also meant pleasant and mild-mannered. Edwy comes across the centuries as an uncertain king trapped in a weak body surrounded by officialdom, knowing he could not live up to the glory of his forebears, but unable to find consolation, other than with his wife and mother-in-law. He was a sad and tragic king. between 23 November 955 and 1 October 959.1,6 The marriage of Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England and Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) was annulled circa 958.6

Family

Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) d. c 959

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_I. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied946. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Aelgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020088&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 477-478. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  7. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.

Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?)1,2

F, #16031, d. circa 959
FatherAethelfrith (?) Ealdorman2 d. c 927
MotherÆthelgyth (?)
Last Edited11 Jul 2020
     Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) married Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England, son of Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England and Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?), circa 957.1,3,4

Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) died circa 959.2
      ; Elgiva (+Gloucester IX.959, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of Ethelgiva, an apparent descendant of Ethelred I.4 The marriage of Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) and Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England was annulled circa 958.3

Family

Eadwig (Edwy) (?) King of England b. b 943, d. 1 Oct 959

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 468 (Chart 30). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, pp. 468 (Chart 30), 477-478.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html

Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?)1,2

F, #16032, d. circa 962
FatherOrdmaer (?) Ealdorman of Devon3,4,5 d. bt 963 - 971
MotherEalda (?)5
Last Edited14 Jul 2020
     Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?) married Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England, son of Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England and Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?), circa 960
;
His 1st wife. Genealogics says m. ca 960; Med Lands says m. 963; Genealogy.EU says m. ca 961.1,3,2,6,7,4,5
Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?) died circa 962; died in childbirth.2
Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?) was buried circa 962 at Wherwell Abbey, co. Hampshire, England.2
      ; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic): “F2. Edgar "the Peacable", King of England (959-975) -cr Bath Abbey 11.5.973, *ca 943, +Winchester 8.7.975, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset; 1m: ca 961 Ethelfleda "the Fair" (+in childbirth ca 962, bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire), dau.of Ealdorman Ordmaer; 2m: ca 964/5 Elfrida (*Lydford Castle, Devon ca 945, +as a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire ca.17.11.1002, bur ther), dau.of Ordgar, Ealdorman of Devon”.2

; Per Med Lands:
     "EDGAR, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- ([943]-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey[1725]). Florence of Worcester records the birth of "filium…Eadgarum" to "regi Eadmundo…sua regina sancta Ælfgiva", undated but dateable to [943] from the context[1726]. "Adgar clito" subscribed a charter of King Eadred dated 953[1727], and "Eadgar frater regis" subscribed charters of King Eadwig in 955 and 956[1728]. He was elected king in 957 by the people of Mercia and Northumbria[1729], apparently supported by his grandmother and by Dunstan abbot of Glastonbury. Reuniting the kingdom on his brother's death, he succeeded in 959 as EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England. He supervised the revival of Benedictine monasticism and the reform of the English church. He was crowned in Bath Abbey 11 May 973, followed by the ceremonial submission to his rule by six British kings[1730] at Chester. The ceremony resulted in no change in the title used in charters when naming the king, who was referred to indiscriminately as "rex Anglorum", "totius Britannie telluris dominus", "totie Britannice insule basileus" or "rex totius Albionis". The reform of the coinage took place in the same year, including the introduction of a system of coin management which involved regular recall and reissue of coins usually every six years, operated through a network of 40 mint towns. The administrative sub-divisions of the shires, hundreds and wapentakes, date from Edgar's reign. King Edgar granted autonomy to the Danish eastern part of England, which came to be known as the Danelaw, with recognition of its legal and social customs. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on 8 Jul 975 of King Edgar[1731]. Simeon of Durham records the death "VIII Id Jul" in 975 of "King Eadgar" and his burial at Glastonbury[1732]. The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VIII Id Jul” of “Edgarus rex Anglie…qui dedit…terræ in Burewelle et ecclesiam de Gomicestre”[1733].
     "[m] firstly ([963], maybe repudiated[1734]) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ORDMÆR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife Ealda (bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire). Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[1735]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Egelfleda" and names her father[1736]. Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar’s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[1737]. This union of King Edgar’s may have been less formal than implied by the word "marriage". This is suggested by the contrast between the epithets applied to the king's sons in a charter subscribed by two of them dated 966: Edward (presumably born from this first marriage) is described as "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus", while Edmund (presumably born from the king's second marriage) was "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius"[1738]. Æthelflæd was surnamed "Eneda" according to Florence of Worcester[1739].
     "m secondly (965) as her second husband, ÆLFTHRYTH, widow of ÆTHELWOLD Ealdorman of the East Angles, daughter of ORDGAR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife --- (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[1740]. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[1741]. Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[1742]. Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king’s knowledge[1743]. King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[1744]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[1745]. William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[1746]. She was crowned queen with her husband in 973, which was the first instance of the coronation of a queen in England. It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as King[1747]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[1748], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[1749]. She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985]. Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[1750].
     "Mistress (1): WULFTHRYTH, daughter of --- ([945]-1000). Simeon of Durham names "the holy Wlthirtha" as the mother of King Eadgar's daughter "Eagitha"[1751]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Sancta Elfthritha"[1752]. Florence of Worcester records that "sancta Wlfthrytha" was the mother of King Eadgar’s daughter "Eadgitham"[1753]. Abbess of Wilton. King Edgar granted "Wulfthryth abbess" land at Chalke, Wiltshire by charter dated 974[1754]."
Med Lands cites:
[1725] Florence of Worcester, 975, p. 105.
[1726] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 133.
[1727] S 570.
[1728] S 582, S 583, S 584, S 593, S 597, S 666 and S 663.
[1729] Florence of Worcester, 957, p. 101.
[1730] Identified as Kenneth King of the Scots, Iago King of Gwynedd, Hywel son of Idwal [Iago's nephew], Maccus Haroldson, Dunmail King of Strathclyde, and Malcolm King of the Cumbrians [Dunmail's son].
[1731] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 975.
[1732] Simeon of Durham, p. 508.
[1733] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.
[1734] Weir (2002), p. 20.
[1735] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1736] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1737] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 140.
[1738] S 746.
[1739] Florence of Worcester, 964, p. 103.
[1740] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965.
[1741] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1742] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1743] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33.
[1744] S 703.
[1745] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789.
[1746] Malmesbury II, 157, p. 140.
[1747] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143.
[1748] S 835, S 840 and S 843.
[1749] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896.
[1750] S 904.
[1751] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1752] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1753] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 140.
[1754] S 799.7
Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?) was also known as Ethelfleda (?)8

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.4

; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆTHELFLÆD (bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire). Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[23]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Egelfleda" and names her father[24]. Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar´s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[25]. This union of King Edgar may have been less formal than implied by marriage. This is suggested by the contrast between the epithets applied to the king's sons in a charter subscribed by two of them dated 966: Edward (presumably born from the king's union with Æthelflæd) described as "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus", while Edmund (presumably born from the king's second marriage) was "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius"[26]. She was surnamed "Eneda" according to Florence of Worcester[27].
     "m ([963], maybe repudiated[28]) as his first [wife], EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- (943-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey)."
Med Lands cites:
[23] Stevenson, J. (trans.) (1855) The Historical Works of Simeon of Durham (London) (“Simeon of Durham”), p. 506.
[24] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1868) Chronica, Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (Longman, London) ("Roger of Hoveden") I, p. 62.
[25] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), Vol. I, p. 140.
[26] S 746.
[27] Florence of Worcester, 964, p. 103.
[28] Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 20.5

Family

Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England b. c 943, d. 8 Jul 975
Child

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 478-480. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelflaed: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020096&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#AethelflaedMEdgar. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar 'the Peaceful': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020095&tree=LEO
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edgardied975B.
  8. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.

Saint Wulfthryth/Wulfrida (?)1,2,3

F, #16033, b. circa 945, d. 1000
Last Edited11 Jul 2020
     Saint Wulfthryth/Wulfrida (?) was born circa 945.2
Saint Wulfthryth/Wulfrida (?) was buried in 1000 at Wherwell Abbey (Ruins), Wherwell, Test Valley Borough, Hampshire, England; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown
     DEATH     unknown
     Roman Catholic Saint. She was the mother of St Edith. Entered the convent of Wilton and later became an abbess. She lived a life of repentance and holiness till her death in 988 AD. Her Feast Day is September 13th. Wilfrida is mentioned in a more down to earth way in Anya Seton's Avalon. Bio by: girlofcelje
     BURIAL     Wherwell Abbey (Ruins), Wherwell, Test Valley Borough, Hampshire, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: girlofcelje
     Added: 6 Sep 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 9431451.4
Saint Wulfthryth/Wulfrida (?) died in 1000.2
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "EDGAR, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- ([943]-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey[1725]). Florence of Worcester records the birth of "filium…Eadgarum" to "regi Eadmundo…sua regina sancta Ælfgiva", undated but dateable to [943] from the context[1726]. "Adgar clito" subscribed a charter of King Eadred dated 953[1727], and "Eadgar frater regis" subscribed charters of King Eadwig in 955 and 956[1728]. He was elected king in 957 by the people of Mercia and Northumbria[1729], apparently supported by his grandmother and by Dunstan abbot of Glastonbury. Reuniting the kingdom on his brother's death, he succeeded in 959 as EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England. He supervised the revival of Benedictine monasticism and the reform of the English church. He was crowned in Bath Abbey 11 May 973, followed by the ceremonial submission to his rule by six British kings[1730] at Chester. The ceremony resulted in no change in the title used in charters when naming the king, who was referred to indiscriminately as "rex Anglorum", "totius Britannie telluris dominus", "totie Britannice insule basileus" or "rex totius Albionis". The reform of the coinage took place in the same year, including the introduction of a system of coin management which involved regular recall and reissue of coins usually every six years, operated through a network of 40 mint towns. The administrative sub-divisions of the shires, hundreds and wapentakes, date from Edgar's reign. King Edgar granted autonomy to the Danish eastern part of England, which came to be known as the Danelaw, with recognition of its legal and social customs. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on 8 Jul 975 of King Edgar[1731]. Simeon of Durham records the death "VIII Id Jul" in 975 of "King Eadgar" and his burial at Glastonbury[1732]. The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VIII Id Jul” of “Edgarus rex Anglie…qui dedit…terræ in Burewelle et ecclesiam de Gomicestre”[1733].
     "[m] firstly ([963], maybe repudiated[1734]) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ORDMÆR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife Ealda (bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire). Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[1735]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Egelfleda" and names her father[1736]. Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar’s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[1737]. This union of King Edgar’s may have been less formal than implied by the word "marriage". This is suggested by the contrast between the epithets applied to the king's sons in a charter subscribed by two of them dated 966: Edward (presumably born from this first marriage) is described as "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus", while Edmund (presumably born from the king's second marriage) was "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius"[1738]. Æthelflæd was surnamed "Eneda" according to Florence of Worcester[1739].
     "m secondly (965) as her second husband, ÆLFTHRYTH, widow of ÆTHELWOLD Ealdorman of the East Angles, daughter of ORDGAR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife --- (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[1740]. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[1741]. Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[1742]. Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king’s knowledge[1743]. King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[1744]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[1745]. William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[1746]. She was crowned queen with her husband in 973, which was the first instance of the coronation of a queen in England. It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as King[1747]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[1748], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[1749]. She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985]. Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[1750].
     "Mistress (1): WULFTHRYTH, daughter of --- ([945]-1000). Simeon of Durham names "the holy Wlthirtha" as the mother of King Eadgar's daughter "Eagitha"[1751]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Sancta Elfthritha"[1752]. Florence of Worcester records that "sancta Wlfthrytha" was the mother of King Eadgar’s daughter "Eadgitham"[1753]. Abbess of Wilton. King Edgar granted "Wulfthryth abbess" land at Chalke, Wiltshire by charter dated 974[1754]."
Med Lands cites:
[1725] Florence of Worcester, 975, p. 105.
[1726] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 133.
[1727] S 570.
[1728] S 582, S 583, S 584, S 593, S 597, S 666 and S 663.
[1729] Florence of Worcester, 957, p. 101.
[1730] Identified as Kenneth King of the Scots, Iago King of Gwynedd, Hywel son of Idwal [Iago's nephew], Maccus Haroldson, Dunmail King of Strathclyde, and Malcolm King of the Cumbrians [Dunmail's son].
[1731] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 975.
[1732] Simeon of Durham, p. 508.
[1733] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.
[1734] Weir (2002), p. 20.
[1735] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1736] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1737] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 140.
[1738] S 746.
[1739] Florence of Worcester, 964, p. 103.
[1740] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965.
[1741] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1742] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1743] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33.
[1744] S 703.
[1745] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789.
[1746] Malmesbury II, 157, p. 140.
[1747] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143.
[1748] S 835, S 840 and S 843.
[1749] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896.
[1750] S 904.
[1751] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1752] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1753] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 140.
[1754] S 799.5
She and Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England were associated; She was his mistress.6,5,3

Reference: Genealogis cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.3

; This is the same person as ”Wulfthryth of Wilton” at Wikipedia.7

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wulfrida|Wulfthryth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020100&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 11 July 2020), memorial page for Saint Wilfrida (unknown–unknown), Find a Grave Memorial no. 9431451, citing Wilton Abbey (Defunct), Wilton, Wiltshire Unitary Authority, Wiltshire, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/9431451. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edgardied975B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar 'the Peaceful': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020095&tree=LEO
  7. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wulfthryth_of_Wilton. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Eadgyth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331076&tree=LEO

Edward II "the Martyr" (?) King of England1,2,3

M, #16034, b. circa 962, d. 18 March 978
FatherEdgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England1,4,5 b. c 943, d. 8 Jul 975
MotherAethelflaeda "the Fair" (?)1,3,5,6 d. c 962
Last Edited11 Jul 2020
     Edward II "the Martyr" (?) King of England was born circa 962.1,7,3
Edward II "the Martyr" (?) King of England was buried in 978 at Wareham Abbey, Dorsetshire, England; Later removed to Shaftesbury Abbey, co. Dorset.7
Edward II "the Martyr" (?) King of England died on 18 March 978 at Corfe Castle, Dorsetshire, England; murdered at Corfe Castle, Dorset on orders from his stepmother.1,7,3
Edward II "the Martyr" (?) King of England was buried after 18 March 978 at Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorsetshire, England.3
      ; Edward "the Martyr", King of England (975-978), *ca 962, +murdered at Corfe Castle, Dorset on orders from his stepmother 18.3.978, bur Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset.3 He was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 480-481] EDWARD THE MARTYR King of the English, 8 July 975-18 March 978. Crowned: Kingston-upon-Thames, 975. Born: c962. Died (murdered): Corfe Castle, Dorset, 18 March 978, aged 16. Buried: Wareham Abbey, Dorset; later removed to Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset. [What were believed to be Edward's relics were found during an archeological dig at Shaftesbury in 1931 and currently reside in the Midland Bank in Croydon.] Edward was the young son of EDGAR and his first wife Athelfleda. Although he was the rightful heir there was opposition to his election as king, with much support for his half-brother ATHELRED (II). Athelred was only seven at this time and evidently the ealdormen who wanted him as king, wanted the power that went with it. Edward was thirteen, but old enough not to be trampled over. He was a precocious and ungovernable youth given to temper tantrums, and he soon had considerable opposition amongst his council. For the superstitious there were other signs and portents. In the autumn of his election there was a bright comet in the sky, always an ill omen. In the following year there was famine across England, presumably the result of a harsh winter and a wet summer. Some may have seen this as a message from God of dissatisfaction with the reform of the monasteries which had been carried out with such zeal under EDGAR'S reign. Those who had been opposed to the reform used this as an opportunity to attack the church, and many monasteries were pillaged. By the end of 976 lawlessness seems to have broken out across the land. Dunstan alone stood firm in support of the king and of his reforms. There is a wonderful story of how Dunstan demonstrated his authority when he called a meeting of leading councillors at Calne, in the year 978. They met in an upper room and during the meeting the floor gave way so that many of the councillors were killed or injured, all save Dunstan who was standing on the one rafter that remained intact. It was proclaimed a miracle. Even if it was deliberately engineered Dunstan was taking a severe risk. He was aged about seventy by then.
That same year Edward was murdered. He was calling on his stepmother and half-brother at Corfe Castle in Dorset. As he arrived the household retainers went to greet him but then stabbed him to death as he dismounted from his horse. The attack had clearly been premeditated and before long Elfrida was implicated in the crime as the wicked stepmother. It is not likely that many missed Edward and his fits of rage, but within a decade people were saying miracles were occurring alongside his bones at Wareham, and Athelred declared him a saint and martyr. between 8 July 975 and 18 March 978.1,2

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 181. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar 'the Peaceful': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020095&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edgardied975B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelflaed: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020096&tree=LEO
  7. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 480-481. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.

Edwy/Eadwig (?) of Wessex1,2,3,4,5

M, #16035, d. 1017
FatherAethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless1,2,6,7 b. c 968, d. 23 Apr 1016
MotherElgiva/Aelfgifu/Elfreda (?)1,2,7,8 b. bt 963 - 970, d. Feb 1002
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Edwy/Eadwig (?) of Wessex died in 1017; murdered 1017 on the orders of King Knut.1,2,3
Edwy/Eadwig (?) of Wessex was buried in 1017 at Tavistock Abbey, Devonshire, England.2
      ; Leo van de Pas cites: Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: II 78.3

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edwy of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331087&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  7. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#AethelredIIdied1016B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO

Alfred "the Atheling" (?)1,2,3

M, #16036, b. circa 1005, d. 5 December 1037
FatherAethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless1,2,4,5 b. c 968, d. 23 Apr 1016
MotherEmma (?) of Normandy Queen of England1,2,6,5 b. c 985, d. 6 Mar 1051/52
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Alfred "the Atheling" (?) was born circa 1005; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 2 page) says b. 1006/10.2,7
Alfred "the Atheling" (?) died on 5 December 1037 at Ely, Cambridgeshire, England; murdered.1,7,2
      ; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: II 78.7

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#AethelredIIdied1016B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Emma of Normandy: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020115&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alfred of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331083&tree=LEO

Charles Stewart 1st (last) Earl of Lennox1,2

M, #16037, b. circa 1556, d. 1576
FatherMatthew Stuart 13th Earl of Lennox, Regent of Scotland3,2 b. 21 Sep 1516, d. 4 Sep 1571
MotherMargaret Douglas3,2 b. 1515, d. 9 Mar 1578
Last Edited11 Nov 2008
     Charles Stewart 1st (last) Earl of Lennox was born circa 1556; Louda & Macalagan says b. 1555.3,2 He married Elizabeth Cavendish, daughter of Sir William Cavendish Knt., KB, of Chatsworth and Elizabeth "Bess of Hardwick" Hardwick Countess of Shrewsbury, in 1574.3,1,2,4

Charles Stewart 1st (last) Earl of Lennox died in 1576.3,1,2
      ; Charles, Earl of Lennox; b c 1556, cr. earl 1572, and d 1576, aged 20. He m 1574, Elizabeth Cavendish (who d Jan 1581/82), sis of William, 1st Earl of Devonshire (and dau of the famous "Bess of Hardwicke'') (see BURKE's PEERAGE & BARONETAGE 1999 edn, DEVONSHIRE, D), and by her left a dau.3 Charles Stewart 1st (last) Earl of Lennox was also known as Charles Stuart 1st (last) Earl of Lennox.5 He was 1st and last Earl of Lennox of the 1572 cr (see MORAY, E) in 1572.5

Family

Elizabeth Cavendish b. 1555, d. c 21 Jan 1582
Child

Citations

  1. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 7: England - Tudors and Stuarts. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  2. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession, Table 14: Scotland: Stuart Kings until the accession to the English throne.
  3. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Stuart Earls of Moray Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elizabeth Cavendish: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00052619&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Somerset Family Page (see MORAY, E).

Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway1,2

F, #16038
FatherHarald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark3,4,5,6,7 b. c 905, d. bt 1 Nov 986 - 987
MotherGunhilda (?)8
ReferenceEDV31
Last Edited3 Nov 2020
     Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway married Burislaw (?) Prince of the Wenden
;
His 2nd wife, her 2nd husband.1,9,10,4 Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway married Styrbjörn/Björn Olafsson "the Strong" (?) of Sweden, son of Olaf Bjornson (?) King of Sweden,
;
Her 1st husband.3,10,11,4 Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway married Olaf I Tryggveson (?) King of Norway, son of Tryggve Olavsson (?) King in Vigen and Romerike and Astrid Eriksdatter (?), in 998 at Tonsberg
;
Her 3rd husband; his 4th wife.3,10,12,13,4,14
Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway died on 18 September 1000.1,4,10,8
     EDV-31.

; Per Cary database: "Harald refused to accept the crown until he had first performed his father's obsequies with all the magnificence becoming his high rank. One of his earliest was the conquest of Norway, which became a province of Denmark. Styrbear, King of Sweden, solicited the aid of King Harold in one of his wars, and to enforce his request he brought along with him Gyntha, his sister, a lady of admirable beauty. The stratagem had the intended effect; Harold Bluetooth became enamored and married her. The progress of Christianity gained some headway during his reign, and the King received baptism, and erected a splendid church. His daughter Gunilda married Richard I, Duke of Normandy.
Sources:
Harrison's History of Yorkshire; Preface and Charts.
Britannica Encyclopedia, Vol. 26, p. 224; Vol. 12, p. 179; Vol. 20, p. 4; Vol. 28, p. 767.
Williams' Historians History of the World, Vol. 16, pp. 37-49.
Edward S. Lewis Manuscripts, pp. 164, 162, 226, 274.
The Plantagenet Ancestry, by Lt. Col. W. H. Turton, pp. 26-7."15

Reference: Genealogics cites: Nachkommen Gorms des Alten, 1978 , Brenner, S. Otto. 10.4 Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway was also known as Thyra (?) Princess of Denmark.3,10,12

; This is the same person as:
”Tyra of Denmark” at Wikipedia and as
”Thyra Haraldsdatter” at Wikipedia (DK).2,16

; Per Med Lands:
     "TYRE Haraldsdatter (-18 Sep [1000]). Snorre records the betrothal of "Thyre, a daughter of Harald and King Svein's sister" and "King Burizleif" as part of the deal reached for the release of her brother after he was captured at Jomsborg[176]. Snorre records the marriage in a later passage, Tyre's flight from her new husband to Norway and her marriage to King Olav[177]. The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of King Olav and "sororem Sweinonis regis…Tyri" who had earlier been betrothed to "dux quidam de Sclauia"[178]. According to the Gesta Danorum, the marriage shown below as her third did not take place as Svend King of Denmark (there described as Tyre's father rather than brother) withdrew his consent[179]. The account records the event as having taken place just before King Svend's marriage to Sigrid.
     "m firstly STYRBJÖRN [Björn] “den Starke/the Strong" of Sweden, from Jomsburg, son of [BJÖRN Erkison/OLOF Björnsson King of Sweden & his wife ---] (-killed in battle Fyrisvall, near Uppsala 985).
     "m secondly (divorced) as his [---] wife, BURISLAW Prince of the Wends, son of ---.
     "m thirdly (Tønsberg 998) as his third wife, OLAV I Trygveson King of Norway, son of TRYGVE Olavvsson King in Romerike & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter ([968]-in a sea battle in the Øresund, off Svold near Rügen 9 Sep [1000])."
Med Lands cites:
[176] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[177] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 99 and 100.
[178] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94.
[179] Gesta Danorum, 10.12.2.1,17


; Per Med Lands:
     "[STYRBJÖRN [Björn] "den Starke/the Strong" (-killed in battle [Fyrisvellir] near Uppsala [985]). He was the son of King Björn according to Saxo Grammaticus[18]. He was the son of Olof Bjarnarson according to the 13th century Knytlinga Saga[19]. At Jomsburg. According to Saxo Grammaticus, he was robbed of his kingdom by Erik, son of his uncle Olof, and sought help from Harald I King of Denmark who put him in charge of the garrison at Wolin. Saxo Grammaticus records that Styrbjörn was killed in battle while trying to regain his throne[20].
     "m as her first husband, TYRE Haraldsdatter, daughter of HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his [first wife Gunhild ---] (-18 Sep [1000]). She married secondly (divorced) as his [---] wife, Burislaw Prince of the Wends, and thirdly (Tønsberg 998) as his third wife, Olav I Trygveson King of Norway.]"
Med Lands cites:
[18] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5.
[19] Cited in Saxo (Christiansen), p. 164 footnote 17.
[20] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, pp. 5-6.18

; Per Med Lands:
     "OLAV Trygveson (posthumously [968] Orkney-drowned Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]). The Historia Norwegie records that, after the murder of her husband, the widow of "Turgonem" fled to Orkney where she gave birth to their son "Olauum"[211]. Leaving Svithjod with his mother, he was captured by Vikings of Eistland [Estonia], but freed and taken to Holmgard by his maternal uncle Sigurd where he stayed at the court of Prince Vladimir[212]. The Historia Norwegie records that his mother sent him to Sweden to be brought up by "Thorolfo…Lusaskeg", after learning that Jarl Haakon Sigurdsson was planning to kill him, sailed for Russia but was captured by Vikings "in Eistriam" and sold as a slave. He was ransomed by "Olauo suo cognato" who had been sent as ambassador to "rege Ruscie"[213]. He left Garderike for Norway, meeting his first wife in Vindland where he remained for 3 years until she died, after which he adopted a marauding lifestyle[214]. He was one of the leaders of the attacks on England, culminating in the battle of Maldon and the signing of a treaty with Æthelred II King of England, under which 22,000 pounds of gold and silver were paid in return for a promise to help thwart future attacks. The treaty never came into full effect although the money was paid[215]. Olav claimed the throne when Haakon "the Mighty" Ladejarl, Regent of Norway, was murdered in 995. He was first accepted by the people of Trondheim, and gradually imposed himself as OLAV I King of Norway. According to Snorre[216], King Olav proposed to marry Sigrid Storrada, widow of Erik King of Sweden, but they disputed when they met. Saxo Grammaticus[217] recounts a similar story. Adam of Bremen records that "Olaph Trucconis filius" was baptised in Norway by Adaldagus Bishop of Bremen, after accepting Christianity in England following his expulsion from Norway[218]. He succeeded in establishing Christianity in Norway, building the first churches in the country. Olav I King of Norway attempted to invade Denmark but was defeated by King Svend in a naval battle "inter Sconiam et Seland", during which King Olav was drowned, after which Svend imposed himself as king of Norway[219]. The Historia Norwegie records the death in battle of King Olav[220].
     "m firstly ([982]) GYDA [Geira] of the Wends, daughter of BURISLAW King of the Wends & his wife --- (-984). Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif", recording that Geira was queen in the part of the country in which Olav landed when returning from Garderike. He records that that they married in 982 and that Olav stayed in Vindland to rule jointly with his wife[221]. Snorre records that Geira died after Olaf Trygvason had been in Vindland for three years[222].
     "m secondly (in England 988) as her second husband, GYDA, widow of ---, daughter of OLAF Sihtricsson King of Dublin & his [---] wife ---. Snorre records the betrothal and marriage of Olaf Trygvason to "a queen called Gyda…a sister of Olaf Kvaran who was king of Dublin in Ireland [who] had been married to a great earl in England" after whose death "she was at the head of his dominions"[223]. In a later passage, Snorre refers to "King Olaf Kvaran" as his wife's father[224]. From a chronological point of view, it seems more likely that King Olav’s wife was Olaf Sihtricsson’s daughter.
     "m thirdly ([995]) GUDRUN Skeggesdatter, daughter of SKEGGE Asbjörnsson & his wife ---. Snorre records the marriage of King Olav and Gudrun daughter of Jarnskegge, recording that she tried to stab her husband during their first night together, after which they separated[225].
     "m fourthly (998) as her third husband, TYRE Haraldsdatter, widow [firstly] of STYRBJÖRN [Björn] “den Starke/the Strong" of Sweden, and divorced wife [secondly] of BURISLAW King of the Wends, daughter of HARALD I “Blåtand/Bluetooth” King of Denmark & his wife Gunhild of the Wends (-18 Sep [1000]). Snorre records Tyre's flight from her second husband to Norway and her marriage to King Olav in 999[226]. The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of King Olav and "sororem Sweinonis regis…Tyri" who had earlier been betrothed to "dux quidam de Sclauia"[227]. Adam of Bremen records the marriage of "Olaph Trucconis filius" and "a Dania superbissimam Thore" soon after he returned to Norway after exile in England[228]. Adam of Bremen records that, after the death of her husband, his wife starved herself to death[229].
     "King Olav I & his second wife had one child:
i) TRYGVE Olavsson (-killed in battle 1033).
     "King Olav I & his fourth wife had one child:
ii) HARALD Olavsson (999-1000)."
Med Lands cites:
[211] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 88.
[212] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 5 and 6.
[213] Historia Norwegie XVI, p. 90.
[214] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 21, 30 and 31.
[215] Stenton, p. 377.
[216] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 66 and 68.
[217] Olrik, J. and Ræder, H. (eds.) Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, available at (15 Aug 2003), Christiansen, E. (1980) Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia, Books X-XVI (B. A. R. International Series 84), 10, XII, p. 22.
[218] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.34, MGH SS VII, p. 318.
[219] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.38 and II.39, MGH SS VII, p. 320.
[220] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 98.
[221] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22.
[222] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 30.
[223] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 33 and 34.
[224] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 52.
[225] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 78.
[226] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 99 and 100.
[227] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94.
[228] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.34, MGH SS VII, p. 318.
[229] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.39, MGH SS VII, p. 320.13

; Per Genealogy.EU (Norway 2): “C1. Olav Tryggvesson, King of Norway (995-1000), *968, +ca 1000; 1m: Geira, a Wendish princess; 2m: Gyda of Ireland; 3m: ca 995 Gudrun Skeggesdatter; 4m: 998 Pss Thyra of Denmark (+1000)”.19 As of between 998 and 1000, Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway lived at an unknown place ; Queen Consort of Norway.2

Family 3

Olaf I Tryggveson (?) King of Norway b. 968, d. 9 Sep 1000

Citations

  1. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#TyreHaraldsdatterdied10000. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyra_of_Denmark. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  3. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Tyre Haraldsdatter of Denmark: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079514&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Harald I Gormsen Blatand: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079506&tree=LEO
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#HaraldIdied986987B
  8. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 489 (Chart 33). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Burislaw: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079513&tree=LEO
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Sweden 1 page - Yngling family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/sweden1.html
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Norway 2 page - Yngling Family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/norway2.html
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORWAY.htm#OlavIdied1000
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Olav Trygveson: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079516&tree=LEO
  15. [S1217] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=:1590432, Sue Cary (unknown location), downloaded updated 25 Aug 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:1590432&id=I13403
  16. [S4783] Wikipedia - Die frie encyklopædi, online https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forside, Thyra Haraldsdatter: https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyra_Haraldsdatter. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia (DK).
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Styrbjorn 'the Strong': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079515&tree=LEO
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWEDEN.htm#StyrbjornTheStrongdied985
  19. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Norway 2 page - Yngling Family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/norway2.html
  20. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MECKLENBURG.htm#_Toc481397211
  21. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Rulers of Norway and Denmark. Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  22. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#_Toc481342014

Styrbjörn/Björn Olafsson "the Strong" (?) of Sweden1,2,3,4,5

M, #16039, d. 985
FatherOlaf Bjornson (?) King of Sweden6,4 d. c 985
ReferenceEDV30
Last Edited1 Nov 2020
     Styrbjörn/Björn Olafsson "the Strong" (?) of Sweden married Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway, daughter of Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark and Gunhilda (?),
;
Her 1st husband.1,3,4,7
Styrbjörn/Björn Olafsson "the Strong" (?) of Sweden died in 985; killed in battle.2,3,4,8
      ; Per Med Lands:
     "TYRE Haraldsdatter (-18 Sep [1000]). Snorre records the betrothal of "Thyre, a daughter of Harald and King Svein's sister" and "King Burizleif" as part of the deal reached for the release of her brother after he was captured at Jomsborg[176]. Snorre records the marriage in a later passage, Tyre's flight from her new husband to Norway and her marriage to King Olav[177]. The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of King Olav and "sororem Sweinonis regis…Tyri" who had earlier been betrothed to "dux quidam de Sclauia"[178]. According to the Gesta Danorum, the marriage shown below as her third did not take place as Svend King of Denmark (there described as Tyre's father rather than brother) withdrew his consent[179]. The account records the event as having taken place just before King Svend's marriage to Sigrid.
     "m firstly STYRBJÖRN [Björn] “den Starke/the Strong" of Sweden, from Jomsburg, son of [BJÖRN Erkison/OLOF Björnsson King of Sweden & his wife ---] (-killed in battle Fyrisvall, near Uppsala 985).
     "m secondly (divorced) as his [---] wife, BURISLAW Prince of the Wends, son of ---.
     "m thirdly (Tønsberg 998) as his third wife, OLAV I Trygveson King of Norway, son of TRYGVE Olavvsson King in Romerike & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter ([968]-in a sea battle in the Øresund, off Svold near Rügen 9 Sep [1000])."
Med Lands cites:
[176] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[177] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 99 and 100.
[178] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94.
[179] Gesta Danorum, 10.12.2.9,8


Reference: Genealogics cites: Nachkommen Gorms des Alten, 1978 , Brenner, S. Otto. 10.8

; This is the same person as:
”Styrbjörn the Strong” at Wikipedia and as
”Styrbjörn Starke” at Wikipedia (SE).10,11 EDV-30.

; Per Med Lands:
     "[STYRBJÖRN [Björn] "den Starke/the Strong" (-killed in battle [Fyrisvellir] near Uppsala [985]). He was the son of King Björn according to Saxo Grammaticus[18]. He was the son of Olof Bjarnarson according to the 13th century Knytlinga Saga[19]. At Jomsburg. According to Saxo Grammaticus, he was robbed of his kingdom by Erik, son of his uncle Olof, and sought help from Harald I King of Denmark who put him in charge of the garrison at Wolin. Saxo Grammaticus records that Styrbjörn was killed in battle while trying to regain his throne[20].
     "m as her first husband, TYRE Haraldsdatter, daughter of HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his [first wife Gunhild ---] (-18 Sep [1000]). She married secondly (divorced) as his [---] wife, Burislaw Prince of the Wends, and thirdly (Tønsberg 998) as his third wife, Olav I Trygveson King of Norway.]"
Med Lands cites:
[18] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5.
[19] Cited in Saxo (Christiansen), p. 164 footnote 17.
[20] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, pp. 5-6.5


; Per Wikipedia:
     "Alleged descendants
     "In the 18th century, Danish historian Jacob Langebek proposed that Styrbjörn and Tyra were the parents of Thorkel Sprakalegg, who was father of Ulf the Earl and of Gytha Thorkelsdóttir, wife of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, and thus grandfather of kings Sweyn II of Denmark and Harold Godwinson of England.[11][12] The earliest known source which says anything about the father of Thorkell Sprakalegg was the chronicle of John of Worcester, who says that 'Spraclingus' was son of 'Urso', (Latin for bear) which would be Bjorn. Both Saxo Grammaticus and Gesta Antecessorum Comitis Gualdevi derive Thorkel from the mating of a bear with a noblewoman, Saxo relating that they produced a son named for his father (i.e. named Bjorn), who was in turn father of 'Thrugillus, called Sprageleg', while the Gesta tells a similar story but turns the Urso, father of 'Spratlingus' (sic) in John of Worcester's pedigree into the actual bear involved.[13] Langebek suggested that Saxo's tale of a 'Wild' Björn, father of Thorkel, was an allegorical reference to Styrbjörn.[11] Otto Brenner, in his accounting of the descendants of Gorm the Old, rejects Thorkill as son of Styrbjörn and Thyra.[14]"
Wikipedia cites:
[11] Jacob Langebek (1774), Scriptores Rerum Danicarum Medii Ævi, vol. 3, pp. 281-282.
[12] P. A. Munch (1853), Det Norske Folks Historie, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 101.
[13] Timothy Bolton (2007), "Was the Family of Earl Siward and Earl Waltheof a Lost Line of the Ancestors of the Danish Royal Family", Nottingham Medieval Studies, 51:41-71.
[14] Siegfried Otto Brenner (1964), "Nachkommen Gorms des Alten (König von Dänemark - 936 -): I. - XVI", pp. 1-3.”.5

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 489 (Chart 33). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Sweden 1 page - Yngling family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/sweden1.html
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWEDEN.htm#StyrbjornTheStrongdied985. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 182. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Tyre Haraldsdatter of Denmark: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079514&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Styrbjorn 'the Strong': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079515&tree=LEO
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#TyreHaraldsdatterdied10000
  10. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Styrbj%C3%B6rn_the_Strong. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  11. [S4782] Wikipedia: Den fria encyklopedin, online https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Huvudsida, Styrbjörn Starke: https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Styrbj%C3%B6rn_Starke. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia (SE).
  12. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Rulers of Norway and Denmark. Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#_Toc481342014

Olaf I Tryggveson (?) King of Norway1,2

M, #16040, b. 968, d. 9 September 1000
FatherTryggve Olavsson (?) King in Vigen and Romerike3,4 d. c 968
MotherAstrid Eriksdatter (?)3,4
Last Edited21 Jul 2020
     Olaf I Tryggveson (?) King of Norway was born in 968; Per Med Lands - born posthumously.3,4 He married Gyda/Geira (?) of the Wends, daughter of Burislaw (?) Prince of the Wenden and Unknown (?), in 982
;
His 1st wife.5,3,4 Olaf I Tryggveson (?) King of Norway married Gyda (?) of Ireland, daughter of Olaf Sitricson Cuarán (?) King of Dublin and York, in 988 at England (now)
;
His 2nd wife.3,4 Olaf I Tryggveson (?) King of Norway married Gudrun Skeggesdatter (?) circa 995
;
His 3rd wife.3,4 Olaf I Tryggveson (?) King of Norway married Tyre Haraldsdatter (?) Princess of Denmark, Queen of Norway, daughter of Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark and Gunhilda (?), in 998 at Tonsberg
;
Her 3rd husband; his 4th wife.1,2,3,4,6,7
Olaf I Tryggveson (?) King of Norway died on 9 September 1000 at Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen Island, Vorpommern-Rügen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany (now).1,2,3,4,7
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "TYRE Haraldsdatter (-18 Sep [1000]). Snorre records the betrothal of "Thyre, a daughter of Harald and King Svein's sister" and "King Burizleif" as part of the deal reached for the release of her brother after he was captured at Jomsborg[176]. Snorre records the marriage in a later passage, Tyre's flight from her new husband to Norway and her marriage to King Olav[177]. The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of King Olav and "sororem Sweinonis regis…Tyri" who had earlier been betrothed to "dux quidam de Sclauia"[178]. According to the Gesta Danorum, the marriage shown below as her third did not take place as Svend King of Denmark (there described as Tyre's father rather than brother) withdrew his consent[179]. The account records the event as having taken place just before King Svend's marriage to Sigrid.
     "m firstly STYRBJÖRN [Björn] “den Starke/the Strong" of Sweden, from Jomsburg, son of [BJÖRN Erkison/OLOF Björnsson King of Sweden & his wife ---] (-killed in battle Fyrisvall, near Uppsala 985).
     "m secondly (divorced) as his [---] wife, BURISLAW Prince of the Wends, son of ---.
     "m thirdly (Tønsberg 998) as his third wife, OLAV I Trygveson King of Norway, son of TRYGVE Olavvsson King in Romerike & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter ([968]-in a sea battle in the Øresund, off Svold near Rügen 9 Sep [1000])."
Med Lands cites:
[176] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[177] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 99 and 100.
[178] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94.
[179] Gesta Danorum, 10.12.2.8,9


; Genealogics cites: Nachkommen Gorms des Alten, 1978 , Brenner, S. Otto. 10.7

; Per Med Lands:
     "OLAV Trygveson (posthumously [968] Orkney-drowned Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]). The Historia Norwegie records that, after the murder of her husband, the widow of "Turgonem" fled to Orkney where she gave birth to their son "Olauum"[211]. Leaving Svithjod with his mother, he was captured by Vikings of Eistland [Estonia], but freed and taken to Holmgard by his maternal uncle Sigurd where he stayed at the court of Prince Vladimir[212]. The Historia Norwegie records that his mother sent him to Sweden to be brought up by "Thorolfo…Lusaskeg", after learning that Jarl Haakon Sigurdsson was planning to kill him, sailed for Russia but was captured by Vikings "in Eistriam" and sold as a slave. He was ransomed by "Olauo suo cognato" who had been sent as ambassador to "rege Ruscie"[213]. He left Garderike for Norway, meeting his first wife in Vindland where he remained for 3 years until she died, after which he adopted a marauding lifestyle[214]. He was one of the leaders of the attacks on England, culminating in the battle of Maldon and the signing of a treaty with Æthelred II King of England, under which 22,000 pounds of gold and silver were paid in return for a promise to help thwart future attacks. The treaty never came into full effect although the money was paid[215]. Olav claimed the throne when Haakon "the Mighty" Ladejarl, Regent of Norway, was murdered in 995. He was first accepted by the people of Trondheim, and gradually imposed himself as OLAV I King of Norway. According to Snorre[216], King Olav proposed to marry Sigrid Storrada, widow of Erik King of Sweden, but they disputed when they met. Saxo Grammaticus[217] recounts a similar story. Adam of Bremen records that "Olaph Trucconis filius" was baptised in Norway by Adaldagus Bishop of Bremen, after accepting Christianity in England following his expulsion from Norway[218]. He succeeded in establishing Christianity in Norway, building the first churches in the country. Olav I King of Norway attempted to invade Denmark but was defeated by King Svend in a naval battle "inter Sconiam et Seland", during which King Olav was drowned, after which Svend imposed himself as king of Norway[219]. The Historia Norwegie records the death in battle of King Olav[220].
     "m firstly ([982]) GYDA [Geira] of the Wends, daughter of BURISLAW King of the Wends & his wife --- (-984). Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif", recording that Geira was queen in the part of the country in which Olav landed when returning from Garderike. He records that that they married in 982 and that Olav stayed in Vindland to rule jointly with his wife[221]. Snorre records that Geira died after Olaf Trygvason had been in Vindland for three years[222].
     "m secondly (in England 988) as her second husband, GYDA, widow of ---, daughter of OLAF Sihtricsson King of Dublin & his [---] wife ---. Snorre records the betrothal and marriage of Olaf Trygvason to "a queen called Gyda…a sister of Olaf Kvaran who was king of Dublin in Ireland [who] had been married to a great earl in England" after whose death "she was at the head of his dominions"[223]. In a later passage, Snorre refers to "King Olaf Kvaran" as his wife's father[224]. From a chronological point of view, it seems more likely that King Olav’s wife was Olaf Sihtricsson’s daughter.
     "m thirdly ([995]) GUDRUN Skeggesdatter, daughter of SKEGGE Asbjörnsson & his wife ---. Snorre records the marriage of King Olav and Gudrun daughter of Jarnskegge, recording that she tried to stab her husband during their first night together, after which they separated[225].
     "m fourthly (998) as her third husband, TYRE Haraldsdatter, widow [firstly] of STYRBJÖRN [Björn] “den Starke/the Strong" of Sweden, and divorced wife [secondly] of BURISLAW King of the Wends, daughter of HARALD I “Blåtand/Bluetooth” King of Denmark & his wife Gunhild of the Wends (-18 Sep [1000]). Snorre records Tyre's flight from her second husband to Norway and her marriage to King Olav in 999[226]. The Historia Norwegie records the marriage of King Olav and "sororem Sweinonis regis…Tyri" who had earlier been betrothed to "dux quidam de Sclauia"[227]. Adam of Bremen records the marriage of "Olaph Trucconis filius" and "a Dania superbissimam Thore" soon after he returned to Norway after exile in England[228]. Adam of Bremen records that, after the death of her husband, his wife starved herself to death[229].
     "King Olav I & his second wife had one child:
i) TRYGVE Olavsson (-killed in battle 1033).
     "King Olav I & his fourth wife had one child:
ii) HARALD Olavsson (999-1000)."
Med Lands cites:
[211] Historia Norwegie XV, p. 88.
[212] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 5 and 6.
[213] Historia Norwegie XVI, p. 90.
[214] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 21, 30 and 31.
[215] Stenton, p. 377.
[216] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 66 and 68.
[217] Olrik, J. and Ræder, H. (eds.) Saxo Grammaticus, Gesta Danorum, available at (15 Aug 2003), Christiansen, E. (1980) Saxo Grammaticus, Danorum Regum Heroumque Historia, Books X-XVI (B. A. R. International Series 84), 10, XII, p. 22.
[218] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.34, MGH SS VII, p. 318.
[219] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.38 and II.39, MGH SS VII, p. 320.
[220] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 98.
[221] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22.
[222] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 30.
[223] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 33 and 34.
[224] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 52.
[225] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 78.
[226] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 99 and 100.
[227] Historia Norwegie XVII, p. 94.
[228] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.34, MGH SS VII, p. 318.
[229] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.39, MGH SS VII, p. 320.4


; Per Genealogy.EU (Norway 2): “C1. Olav Tryggvesson, King of Norway (995-1000), *968, +ca 1000; 1m: Geira, a Wendish princess; 2m: Gyda of Ireland; 3m: ca 995 Gudrun Skeggesdatter; 4m: 998 Pss Thyra of Denmark (+1000)”.10

; Per Med Lands:
     "GYDA [Geira] (-984). Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif", recording that Geira was queen in the part of the country in which Olav landed when returning from Garderike. He records that that they married in 982 and that Olav stayed in Vindland to rule jointly with his wife[42]. Snorre records that Geira died after Olaf Trygvason had been in Vindland for three years[43].
     "m ([982]) as his first wife, OLAV Trygveson, son of TRYGVE Olavsson [Norway] & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter (posthumously [968][44]-drowned Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]). He imposed himself as OLAV I King of Norway in [995]."
Med Lands cites:
[42] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22.
[43] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 30.
[44] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 1, which states that his father died in 963.5


; Per Med Lands:
     "GYDA . Snorre records the betrothal and marriage of Olaf Trygvason to "a queen called Gyda…a sister of Olaf Kvaran who was king of Dublin in Ireland [who] had been married to a great earl in England" after whose death "she was at the head of his dominions"[1324]. In a later passage, Snorre refers to "King Olaf Kvaran" as his wife's father[1325]. From a chronological point of view, it seems more likely that King Olav’s wife was Olaf Sihtricsson’s daughter.
     "m firstly ---.
     "m secondly (in England 988) as his second wife, OLAV Trygveson, son of TRYGVE Olavsson [Norway] & his wife Åstrid Eiriksdatter (posthumously [968][1326]-drowned Øresund o. b. Svold, near Rügen 9 Sep [1000]). He imposed himself as OLAV I King of Norway in [995]."
Med Lands cites:
[1324] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 33 and 34.
[1325] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part II, 52.
[1326] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 1, which states that his father died in 963.11
He was King of Norway between 995 and 1000.3

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Norway 2 page - Yngling Family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/norway2.html
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORWAY.htm#OlavIdied1000. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MECKLENBURG.htm#GydaWendsMOlavINorway
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Tyre Haraldsdatter of Denmark: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079514&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Olav Trygveson: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079516&tree=LEO
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#TyreHaraldsdatterdied10000
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Styrbjorn 'the Strong': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079515&tree=LEO
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Norway 2 page - Yngling Family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/norway2.html
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/IRELAND.htm#GydaMOlavTrygvason

Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark1,2,3

M, #16041, b. circa 905, d. between 1 November 986 and 987
FatherGorm "den Gamle/the Old" Haraldsson (?) King of Denmark7,2,3,5,8 b. c 875, d. b 950
MotherThyra "Danebod" (?) of Jutland, Queen of Denmark4,2,3,5,6 d. c 935
ReferenceEDV32
Last Edited29 Oct 2020
     Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark married Gunhilda (?)
;
His 1st wife.7,3,9,5 Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark was born circa 905; Genealogy.EU (Denmark 1 page) says b. ca 910; Genealogics says b. ca 910; Med Lands says b. 925/35.2,7,3,5 He married Tove (?) of the Obotrites, Queen of Denmark, daughter of Mstivoj/Mstivir (?) Prince of the Obotrites, circa 970
;
His 2nd wife.10,3,11,5,12 Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark married Gyritha (?) of Sweden, daughter of Olaf Bjornson (?) King of Sweden, between 984 and 985
;
Possibly his 3rd wife.5
Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark died between 1 November 986 and 987; Genealogy.EU (Denmark 1 page) says d. before 988/991; Cannon & Griffiths says d. 985; Genealogics says d. 1 Nob 986/7.13,7,3,5
Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark was buried after 1 November 987 at Roskilde Cathedral (Roskilde Domkirke), Roskilde, Roskilde Kommune, Sjælland, Denmark; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     911
     DEATH     1 Nov 986 (aged 74–75)
     Danish Monarch. Born the son of Gorm the Old of Jylland and Thyra Danebod. Harald ascended to the throne with his father's death in 935 following Gorm's disastrous invasion of Friesland. Harald began his reign by strengthened the Danawirk series of fortifications in an attempt to create a barrier between the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark, and consolidated the kingdom won by his father. After the assassination of King Harald Graafeld of Norway, Harald attempted to add Norway to his lands, but was only briefly successful before being forced to withdraw. The Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, then demanded Harald recognize him as lord protector of the nascent Danish Christian church. The ensuing conflict saw Harald's defeat and he was forced to accept baptism in the Christian church in 972. By 980 Harald removed the royal residence to Roeskilde and built a church there, and promoted the spread of the new religion. His son Sweyn Forkbeard, allied himself with Palnatoke, a powerful pagan chieftain and foster father to the prince, who raised a rebellion against the King. Palnatoke reportedly defeated and killed Harald in battle. The king was buried in the church at Roeskilde, where he was walled up in one of the pillars of the choir. He is also known variously as Harald Gormson or Harald I of Denmark. Bio by: Iola
     Family Members
     Parents
          Gorm the Old
          Thyra Dannebod
     Spouse
          Gynrithe Olafsdottir of Denmark unknown–1002
     Children
          Gunnora de Crepon of Normandy unknown–1031
          Aveline of Arques de Bolbec
          Sweyn Forkbeard 960–1014
     BURIAL     Roskilde Cathedral, Roskilde, Roskilde Kommune, Sjælland, Denmark
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Peterborough K
     Added: 14 Mar 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 8509545.14
      ; Per Anderson email:
"Harald Blaatands (Bluetooths) ancestors were according to me the following:
1. Harald "Blaatand/Bluetooth", born around 905.

Parents:
2. King Gorm "den Gamle/"the Old" of Jelling (or rather of the part of Denmark called Harsyssel, born around 875. Md. to:
3. Thyra "Danebod", died before King Gorm.

Grandparents:
4. King Hardeknud of Jelling, whose name here is written in modern danish. born around 845. Married to:
5. Princess ... of Northumbria.
6. Harald Klak, King of some part of the island of Sjaelland/Sealand, in eastern Denmark. Perhaps a Grandson of King Harald Klack of Haithabu or in Danish "Hedeby", a larger city in Northern Germany, not as stated by some a part of ancient Norway. wife unknown. The tradition that Thyras father wore the name Klak Harald, is very ancient (1100´s), and if he actually was a grandson somehow of the older Harald Klak, he may have inherited his grandfathers name.

Great grandparents.
8. Svend from Nortmannia, a prince or viking chief of some sort. Wife unknown.
10. King Aella/Ella of Northumbria. An usurper, though his name points at a descent from the ancient kings of Deira/Northumbria. The marriage of Hardeknud to Ellas daughter is mentioned in some ancients chronicle(s?). I cant tell exactly where. I would like to get to know something more about this usurper Ellas ancestors - if anything is available about them.

Sources:
1. Common knowledge from the archives of S.G.M.
2. A book unfortunately only available in Dainsh by Kirsten Moeller: "Vikinge ætten - Brudstykker til et moenster", 1997. From page 43-80 is a part called: "Hardeknud". Other parts of the book are called: "Gorm og Gnupa", "Hakon Adelstensfostre", "Ingvars æt" (Ingvar meaning Ivarr Boneless" - or in danish "Iver Benloes". This book can be highly recommended though it may be hard purchasing it abroad, and I dont know whether or not this exellent book has been translated yet.”.2

; Per Genealogics:
     “Possibly two more daughters Mo and Thorgny.
     “Harald Gormsen Blatand ('Bluetooth') was born around 910, the son of Gorm 'the Old', king of Jutland (peninsular Germany and Denmark) and of Tyre Danebrod, a supposed daughter of Harald Klak, Jarl of Hutland, or daughter of a nobleman of Sonderjylland who is supposed to have been kindly disposed towards Christianity. Harald founded the Jomsborg Viking colony, and established Christianity in Denmark. With his wife Gunhild he had two sons Erik and Svend and a daughter Tyre who would have progeny.
     “Harald was killed in Jomsborg on 1 November 985 or 986, fighting off a rebellion led by his son Svend. He had ruled as king of Denmark from around 958 and king of Norway for a few years probably around 970. His remains were buried in the cathedral of Roskilde in Denmark, where his bones are still preserved, walled up in one of the pillars of the choir.”.3

; This is the same person as:
”Harald Bluetooth” at Wikipedia and as
”Harald Blåtand” at Wikipedia (DK).15,16 EDV-32.

; Per Genealogy.EU (Denmark 1): “A2. Harald "Bluetooth-Blaatand", King of Denmark and Norway (970-991), *ca 910, +before 988/991; 1m: Gunhild N; 2m: Tove (possibly a dau.of Pr Mistiwoj of the Wends)”.17

; Per Med Lands:
     "HARALD Gormsen, son of GORM "den Gamle/the Old" King of Denmark & his wife Tyre "Danebod" ([925/35]-Jomsborg 1 Dec [986/87], bur Roskilde Cathedral[154]). Adam of Bremen records that "filium autem regis [=Worm] Haroldum" succeeded as ruler in Denmark[155]. Saxo Grammaticus names Harald as son of Tyre[156]. The Chronicon Roskildense names "Gorm pater Haraldi", specifying that "Haraldus" reigned for 15 years during the life of his father and 50 years after his father died, and was known as "Blatan sive Clac Harald", on the other hand a later passage specifies that Harald succeeded his father Gorm[157]. He succeeded his father before 950 as HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark. Snorre records that "King Harald Gormson" ruled in Denmark when the sons of King Eirik " Blodøks" sought refuge there in [955][158]. According to Snorre, he invaded Norway in 965 after the death of King Harald II, supported by Jarl Haakon Sigurdson, Harald Gudrodson "Grenske" and other Norwegian exiles[159]. He effectively made himself ruler of Norway, but returned to Denmark after leaving Jarl Haakon in Norway as his regent[160]. Emperor Otto invaded Jutland and defeated King Harald, who took refuge at Limafjord on the island of Marsey where he was converted to Christianity by Bishop Poppo after agreeing a truce with the emperor[161]. Adam of Bremen records that King Harald submitted to Emperor Otto and was baptised "cum uxore Gunhild et filio parvulo"[162]. Adam of Bremen names "Suein Otto, filius magni Haroldi regis Danorum" when recording that he deposed and expelled his father who fled to "civitatem Sclavorum quæ Iumne dicitur" where King Harald died from his wounds. Adam specifies that his body was repatriated to Roskilde for burial in the church of the Holy Trinity which he had built, that King Harald had ruled for 50 years and that he died "in festivitate omnium sanctorum"[163]. His son Svend rebelled against him and forced his father to flee to Jomsburg (now Wolin) where he died from wounds received while counter-attacking his son's forces[164]. Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Aigroldus rex Danorum” was expelled from his kingdom by "filio suo...Sveno" and was received in Normandy by “dux” [Guillaume Comte de Normandie] who granted him “Constantiensem comitatum”[165], although this is evidently anachronistic as Duke Guillaume died in 942. Guillaume of Jumièges records that Louis IV King of the West Franks, after the death of Richard´s father, marched on Rouen, was received by “Rodulphus et Bernardus atque Anslech totius Normannici ducatus tutores”, and captured Richard, who was taken to Laon but was freed by “Osmundus...consilio cum Yvone patre Willelmi de Belismo” and taken to “Silvanectis” where “Bernardus...comes” protected “nepotem suum Richardum”[166], a passage dated to [945] from the context. According to King Olav Trygvason's Saga, King Harald defeated his son but died from wounds received in the battle[167]. Modern-day "Bluetooth" computer technology was named after King Harald, his union of Denmark and Norway being considered by the inventors, for some reason, as analogous with the wire-free linking of computer devices[168].
     "m firstly ([before 960]) GUNHILD, daughter of ---. Adam of Bremen names Gunhild as wife of King Harald when recording that the couple were baptised with their small son[169]. 965.
     "m secondly TOVE, daughter of [MSTIVOJ] & his wife --- (-[990]). Her marriage and parentage are confirmed by a Runic stone at Sönder Vissing, Denmark which records that "Tufa let gera [make] kuml [monument], Mistiuis do´tter,ept [daughter] Mo´thur [mother] sina.Kona [queen] Haralds hins Goda,Gorms sonar"[170]. According to Europäische Stammtafeln[171] she was Tove, daughter of Mstivoj the Wendish prince. The name of Tove´s father, "Mistiuis", on the Runic stone bears some similarity to Mstivoj. However, one difficulty is the apparent chronological discrepancy. The only other reference to Mstivoj is dated to 1000 (see MECKLENBURG) and gives no idea about his age at the time. Nor is there any indication of the date of Tove´s marriage, although it appears unlikely that she married much later than 980 considering the date her husband died. This would place her birth in [960] which, in turn, would mean that Mstivoj would have been over 60 years old when he is mentioned in 1000. This is not impossible, but it seems a little surprising. Another possibility is that she was Tove of Poland, daughter of Mieszko I Prince of Poland. The name "Mieszko" is just as similar to "Mistiuis" as "Mstivoj". This would place her birth after 966, later than suggested above, assuming that she was Mieszko´s daughter by his wife Dobrava of Bohemia. If this hypothesis is correct, Tove could have been the sister of the first wife of King Harald´s son, King Svend, implying a father/son double marriage with two sisters. This would place King Svend´s marriage rather earlier than the date suggested below, but the idea is not impossible.
     "[m [thirdly] ([984/85]) GYRITHA of Sweden, sister of STYRBJÖRN "den Starke/the Strong" King of Sweden, daughter of ---. This marriage is only referred to by Saxo Grammaticus, who says that King Styrbjörn had sought help from King Harald after being deposed as king of Sweden by his cousin and granted Harald his sister in marriage[172].]
     "King Harald I had six children, maybe all by his first wife although this is not certain:
1. HAKON Haraldsen (-before 987).
2. SVEND Haraldsen ([960]-Gainsborough 3 Feb 1014, bur in England, later removed to Roskilde Cathedral).
3. TYRE Haraldsdatter (-18 Sep [1000]).
4. GUNHILD Haraldsdatter (-murdered in England 13 Nov 1002).
5. MO Haraldsdatter (-[1015]).
6. THORGNY Haraldsdatter."

Med Lands cites:
[154] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, VIII, p. 14.
[155] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum I.61, MGH SS VII, p. 304.
[156] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5.
[157] Chronicon Roskildense, IV and V, pp. 17-18.
[158] Snorre, Haakon the Good's Saga, 10.
[159] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 15.
[160] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 15.
[161] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 27.
[162] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.3, MGH SS VII, p. 307.
[163] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.25 and 26, MGH SS VII, p. 315.
[164] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, VIII, pp. 12-14.
[165] Willelmi Gemmetensis monachi Historiæ Normannorum, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619)”), Liber III, IX, p. 237.
[166] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, IX, p. 243.
[167] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[168] Bluetooth Resource Center – “What is Bluetooth?”, consulted at (5 Feb 2004).
[169] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.3, MGH SS VII, p. 307.
[170] Runic Stone at Sönder Vissing, Denmark, information supplied by Jan Hedbor of Uppsala, in a private email to the author dated 4 May 2008.
[171] ES II 97.
[172] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5.5


; Per Med Lands:
     "[TOVE (-[990]). Her marriage and parentage are confirmed by a Runic stone at Sönder Vissing, Denmark which records that "Tufa let gera [make] kuml [monument], Mistiuis do´tter,ept [daughter] Mo´thur [mother] sina.Kona [queen] Haralds hins Goda,Gorms sonar"[57]. Europäische Stammtafeln identifies Tove´s father as Mstivoj the Wendish prince[58]. The name of Tove´s father, "Mistiuis", on the Runic stone bears some similarity to Mstivoj. However, one difficulty is the apparent chronological discrepancy. The only other reference to Mstivoj is dated to 1000 and gives no idea about his age at the time. Nor is there any indication of the date of Tove´s marriage, although it appears unlikely that she married much later than 980 considering the date her husband died. This would place her birth in [960] which, in turn, would mean that Mstivoj would have been over 60 years old when he is mentioned in 1000. This is not impossible, but it seems a little surprising. Another possibility is that she was Tove of Poland, daughter of Mieszko I Prince of Poland. The name "Mieszko" is just as similar to "Mistiuis" as "Mstivoj". This would place her birth after 966, later than suggested above, assuming that she was Mieszko´s daughter by his wife Dobrava of Bohemia. If this hypothesis is correct, Tove could have been the sister of the first wife of King Harald´s son, King Svend, implying a father/son double marriage with two sisters. This would place King Svend´s marriage rather earlier than the date suggested below, but the idea is not impossible.
     "m as his second wife, HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark, son of GORM "den Gamle/the Old" King of Denmark & his wife Tyre "Danebod" (before 935-Jomsborg 1 Dec [986/87], bur Roskilde Cathedral).]"
Med Lands cites:
[57] Runic Stone at Sönder Vissing, Denmark, information supplied by Jan Hedbor of Uppsala, in a private email to the author dated 4 May 2008.
[58] ES II 97.12


; Per Med Lands:
     "[GYRITHA of Sweden . Gyritha and her alleged marriage is only referred to in Saxo Grammaticus, which says that King Styrbjörn granted King Harald his sister in marriage after seeking his help after being deposed[21].
m ([984/85]) as his [third] wife, HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark, son of GORM "den Gamle/the Old" King of Denmark & his wife Tyre "Danebod" (before 935-Jomsborg 1 Dec [986/87], bur Roskilde Cathedral).] "
Med Lands cites:
[21] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, II, p. 5.5
He was King of Denmark
See the atached map of the Kingdom of Harald I and his allies & vassals (from Wikipedai: By Briangotts - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6028459) between 950 and 986.18,19

Family 1

Children

Family 4

Gyritha (?) of Sweden d. 1002

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix II: The Continental Dynasties 1066-1216. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1453] Allan M. Andersen, "Andersen email "Ancestors of Harald Bluetooth, from a Danish point of view"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/aG-3L8fZM8E/m/-rJQ7JA_Qh8J) to e-mail address, 27 June 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Andersen email 27 June 2003."
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Harald I Gormsen Blatand: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079506&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I2765
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#HaraldIdied986987B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Tyre Danebod: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079505&tree=LEO
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gorm den Gamle 'the Old': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079504&tree=LEO
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gunhild: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079507&tree=LEO
  10. [S812] e-mail address, updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I25173
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Tove: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079508&tree=LEO
  12. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MECKLENBURG.htm#ToveMHaraldIDenmark
  13. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy, Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066.
  14. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 21 July 2020), memorial page for Harald Bluetooth (911–1 Nov 986), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8509545, citing Roskilde Cathedral, Roskilde, Roskilde Kommune, Sjælland, Denmark; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8509545. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  15. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Bluetooth. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  16. [S4783] Wikipedia - Die frie encyklopædi, online https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forside, Harald Blåtand: https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Bl%C3%A5tand. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia (DK).
  17. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  18. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 738, 458 (Chart 29). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  19. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Bluetooth#/media/File:Harald_bluetooth.PNG
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Erik (Hring) Haraldsen of Denmark: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00422424&tree=LEO
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Tyre Haraldsdatter of Denmark: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079514&tree=LEO
  22. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWEDEN.htm#SigridStorrada
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Svend II 'Forkbeard': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079502&tree=LEO
  24. [S1217] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=:1590432, Sue Cary (unknown location), downloaded updated 25 Aug 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:1590432&id=I06408

Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England1

M, #16042, b. circa 960, d. after 3 February 1014
FatherHarald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark2,3,1,4,5,6 b. c 905, d. bt 1 Nov 986 - 987
MotherGunhilda (?)7
Last Edited11 Dec 2020
     Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England was born circa 960 at Denmark.8,7 He married Gunhild (?) of the Wends, daughter of Burislaw (?) Prince of the Wenden and Unknown (?), between 988 and 990
;
His possible 1st wife.
See note regarding the uncertainty over who Gunhild was and whether Sigurd the Haughty even existed. I have chosen to assign Svend's children to his supposed wives, following Med Lands: GA Vaut.9,7 Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England married Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland, daughter of Mieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland and Dobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia, in 990
;
His possible 1st wife. Her identity is uncertain. Genealogy.EU (Denmark 1 page) says m. 998.2,10,3,11,4,12,13,14,15 Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England and Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland were divorced in 998.10,11,7 Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England married Sigrid Storråda "the Haughty" Skoglar-Testedotter (?), daughter of Skoglar-Teste (?), circa 1000
;
His possible 2nd wife.
See note regarding the uncertainty over who Gunhild was and whether Sigurd the Haughty even existed. I have chosen to assign Svend's children to his supposed wives, following Med Lands: GA Vaut.2,10,1,16,4
Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England died after 3 February 1014 at Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England.2,8,3,7,4
Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England was buried after 3 February 1014 at Roskilde Cathedral (Roskilde Domkirke), Roskilde, Roskilde Kommune, Sjælland, Denmark; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     960
     DEATH     3 Feb 1014 (aged 53–54)
     King of Denmark (986-1014), Norway (999-1014), and England (1013-1014). Born in 960 in Denmark. Died in England on February 3rd 1014.
     Family Members
     Parents
          Harald Bluetooth 911–986
     Spouse
          Sigrid the Haughty
     Siblings
          Gunnora de Crepon of Normandy unknown–1031
          Aveline of Arques de Bolbec
     Children
          King Canute 995–1035
     BURIAL     Roskilde Cathedral, Roskilde, Roskilde Kommune, Sjælland, Denmark
     Maintained by: Find A Grave
     Originally Created by: SJ Corcoran
     Added: 21 Aug 2008
     Find A Grave Memorial 29205676.8,7,17
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "SIGRID "Storråda/the Haughty" . Snorre names Sigrid as daughter of "Skoglar" Toste and refers to her marriage to "the Swedish king, Eirik the Victorious"[76]. Saxo Grammaticus names "Syritha" as mother of "Erici filius Olavus"[77]. The Fagrskinna names Sigrid, mother of King Olof, as daughter of Skoglar-Tosta[78]. Morkinskinna names "Sigridr en stórráda" as mother of “the lady Ástrídr…sister of two kings, Knútr the Great and Óláfr the Swede” who married “Jarl Úlfr sprakaleggr”[79].
     "m firstly ([before 985]) ERIK "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden, son of [EMUND Erikson King of Sweden] (-Uppsala [994/95]).
     "m secondly ([1000]) as his second wife, SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark, son of HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his first wife Gunhild ([960]-Gainsborough 3 Feb 1014, bur in England, later removed to Roskilde)."
Med Lands cites:
[76] Snorre, Saga of King Harald Grafeld and of Earl Haakon son of Sigurd, 11.
[77] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, XI, p. 20.
[78] Fagrskinna, Chapter 24, p. 147, quoted by Rafal T. Prinke, at (26 Mar 2005).
[79] Morkinskinna, 4, p. 113.1


; This is the same person as:
”Sweyn Forkbeard” at Wikipedia and as
”Swen Wid?obrody” at Wikipedia (PL).18,19

; Per Genealogics:
     "Svend II 'Forkbeard' was born about 960, the son of Harald I Gormsen Blatand, king in Denmark and Norway. On his father's death in late 986 or early 987, he became king of Denmark; in 1000, with the allegiance of Eirik Hakonsson, jarl in Norway and later in England, he was ruler of most of Norway. After a long effort at conquest, and shortly before his death, in 1013 he became king of England. For the last months of his life he was the Danish sovereign of a North Sea empire, which only his son Knud (Canute) was to rival in northern Europe.
     "Many details about Svend's life are contested. There is an ongoing dispute among scholars over the extent of trust historians may place in the various, too often contradictory, accounts of his life given in the sources from his era of history, such as the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,_ Adam of Bremen's _Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum,_ and the _Heimskingla,_ a 13th century work of the medieval Icelandic historian Snorre Sturlasson. Contrary accounts of Svend's later life also appear in the _Encomium Emmae,_ an 11th century Latin encomium in honour of his son King Knud's queen Emma of Normandy, along with the _Chronicle of World and English History_ by Florence of Worcester, another 11th century author.
     "Some historians have argued that Svend's wife described in the sagas - the Swedish dowager queen Sigrid Storrada 'the Haughty' - is purely fictional, whereas others have accepted her existence on the evidence of the Norse sagas. _Den Store Danske Encyklopaedi_ identifies the queen as Gunhild; she was Gunhild/Swjatoslawa/Sygryda of Poland, daughter of Mieszko I Dagon, grand duke of Poland, and Dobrawa/Dubrawka of Bohemia, with whom Svend had two sons, Knud and Harald II, and a daughter Estrid. Knud and Estrid would have progeny.
     "Many negative accounts build on the German medieval chronicler Adam of Bremen's writings; Adam is said to have watched Svend and Scandinavia in general with an 'unsympathetic and intolerant eye' according to some scholars. Adam accused Svend of being a rebellious pagan who persecuted Christians, betrayed his father and expelled German bishops from Scania and Zealand. According to Adam, Svend was therefore sent into exile by his father's German allies and deposed in favour of King Erik Segersall ('the Victorious') of Sweden, who according to Adam then ruled Denmark until his death in 994 or 995. Historians generally have found problems with these claims by Adam, such as that Svend was driven into exile in Scotland for a period as long as fourteen years. As many scholars point out, he built churches in Denmark throughout this period, such as at Lund and Roskilde, as well as leading Danish raids against England.
     "According to the chronicles of John of Wallingford, Svend was involved in raids against England during 1102-1005, 1006-1007, and 1009-1012, to avenge the St. Brice's Day massacre of England's Danish inhabitants in November 1002, a massacre often seen as large-scale ethnic cleansing of the Danes in England orchestrated by Aethelred 'the Unready'. Svend is thought to have had a personal interest in these raids due to his sister Gunhilde being among the victims.
     "Some scholars have argued that Svend's participation may have been prompted by his state of impoverishment, after having been forced to pay a hefty ransom, and that he was in need of the income from the raids. He acquired massive sums of Danegeld through them, and in 1013 he is reported to have personally led his forces in a full-scale invasion.
     "The contemporary _Peterborough Chronicle_ (also called the _Laud Manuscripts_), one of the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicles,_ states that 'before the month of August came King Svend with his fleet to Sandwich. He went very quickly about East Anglia into the Humber's mouth, and so upward along the Trent till he came to Gainsborough. Earl Uchtred and all Northumbria quickly bowed to him, as did all the people of Lindsey, then the people of the Five Boroughs. He was given hostages from each shire. When he understood that all the people had submitted to him, he bade that his force should be provisioned and horsed; he went south with the main part of the invasion force, while some of the invasion force, as well as the hostages, were with his son Canute (Knud). After he came over Watling Street, they went to Oxford, and the town dwellers soon bowed to him, and gave hostages. From there they went to Winchester, and the people did the same, then eastward to London.'
     "However the Londoners are said to have destroyed the bridges that spanned the river Thames, and Svend suffered heavy losses and had to withdraw. The chronicles tell that 'King Svend went from there to Wallingford, over the Thames to Bath, and stayed there with his troops; Ealdorman Aethelmaer came, and the western Thegns with him. They all bowed to Svend and gave hostages.'
     "London had withstood the assault of the Danish army, but the city was now alone, isolated within a country which had completely surrendered. Svend was accepted as king of England following the flight to Normandy of King Aethelred 'the Unready' in late 1013. With the acceptance of the Witan, London had finally surrendered to him, and he was declared king on Christmas day.
     "Svend was based in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, and began to organise his vast new kingdom, but he died there on 3 February 1014, having ruled England unopposed for only five weeks. His embalmed body was subsequently returned to Denmark, to be buried in the church he built in Roskilde. He was succeeded as king of Denmark by his elder son Harald II, but the Danish fleet proclaimed his younger son Knud king. In England, the councillors had sent for Aethelred, who upon his return from exile in Normandy in the spring of 1014 managed to drive Knud out of England. However, Knud returned to become king of England in 1016, while also ruling Denmark, Norway, parts of Sweden, Pomerania, and Schleswig."4

Reference: Genealogics cites: Nachkommen Gorms des Alten, 1978 , Brenner, S. Otto. 9.4 Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England was also known as Swein I Forkbeard King of Denmark and England.2,8,3

; Per Med Lands:
     "SVEND Haraldsen, son of HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his [first wife Gunhild ---] ([960]-Gainsborough, Lincolnshire 3 Feb 1014, bur in England, later removed to Roskilde Cathedral). Adam of Bremen names "Suein Otto, filius magni Haroldi regis Danorum" when recording that he deposed and expelled his father[180]. Converted to Christianity with his father, he was baptised "OTTO SVEND" in honour of Emperor Otto[181]. Snorre records that "Svein, King Harald's son" rebelled after his father refused to share the kingdom with him, but was forced to flee, although his father had been mortally wounded and Svend was chosen as king after he died[182]. He rebelled against his father, who had refused to divide the kingdom with him, and forced him to flee to Jomsburg (now Wolin)[183], succeeding in [early 987] as SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark. King Svend immediately set about restoring the heathen religion in Denmark[184]. Adam of Bremen records that King Svend persecuted Christians in Denmark[185]. Sigvaldi Jarl at Jomsborg in Vindland captured King Svend and took him to Jomsborg, threatening to deliver him into the hands of the Wends unless he made peace[186]. Adam of Bremen records that "rex Sueonum Hericus" invaded Denmark and expelled King Svend, who was eventually received by "rex Scotthorum" with whom he stayed seven years until the death of King Erik, after which he returned to Denmark after 14 years exile[187], although his period of absence appears exaggerated. King Svend first attacked England in 994, in the company of Olav Tryggveson (who succeeded in [995] as Olav I King of Norway). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "came Anlaf and Swein to London with ninety-four ships and kept up an unceasing attack on the city" 8 Sep 994[188]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "the isle of Man was devastated by Swain son of Harold" in 994[189]. At that time, Stenton suggests that there was some support to declare Svend as king of England from those who despaired of the government of King Æthelred "the Unready"[190]. Adam of Bremen records that Olof King of Sweden invaded Denmark and expelled King Svend, but allowed him to return to his kingdom because "matrem suam habuerit"[191]. Olav I King of Norway attempted to invade Denmark but was defeated by King Svend in a naval battle "inter Sconiam et Seland", during which King Olav was drowned, after which Svend imposed himself as king of Norway[192]. Danish raids on England intensified after King Æthelred ordered the massacre of Danes in England 13 Nov 1002, which included the death of King Svend's sister Gunhild sister of King Svend. A full-scale Danish invasion came in 1013 and by the end of the year Svend had become SVEIN de facto King of England. King Æthelred fled to Normandy after Christmas 1013[193], but after Svend's death in Feb 1014 he was invited back, but on condition he improve his rule. Adam of Bremen records that King Svend held England for only a short time before he died[194]. Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Danamarchæ...regique Sveno” invaded England but died “apud Lundoniam”, was buried “apud Danamarcham”, and succeeded by “filius eius...Chunutus” who launched a new invasion with “Lacman equidem Suauorum et Olavum Noricorum”[195].
     "m firstly ([988/90]) --- (-before [1000]). The name and identity of King Svend's first wife is uncertain, although she seems to have been known as GUNHILD in Denmark. According to Snorre, Gunhild died before King Svend's second marriage but no precise date is given[196]. Two possibilities emerge from the primary sources:
     (1) --- of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO I Prince of Poland & his second wife Dobrava [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia. The sole authority for this appears to be Thietmar who refers to the mother of "filiis Suenni" as "Miseconis filia ducis, soror Bolizlavi successori eius", commenting that "long exiled by her husband…this woman suffered no small amount of controversy" although this comment is in no way explained[197].
     (2) --- of the Wends, daughter of BURISLAV King of the Wends & his wife ---. Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif"[198]. In a later passage, he records Gunhild's marriage to Svend arranged as part of the peace deal brokered with the Wends by Sigvaldi (Jarl at Jomsborg) who was already married to another daughter of King Burizleif[199].

     "The matter is further complicated by the secondary sources. Brenner[200] names King Svend's first wife "Gunhild of Poland", stating that she was the widow of Erik "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden, which appears to confuse her with King Svend's second wife Sigrid (see below). According to Europäische Stammtafeln[201], King Svend had a single wife "Gunhild of Poland", widow of King Erik of Sweden. In another table, Europäische Stammtafeln[202] further confuses the issue by naming the second wife of King Erik of Sweden and King Svend as "Šwi?tos?awa [Gunhild] of Poland" (although the basis for proposing this Polish name is not known) and the first wife of King Erik as Sigrid Storrada.
     "The only safe conclusions are: firstly, that King Svend did marry before marrying Sigrid, as a first marriage at the age of about 35 after the death of Sigrid's first husband seems improbable; and secondly, that his first wife was probably of Slavic origin from the southern Baltic coastal area, confusion in the primary sources between Polish and Wendish in this context being understandable. According to Ronay[203], King Svend divorced his first wife who returned to Poland taking her son Knud with her, but he cites no primary source to support this statement.
     "m secondly ([1000]) SIGRID “Storråda/the Haughty”, widow of ERIK “Segersäll/the Victorious” King of Sweden, daughter of SKOGAR-Toste, a Swedish noble & his wife ---. There appears to be unanimity among the primary sources about the identity of King Svend's second wife. Snorre records the second marriage of King Svend with "Sigrid the Haughty, a daughter of Skoglartoste and mother of the Swedish king Olaf"[204]. Adam of Bremen records the marriage of Svend King of Denmark and "Herici relictam, matrem Olaph"[205]. The Fagrskinna names Sigrid, mother of King Olof, as daughter of Skoglar-Tosta[206]. Morkinskinna names "Sigridr en stórráda" as mother of “the lady Ástrídr…sister of two kings, Knútr the Great and Óláfr the Swede” who married “Jarl Úlfr sprakaleggr”[207]. Saxo Grammaticus states that King Svend married "Syritha" after she was unsuccessfully wooed by Olav I King of Norway, and also refers to Olof King of Sweden as King Svend's stepson[208].
     "Mistress (1): [AESA], daughter of ---. The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified."
Med Lands cites:
[180] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.25, MGH SS VII, p. 315.
[181] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 29.
[182] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[183] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, VIII, pp. 12-13.
[184] Saxo Grammaticus (Christiansen), 10, VIII, p. 14.
[185] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.27, MGH SS VII, p. 316.
[186] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[187] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.28, II.32 and II.37, MGH SS VII, pp. 316-17 and 318-19.
[188] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, pp. 126-7.
[189] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 33.
[190] Stenton (2001), p. 378.
[191] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, pp. 319-20.
[192] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.38 and II.39, MGH SS VII, p. 320.
[193] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013.
[194] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.49, MGH SS VII, p. 324.
[195] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, VII, VIII, pp. 251-2.
[196] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 98.
[197] Thietmar 7.39, pp. 334-5.
[198] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22.
[199] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[200] Brenner, S. O. (1978) Nachkommen Gorms des Alten I-XVI Generation (Dansk Historisk Haandbogsforlag), p. 1.
[201] ES II 97.
[202] ES II 114.
[203] Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell), p. 55.
[204] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 98.
[205] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.37, MGH SS VII, p. 319.
[206] Fagrskinna, Chapter 24, p. 147, quoted by Rafal T. Prinke, at (26 Mar 2005).7

; Per Genealogy.EU (Piast 1): “B3. [2m.] Swietoslawa=Sygrida=Gunhild, *ca 970, +after 2.2.1014; 1m: 980/90 King Erik VIII of Sweden (+995); 2m: 998 King Sven I of Denmark (+1014)”.20

; Per Med Lands:
     "GUNHILD (-before [1000]). Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif"[47]. In a later passage, he records Gunhild's marriage to Svend King of Denmark arranged as part of the peace deal brokered with the Wends by Sigvaldi (Jarl at Jomsborg) who was already married to another daughter of Burizlaw[48]. According to Snorre, Gunhild died before King Svend's second marriage but no precise date is given[49].
     "m ([988/90]) as his first wife, SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark, son of HARALD I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" King of Denmark & his first wife Gunhild ([960]-Gainsborough 3 Feb 1014, bur in England, later removed to Roskilde)."
Med Lands cites:
[47] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22.
[48] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[49] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 98.9
He was King of Norway between 985 and 995 at Norway.18 He was King of Denmark between 985 and 1014 at Denmark.18

; NB: There is uncertainty about the identity of the woman called Gunhild who was Svend I's 1st wife.
     Per Genealogics, she was the dau of Mieszko I of Poland. Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. 23.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:120.

     Per Med Lands:
     "m firstly ([988/90]) --- (-before [1000]). The name and identity of King Svend's first wife is uncertain, although she seems to have been known as GUNHILD in Denmark. According to Snorre, Gunhild died before King Svend's second marriage but no precise date is given[196]. Two possibilities emerge from the primary sources:
     (1) --- of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO I Prince of Poland & his second wife Dobrava [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia. The sole authority for this appears to be Thietmar who refers to the mother of "filiis Suenni" as "Miseconis filia ducis, soror Bolizlavi successori eius", commenting that "long exiled by her husband…this woman suffered no small amount of controversy" although this comment is in no way explained[197].
     (2) --- of the Wends, daughter of BURISLAV King of the Wends & his wife ---. Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif"[198]. In a later passage, he records Gunhild's marriage to Svend arranged as part of the peace deal brokered with the Wends by Sigvaldi (Jarl at Jomsborg) who was already married to another daughter of King Burizleif[199].

     "The matter is further complicated by the secondary sources. Brenner[200] names King Svend's first wife "Gunhild of Poland", stating that she was the widow of Erik "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden, which appears to confuse her with King Svend's second wife Sigrid (see below). According to Europäische Stammtafeln[201], King Svend had a single wife "Gunhild of Poland", widow of King Erik of Sweden. In another table, Europäische Stammtafeln[202] further confuses the issue by naming the second wife of King Erik of Sweden and King Svend as "Šwi?tos?awa [Gunhild] of Poland" (although the basis for proposing this Polish name is not known) and the first wife of King Erik as Sigrid Storrada.
     "The only safe conclusions are: firstly, that King Svend did marry before marrying Sigrid, as a first marriage at the age of about 35 after the death of Sigrid's first husband seems improbable; and secondly, that his first wife was probably of Slavic origin from the southern Baltic coastal area, confusion in the primary sources between Polish and Wendish in this context being understandable. According to Ronay[203], King Svend divorced his first wife who returned to Poland taking her son Knud with her, but he cites no primary source to support this statement."
Med Lands cites:
[196] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 98.
[197] Thietmar 7.39, pp. 334-5.
[198] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22.
[199] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[200] Brenner, S. O. (1978) Nachkommen Gorms des Alten I-XVI Generation (Dansk Historisk Haandbogsforlag), p. 1.
[201] ES II 97.
[202] ES II 114.
[203] Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell), p. 55..

     Wikikpedia identified "Sigrid the Haughty" (Sigríð Storråda) as the wife of Eriak and of Svend I, but states that it is unclear as to whether she was real, a mythical amalgamation of several women, or completely fictional. Wikipedia cites as an example of modern scholarchip arguing that Sigrid is apocryphal: Birgitta Fritz (2004), "Sigrid Storråda", Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon, 32: https://sok.riksarkivet.se/sbl/Presentation.aspx?id=5911 .
Conclusion: Burislaw of the Wends is known to have many links to the Scandinavian royal houses. His 2nd wife was the widow of Styrbjorn of Sweden and a dau. of Haral Bluetooth, Kingo Denmark. As his widow, she married Olav I king of Norway. Burislaw's dau. Gunhild Burislawsdatter (a 2nd Gunhild) married two important Norwegian Jarls. For the moment I have two women as wives of Svend I, one Gunhild|Swjatoslawa|Sygryda (dau. of Mieszko I), and a second Gunhild (dau. of Burislaw of the Wends and his 1st unnamed wife). However, I have assigned the children shown as the off-spring by Svend's marriage to a Gunhild/Sigurd to Gunhild, dau. of Burislaw. GA Vaut.7,14,12,13,21,20,22,15 He was King of Norway between 1000 and 1014 at Norway.18 He was Danish King of England, [Ashley, pp. 484-485] SWEIN, SWEYN or SVEN FORKBEARD King of Denmark, c985-1014; King of England, 25 December 1013-2 February 1014. Born: c960, Denmark. Died: Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, 2 February 1014, aged 54. Buried: Roeskild Cathedral, Denmark. Married: (1) c990, Gunhilda (d. c1015), dau. of Duke Mieszko I of Poland, divorced cl000: 4 or more children; (2) cl000, Sigrid the Haughty (d. c1013), widow of Eric VIII of Sweden: up to 3 children. Swein was the son of Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark. He won the throne of Denmark as the result of a rebellion in 985 when he was probably in his mid twenties. He did not consolidate his hold on Denmark until his father's death in 986. He then turned his attention to richer pickings and combined his forces with those of Olaf Tryggvason of Norway to regain lost ground in England. His raids were amongst a massive wave of Danish and Norse incursions, but those of Olaf and Swein were organized as politically motivated campaigns of conquest. Swein's early raids were in the period 993 to 995. He returned in 1003 after his sister Gunhilda was apparently one of those killed in the St Brice's Day massacre of 1002. He returned annually, his army devastating the countryside. In 1006 they advanced as far as the Berkshire Downs. In past generations this territory had been fiercely defended by the West Saxons under ALFRED and others, and it had passed into Danish legend that any Viking army reaching that territory would never again see the sea. But there was no Alfred to rebuff Swein and he returned unmolested. It was clear England was for the taking, but ATHELRED agreed a truce with Swein in 1007, paying him a massive danegeld, and Swein returned to Denmark. When he returned in 1013 he knew that the English could take no more, following the total devastation caused by the army of Thorkell the Tall. Even though Thorkell had sold his services to Athelred for further sizeable payments, the English fighting spirit had reached its nadir. Swein landed at the Humber in August 1013, and the northern English and Danes of Danelaw immediately submitted to him. He marched across Mercia to Oxford and down to Winchester, where Wessex submitted. Unable to take London he marched on Bath where the Mercians and British of the west country submitted. Swein returned to his base in Lindsey, and learned that Athelred had fled to Normandy. The final resistance in London collapsed and on Christmas Day 1013 Swein was recognized as king of England. 225 years since the first Danish raid on Devon, and thousands of lives later, the Danes had conquered England. Swein did not live long to enjoy his prize. In his mid-fifties he was ill and exhausted from his campaigns and died six weeks later, following a fall from his horse. His son CANUTE would later regain the kingdom. between 25 December 1013 and 2 February 1014 at England (now).23,10,18

Family 3

Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland b. bt 968 - 970, d. a 2 Feb 1014
Child

Citations

  1. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWEDEN.htm#SigridStorrada. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  2. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix II: The Continental Dynasties 1066-1216. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Svend II 'Forkbeard': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079502&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Harald I Gormsen Blatand: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079506&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#HaraldIdied986987B
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#SvendIdied1014B
  8. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 738, 458 (Chart 29), 484-485. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/MECKLENBURG.htm#dauBurislawMSvendIDenmark
  10. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, pp. 473 (Chart 31), 484-485.
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gunhild|Swjatoslawa|Sygryda of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020255&tree=LEO
  13. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigrid_the_Haughty. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  14. [S4782] Wikipedia: Den fria encyklopedin, online https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Huvudsida, Sigrid Storråda: https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigrid_Storr%C3%A5da. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia (SE).
  15. [S1549] "Author's comment", various, Gregory A. Vaut (e-mail address), to unknown recipient (unknown recipient address), 21 July 2020; unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as "GA Vaut Comment."
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sigrid Storrada: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049963&tree=LEO
  17. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 01 March 2020), memorial page for Sweyn Forkbeard, I (960–3 Feb 1014), Find A Grave Memorial no. 29205676, citing Roskilde Cathedral, Roskilde, Roskilde Kommune, Sjælland, Denmark ; Maintained by Find A Grave (contributor 8), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/29205676/sweyn-forkbeard. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  18. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweyn_Forkbeard
  19. [S4764] Wikipedia - Wolna encyklopedia, online https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Strona_g%C5%82%C3%B3wna, Swen Wid?obrody: https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swen_Wid%C5%82obrody. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (PL).
  20. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  21. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunhild_of_Wenden
  22. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Norway 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/norway4.html
  23. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 182. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gyda Svendsdatter of Denmark: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079512&tree=LEO
  25. [S4783] Wikipedia - Die frie encyklopædi, online https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forside, Thrugot Ulfsen Fagerskind: https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrugot_Ulfsen_Fagerskind. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia (DK).
  26. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Knud 'den Store': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027249&tree=LEO
  27. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Canutedied1035B.
  28. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 489 (Chart 33).
  29. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  30. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Estrid Svendsdatter of Denmark: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079499&tree=LEO
  31. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#EstridBetRichardIINormandyMUlfThrugilson

Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland1,2,3

F, #16043, b. between 968 and 970, d. after 2 February 1014
FatherMieszko I Dagon (?) King of Poland4,3,5,6 b. 922, d. 25 May 992
MotherDobrava/Dubrawka (?) Princess of Bohemia7,3,8,9,6 b. bt 940 - 945, d. 977
Last Edited26 Aug 2020
     Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland was born between 968 and 970; Genealogy.EU (Piast & Sweden) says b. ca 970; Genealogics says b. ca 968.3,10,6 She married Erik VIII 'Segersäll/the Victorious' (?) King of Sweden, son of Bjorn 'the Old' Eriksson (?) King of Uppsala and Ingeborg (?), between 980 and 990
;
His 2nd wife; her 1st husband.3,11,6 Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland married Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England, son of Harald I "Blåtand/Bluetooth" Gormsson (?) King of Denmark and Gunhilda (?), in 990
;
His possible 1st wife. Her identity is uncertain. Genealogy.EU (Denmark 1 page) says m. 998.1,4,12,3,13,6,14,15,16 Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland and Svend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England were divorced in 998.4,3,17
Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland died after 2 February 1014; Ashely says d. ca 1015; Genealogy.EU (Piast 1 and Sweden pages) and Genealogics say d. after 2 Feb 1014.4,3,10,6
     Gunhilda/Swietoslawa/Sygrida (?) of Poland was also known as Sigrid "the Haughty" (?)18

; Per Genealogy.EU (Piast 1): “B3. [2m.] Swietoslawa=Sygrida=Gunhild, *ca 970, +after 2.2.1014; 1m: 980/90 King Erik VIII of Sweden (+995); 2m: 998 King Sven I of Denmark (+1014)”.19
; NB: There is uncertainty about the identity of the woman called Gunhild who was Svend I's 1st wife.
     Per Genealogics, she was the dau of Mieszko I of Poland. Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. 23.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:120.

     Per Med Lands:
     "m firstly ([988/90]) --- (-before [1000]). The name and identity of King Svend's first wife is uncertain, although she seems to have been known as GUNHILD in Denmark. According to Snorre, Gunhild died before King Svend's second marriage but no precise date is given[196]. Two possibilities emerge from the primary sources:
     (1) --- of Poland, daughter of MIESZKO I Prince of Poland & his second wife Dobrava [Dobroslawa] of Bohemia. The sole authority for this appears to be Thietmar who refers to the mother of "filiis Suenni" as "Miseconis filia ducis, soror Bolizlavi successori eius", commenting that "long exiled by her husband…this woman suffered no small amount of controversy" although this comment is in no way explained[197].
     (2) --- of the Wends, daughter of BURISLAV King of the Wends & his wife ---. Snorre names "Geira, Gunhild and Astrid" as the three daughters of "in Vindland…a king called Burizleif"[198]. In a later passage, he records Gunhild's marriage to Svend arranged as part of the peace deal brokered with the Wends by Sigvaldi (Jarl at Jomsborg) who was already married to another daughter of King Burizleif[199].

     "The matter is further complicated by the secondary sources. Brenner[200] names King Svend's first wife "Gunhild of Poland", stating that she was the widow of Erik "Segersäll/the Victorious" King of Sweden, which appears to confuse her with King Svend's second wife Sigrid (see below). According to Europäische Stammtafeln[201], King Svend had a single wife "Gunhild of Poland", widow of King Erik of Sweden. In another table, Europäische Stammtafeln[202] further confuses the issue by naming the second wife of King Erik of Sweden and King Svend as "Šwi?tos?awa [Gunhild] of Poland" (although the basis for proposing this Polish name is not known) and the first wife of King Erik as Sigrid Storrada.
     "The only safe conclusions are: firstly, that King Svend did marry before marrying Sigrid, as a first marriage at the age of about 35 after the death of Sigrid's first husband seems improbable; and secondly, that his first wife was probably of Slavic origin from the southern Baltic coastal area, confusion in the primary sources between Polish and Wendish in this context being understandable. According to Ronay[203], King Svend divorced his first wife who returned to Poland taking her son Knud with her, but he cites no primary source to support this statement."
Med Lands cites:
[196] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part III, 98.
[197] Thietmar 7.39, pp. 334-5.
[198] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 22.
[199] Snorre, King Olav Trygvason's Saga Part I, 38.
[200] Brenner, S. O. (1978) Nachkommen Gorms des Alten I-XVI Generation (Dansk Historisk Haandbogsforlag), p. 1.
[201] ES II 97.
[202] ES II 114.
[203] Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell), p. 55..

     Wikikpedia identified "Sigrid the Haughty" (Sigríð Storråda) as the wife of Eriak and of Svend I, but states that it is unclear as to whether she was real, a mythical amalgamation of several women, or completely fictional. Wikipedia cites as an example of modern scholarchip arguing that Sigrid is apocryphal: Birgitta Fritz (2004), "Sigrid Storråda", Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon, 32: https://sok.riksarkivet.se/sbl/Presentation.aspx?id=5911 .
Conclusion: Burislaw of the Wends is known to have many links to the Scandinavian royal houses. His 2nd wife was the widow of Styrbjorn of Sweden and a dau. of Haral Bluetooth, Kingo Denmark. As his widow, she married Olav I king of Norway. Burislaw's dau. Gunhild Burislawsdatter (a 2nd Gunhild) married two important Norwegian Jarls. For the moment I have two women as wives of Svend I, one Gunhild|Swjatoslawa|Sygryda (dau. of Mieszko I), and a second Gunhild (dau. of Burislaw of the Wends and his 1st unnamed wife). However, I have assigned the children shown as the off-spring by Svend's marriage to a Gunhild/Sigurd to Gunhild, dau. of Burislaw. GA Vaut.17,15,6,14,18,19,20,16

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix II: The Continental Dynasties 1066-1216. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 738, 458 (Chart 29), 484-485. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  4. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, pp. 473 (Chart 31), 484-485.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mieszko I Dagon: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049952&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gunhild|Swjatoslawa|Sygryda of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020255&tree=LEO
  7. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 489 (Chart 33).
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dobrawa|Dubrawka of Bohemia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049954&tree=LEO
  9. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubravka_of_Bohemia. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Sweden 1 page - Yngling family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/sweden1.html
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Sweden 1 page (Yngling family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/sweden1.html
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Svend II 'Forkbeard': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079502&tree=LEO
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigrid_the_Haughty
  15. [S4782] Wikipedia: Den fria encyklopedin, online https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Huvudsida, Sigrid Storråda: https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigrid_Storr%C3%A5da. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia (SE).
  16. [S1549] "Author's comment", various, Gregory A. Vaut (e-mail address), to unknown recipient (unknown recipient address), 21 July 2020; unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as "GA Vaut Comment."
  17. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#SvendIdied1014B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  18. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunhild_of_Wenden
  19. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Piast 1 page (The Piast family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/piast/piast1.html
  20. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Norway 4 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/scand/norway4.html
  21. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html

John Seymour1

M, #16044, d. circa December 1552
FatherEdward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset, KB, KG1 d. 22 Jan 1551
MotherCatherine Fillol1
Last Edited18 Nov 2002
     John Seymour died circa December 1552.1
John Seymour was buried on 19 December 1552 .1

Citations

  1. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Somerset Family Page (see MORAY, E). Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.

Harald II (?) King of Denmark1,2,3

M, #16045, b. circa 994, d. 1019
FatherSvend I Haraldsen Tveskæg/Forkbeard' (?) King of Denmark and England1,2,4,3 b. c 960, d. a 3 Feb 1014
MotherGunhild (?) of the Wends1,2,3 d. b 1000
Last Edited21 Jul 2020
     Harald II (?) King of Denmark was born circa 994.5
Harald II (?) King of Denmark died in 1019; Genealogy.EU (Denmark 1 page) says d. 1018.1,5,2
     He was King of Denmark between 1014 and 1018.5,2

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix II: The Continental Dynasties 1066-1216. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/DENMARK.htm#SvendIdied1014B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Svend II 'Forkbeard': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00079502&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 489 (Chart 33), 738. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.

Sweyn (?) King of Norway1,2,3

M, #16046, b. circa 1015, d. 1036
FatherCanute I "The Great" (?) King of England, Denmark and Norway1,3,4,5,6 b. c 995, d. 12 Nov 1035
MotherAelfgifu (Elfgiva) (?) of Northampton1,3,4
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Sweyn (?) King of Norway was born circa 1015.2
Sweyn (?) King of Norway died in 1036.1,3
     He was King of Norway, [Ashley, p. 741] Sweyn was appointed King of Norway by his father, Canute, and expelled. Elfgiva, his mother, was regent and was also expelled in 1035 after the death of Canute. between 1030 and 1035.7,2,3

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix II: The Continental Dynasties 1066-1216. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 489 (Chart 33), 741. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  4. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Knud 'den Store': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027249&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Canutedied1035B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 182. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.

Harold I Harefoot (?) King of England1,2,3

M, #16047, b. circa 1016, d. 17 March 1040
FatherCanute I "The Great" (?) King of England, Denmark and Norway1,3,4,5,6 b. c 995, d. 12 Nov 1035
MotherAelfgifu (Elfgiva) (?) of Northampton1,3,4
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Harold I Harefoot (?) King of England was born circa 1016 at Northampton, England.1,2,3
Harold I Harefoot (?) King of England died on 17 March 1040 at Oxford, Oxfordshire, England.1,2,3
     He was King of England: Ashley, p. 490] HAROLD (I) HAREFOOT ruled 1037 (regent from 1035)-17 March 1040. He was the son of CANUTE and his first wife Elfgiva. At the time of his succession some challenged his legitimacy, claiming that Elfgiva was only a handfast wife. He is believed to have been born in Northampton in 1016. The accepted heir to the throne was HARTHACANUTE, his half-brother, who was delayed in Denmark. Harold was accepted as regent, to rule alongside Harthacanute's mother Emma, and Earl Godwin, but with Harthacanute's continued absence, Harold was accepted as king and crowned in 1037 at Oxford. His authority may not have gone unchallenged. In 1036 Prince Alfred, one of the younger sons of ATHELRED and Emma, had returned from exile, ostensibly to visit his mother, but in all likelihood to test out support for a possible bid for the throne. However he and his supporters were captured and imprisoned. Alfred was blinded so brutally that he died from the wounds. His death is recorded as either 5 February 1036 or 1037, the ASC favouring 1036, though either are possible as uncertainty remained in England until Harold was crowned; a situation compounded when Earl Godwin changed sides and supported Harold. Emma fled into exile to Flanders for her own safety. Nothing is recorded of Harold's reign beyond a dispute with the church over the ownership of lands at Sandwich. Like many young sons of powerful kings, he was spoiled and ineffectual. He died at Oxford in 1040 and was buried at Westminster, though Harthacanute exhumed the body and had it beheaded and flung in the marshes. He was later reburied, probably at St Clement Dane's church in London. He had a young son, Elfwine, who was raised on the continent and later became a monk. between 1037 and 17 March 1040.1,7,4

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix II: The Continental Dynasties 1066-1216. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 489 (Chart 33), 490. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  4. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Knud 'den Store': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027249&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Canutedied1035B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 182. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.

Gunhilda (?) of England1,2,3,4

F, #16048, b. 1019, d. 18 July 1038
FatherCanute I "The Great" (?) King of England, Denmark and Norway1,3,5,6,7 b. c 995, d. 12 Nov 1035
MotherEmma (?) of Normandy Queen of England1,5,8 b. c 985, d. 6 Mar 1051/52
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Gunhilda (?) of England was born in 1019; Genealogy.EU says b. 1019; Med Lands says b. 1020.3 She married Heinrich III "The Black" (?) King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Konrad II "the Salic" (?) Holy Roman Emperor and Gisela von Schwaben Queen of Germany, Holy Roman empress, Queen of Burgundy, circa 29 June 1036 at Nijmegen, Nijmegen Municipality, Gelderland, Netherlands,
;
His 1st wife.1,3,4,9,10,5
Gunhilda (?) of England died on 18 July 1038 at Italy (now).1,3,5
Gunhilda (?) of England was buried after 18 July 1038 at Kloster Limburg, Bad Durkheim, Landkreis Bad Dürkheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     1019
     DEATH     18 Jul 1038 (aged 18–19)
     Royalty. Born the only daughter of King Canute I and Emma of Normandy. She was betrothed to Heinrich of Germany in 1035 to strengthen a peace contract between their fathers. Even after Canutes death Konrad II upheld the contract to secure the borders to the north. Their wedding was celebrated in 1036 in Nijmwegen where she was also crowned German queen. She is described as frail and sickly but her marriage seems to have been happy. After spending the winter 1036/37 in Regensburg she traveled with her husband and his parents to Italy where Konrad had been asked to intervene in a territorial dispute between two nobles. During the campaign she gave birth to her only child Beatrix. On the way back to Germany the army was seized by an epidemic. Gunhild died not far away from Parma. Her embalmed body was brought to Germany by Heinrich and his mother. The emperor was already too sick to accompany them. It is possible that she was buried in Limburg instead of Speyer because she had not been crowned empress.
     Family Members
     Parents
          King Canute 995–1035
          Emma of Normandy 988–1052
     Spouse
          Heinrich III 1017–1056
     Siblings
          Harold Harefoot 1016–1040
          Hardicanute 1019–1042
     Half Siblings
          Edward the Confessor 1002–1066
          Goda Of England 1004–1047
          Alfred Atheling 1012–1037
          Svein Knutsson 1020–1035
     BURIAL     Kloster Limburg, Bad Durkheim, Landkreis Bad Dürkheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
     Created by: Lutetia
     Added: 11 Apr 2011
     Find a Grave Memorial 68212574.11
     ; Per Genealogy.EU: "D1. Heinrich III "The Black", King of Germany (1027-46), King of Burgundy (1038-39), Duke of Swabia (1038-45), King of Italy (1039-56), Emperor (1046-56), *28.10.1017, +Bodfeld 5.10.1056; 1m: Nimeguen 1036 Gunnhilde of England (*1019 +18.7.1038); 2m: 21.11.1043 Agnes d'Aquitaine (*1024 +14.12.1077.)4"

; Per Med Lands:
     "GUNHILD [Æthelfryth] ([1020]-in Italy 18 Jul 1038, bur Limburg Klosterkirche). Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the death of “Edelredus rex”, “Emmam reginam” married “rex...Chunutus...Christiano more”, and names their children “Hardechunutum postmodum regem Danorum et filiam...Gunnildem quæ nupsit Henrico Romanorum Imperatori”[2017]. Adam of Bremen records that the daughter of King Knud married "imperator filio suo"[2018]. Her parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis, who also refers to her marriage[2019]. Wipo names "Chnutonis regis Anglorum filiam, nomine Chunehildem" as wife of "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" when recording their marriage in 1036[2020]. The Annalista Saxo records that the wife of King Heinrich III was "filiam Cnud regis Danorum", specifying that the marriage was arranged by Unwan Archbishop of Bremen[2021], although this seems unlikely as Archbishop Unwan died in 1029[2022]. Herimannus names "Chunihildem, Cnutonis Danorum et Anglorum regis filiam" when recording her marriage to "Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris" in 1036[2023]. She adopted the name KUNIGUND on her marriage. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that "uxor imperatoris Henrici Gunhildis imperatrix de Anglia" was accused of adultery, that she was defended in trial by combat, but that after her champion's victory she disdained the success and became a nun[2024]. William of Malmesbury also recounts that she was accused of adultery and retired to a convent[2025]. She died during her husband's expedition to Italy[2026], the death of "regina Conihild" being recorded in the Annalista Saxo "XV Kal Aug"[2027]. The necrology of Speyer records the death "XV Kal Aug" of "Cunehilt regina"[2028].
     "m (Nijmegen [29] Jun 1036) as his first wife, HEINRICH III King of Germany, Duke of Bavaria, son of Emperor KONRAD II & his wife Gisela of Swabia (Ostrebeck 28 Oct 1017-Burg Bodfeld im Harz 5 Oct 1056, bur Speyer Cathedral). Duke of Swabia 1038-1045. King of Burgundy Autumn 1038. Regent of the Duchy of Carinthia 1039-1047. He was crowned Emperor at Rome 25 Dec 1046."
Med Lands cites:
[2017] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, IX, p. 253.
[2018] Adami, Gesta Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum II.54, MGH SS VII, p. 325.
[2019] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 87.
[2020] Wiponis, Vita Chuonradi II Imperatoris 35, MGH SS XI, p. 272.
[2021] Annalista Saxo 1026.
[2022] Grote, H. (1877) Stammtafeln (reprint Leipzig, 1984), p. 506.
[2023] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 1036, MHG SS V, p. 122.
[2024] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1041, MGH SS XXIII, p. 787.
[2025] Malmesbury II, 188, p. 179.
[2026] Fuhrmann, H., trans. Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p. 40.
[2027] Annalista Saxo 1038.
[2028] Boehmer, J. F. (1868) Fontes Rerum Germanicarum, Band IV (Stuttgart), Kalendarium Necrologicum Canonicorum Spirensium, p. 322.11

Family

Heinrich III "The Black" (?) King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor b. 28 Oct 1017, d. 5 Oct 1056
Child

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix II: The Continental Dynasties 1066-1216. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/continen.pdf "The Continental Dynasties: 1066-1216". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Denmark 1 page (Denmark family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/denmark/denmark1.html
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Salian page (Salian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/german/salian.html
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Gunhilddied1038. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Knud 'den Store': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027249&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Canutedied1035B.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Emma of Normandy: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020115&tree=LEO
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Heinrich III: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027241&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/GERMANY,%20Kings.htm#HeinrichIIIGermanydied1056B.
  11. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 14 May 2020), memorial page for Gunhild of Denmark (1019–18 Jul 1038), Find a Grave Memorial no. 68212574, citing Kloster Limburg, Bad Durkheim, Landkreis Bad Dürkheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany ; Maintained by Lutetia (contributor 46580078), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/68212574/gunhild-of_denmark. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  12. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.

Sir Henry Bourgchier Knt., KG, 1st Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Ewe1,2,3,4,5

M, #16049, b. 1406, d. 1483
FatherSir William Bourgchier Knt., Comte d'Eu, of Little Easton adn Wix, Essex1,2,6,7 b. 1374, d. 28 May 1420
MotherAnne (?) of Gloucester, Countess of Buckingham, Hereford and Northampton1,2,8,9,7 b. Apr 1383, d. 16 Oct 1438
Last Edited31 May 2020
     Sir Henry Bourgchier Knt., KG, 1st Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Ewe married Mary Blount, daughter of William Blount 4th Lord Mountjoy and Elizabeth Say.10
Sir Henry Bourgchier Knt., KG, 1st Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Ewe was born in 1406.4 He married Isabel (?) of York, daughter of Richard (?) of Conisborough , 1st Earl of Cambridge and Anne Mortimer Countess of March and Ulster, in 1446.3,4,1,2

Sir Henry Bourgchier Knt., KG, 1st Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Ewe died in 1483.3,11,12
     He was 2nd Earl of Ewe (d'Eu) at Eu, Normandy, France (now).2 Sir Henry Bourgchier Knt., KG, 1st Earl of Essex, 2nd Earl of Ewe was also known as Henry Bourchier 1st Earl of Essex.13 He was 1st Earl of Essex of the 1461 cr (see ESSEX, E, preliminary remarks); in 1461.13

Family 1

Mary Blount

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 602 (Chart 47). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1429] Unknown compiler, Notable British Families 1600s-1900s from Burke's Peerage., CD-ROM (n.p.: Broderbund Software Company, 1999), Notable British Families, Burke's "Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages" (Gen. Pub. Co., Baltimore, 1985 reprint of 1883 edition), p. 65. Hereinafter cited as Notable British Families CD # 367.
  3. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix III: The Plantagenet Dynasties 1216-1485. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  4. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 4: England - Last Plantagenets. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  5. [S2261] Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, 1st edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 2004), Ludlow 13.ii: pp. 475-476. Hereinafter cited as Richardson PA.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir William Bourchier: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00026572&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISHNOBILITYMEDIEVAL3.htm#WilliamBourchierEudied1420. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  8. [S2261] Douglas Richardson, Richardson PA, Bourchier 9: pp. 138-140.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Anne of Gloucester (Plantagenet): https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00005773&tree=LEO
  10. [S1429] Notable British Families, Notable British Families CD # 367, Burke's Dromant, Abeyant, Forgeited, and Extinct Peerages, p. 55.
  11. [S1429] Notable British Families, Notable British Families CD # 367, Burke's "Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages" (Gen. Pub. Co., Baltimore, 1985 reprint of 1883 edition), p. 66.
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Anjou 7 page (The House of Anjou): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/anjou/anjou7.html
  13. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Cromwell Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  14. [S2261] Douglas Richardson, Richardson PA, Grey 14: pp. 358-359.
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir John Bourchier: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00201582&tree=LEO
  16. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Saint Albans Family Page.
  17. [S1429] Notable British Families, Notable British Families CD # 367, Burke's "Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages" (Gen. Pub. Co., Baltimore, 1985 reprint of 1883 edition), Cromwell - Barons Cromwell of Tatshall, co. Lincoln, p. 147.
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Thomas Bourchier: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00321424&tree=LEO

Margaret (?) Countess of Salisbury1

F, #16050, d. 1541
Last Edited8 Mar 2004
     Margaret (?) Countess of Salisbury married Edward Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Warwick, son of George (?) Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville.1

Margaret (?) Countess of Salisbury died in 1541.1

Family

Edward Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Warwick b. 21 Feb 1475, d. 28 Nov 1499

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix III: The Plantagenet Dynasties 1216-1485. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.