Osborn (Osbert) Fitz Richard of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford1,2,3

M, #10051, b. circa 1040, d. after 1100
FatherRichard Fitz Scrob of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford2,4 d. 1067
MotherNN (?)5
ReferenceGAV27 EDV25
Last Edited23 Dec 2020
     Osborn (Osbert) Fitz Richard of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford married Nesta ferch Gruffyd (?) of North Wales, daughter of Gruffydd (Griffit) I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales and Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England.6,7,1,8,9,10,2 Osborn (Osbert) Fitz Richard of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford was born circa 1040.2
Osborn (Osbert) Fitz Richard of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford died after 1100.2
     GAV-27 EDV-25 GKJ-25.

; Per Genealogics: "Osbern was the son of Richard FitzScrub. Osbern and his wife Nesta ferch Gruffydd, daughter of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, king of Deheubarth and Ealdgyth (Edith) of Mercia, had a son Hugh and daughter Nesta who would have progeny. Osbern was a Domesday tenant, and lived until the time of Henry I, when he made a grant of land to Worcester Priory, which was confirmed and augmented by his son Hugh.”.2

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. The Complete Peerage, 1936 , Doubleday, H.A. & Lord Howard de Walden. 9:257 & Bio.
2. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 324.
3. Descendants of Leofric of Mercia 2002 , Ravilious, John & Rosie Bevan.2


; Per Med Lands:
     "NESTA . Orderic Vitalis names "Nest" as the daughter of "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" and her first husband "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum"[448]. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. "Hugo filius Osberti" donated a saltpan at Droitwich to the monks of Worcester Cathedral priory, for the souls of "patris mei Osberti et matris mee Nest", by charter dated to [early 12th century][449].
     "m OSBERN FitzRichard of Richard's Castle, son of RICHARD FitzScrob & his wife --- (-after [1087/88])."
Med Lands cites:
[448] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[449] Darlington, R. R. (ed.) (1968) The Cartulary of Worcester Cathedral Priory (Register I) (London, Pipe Roll Society NS Vol. 38) ("Worcester Cathedral, I"), 148, p. 83.10


; Per Weis: “Nesta, of North Wales, b. abt. 1055/7; m. Osborn (or Osbert) Fitz Richard, liv. 1100 of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford, sheriff of Hereford, 1060, son of Richrd Fitz Scrob, d. 1067, of Richard's Castle. (CP VI:452-453; J.W. Lloyd, Hist. of Wales II:369, 395, 397 and note 135; DNB 23:307; NGSQ 50:76-77; Sanders, 75; R.R. Darlington, ed., The Cartulary of Worcester Cathedral (Register I), (1968) (being vol. 38, New Series, Publications of the Pipe Roll Society)).”.4 He was Sheriff of Hereford in 1060.11 He was Domesday tenant 1085 in 1085.1

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 220, de SAY 2. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Osbern FitzRichard: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027753&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/enguntdk.htm#OsbernFitzRichard. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 177-2, p. 167.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  5. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/enguntdk.htm#dauRobertDeaconMRichardFitzScrob
  6. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-4.
  7. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 188, NORTH WALES 2:i.
  8. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 176-3, p. 165.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Nesta ferch Gruffydd: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027752&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#NestMOsbernFitzRichard
  11. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 177-2, p. 152. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  12. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 220, de SAY 2:ii.
  13. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 221, de SAY 3.

Nesta ferch Gruffyd (?) of North Wales1,2,3,4,5

F, #10052, b. between 1055 and 1057
FatherGruffydd (Griffit) I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales6,7,4,5 b. c 1000, d. 5 Aug 1063
MotherEadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England6,7,8,4,5 b. c 1040, d. a 1086
ReferenceGAV26 EDV25
Last Edited23 Dec 2020
     Nesta ferch Gruffyd (?) of North Wales married Osborn (Osbert) Fitz Richard of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford, son of Richard Fitz Scrob of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford and NN (?).9,1,10,2,4,5,11 Nesta ferch Gruffyd (?) of North Wales married Trahern ap Caradog Prince of North Wales, son of Caradog ap Gwyn and (?) ferch Maredudd; NB: Ashley lists Trahern as Nesta's 1st husband. Weis, Genealogics and Med Lands do not list him.12 Nesta ferch Gruffyd (?) of North Wales was born between 1055 and 1057.13,1,2,4
     ; Per Baldwin"
"Unknown. [According to BWG, she was Nest, daughter of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn (d. 1063), the first (and only) native king of all of Wales. Gruffudd did have a daughter named Nest, wife of Osbern Fitz Richard, but there is no evidence that she was also married to Trahaern ap Caradog, and no early source for a second daughter named Nest. The sources given by Bartrum for this link are all very late, the earliest being Lewys Dwnn's visitation of Wales which started in 1586 (LD.ii.107), and the other two cited sources being early 17th century manuscripts. LD.ii.107 has Nest marrying 1st Trahaern, and 2nd, the mythical Fleance son of Banquo (alleged ancestor of the Stewarts), which gives even more cause for doubt, and I am inclined to regard the supposed marriage of Trahaern ap Caradog to a daughter of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn as a very late invention.]"
BWG = Bartrum, P. C., Welsh Genealogies, A.D. 300-1400 (8 vols., Cardiff, 1974, supplement vol., 1980).
LD = Lewys Dwnn, Heraldic Visitations of Wales and Part of the Marches, 1586-1613, edited with notes, by Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick (Llandovery, Wales, 1846, 2 vols.)14


Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 324.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef. 1700, Baltimore, 1995, Weis, Frederick Lewis; Sheppard, Walter. 152.4
GAV-26 EDV-25.

; Per Med Lands:
     "NESTA . Orderic Vitalis names "Nest" as the daughter of "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" and her first husband "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum"[448]. The primary source which confirms her marriage has not yet been identified. "Hugo filius Osberti" donated a saltpan at Droitwich to the monks of Worcester Cathedral priory, for the souls of "patris mei Osberti et matris mee Nest", by charter dated to [early 12th century][449].
     "m OSBERN FitzRichard of Richard's Castle, son of RICHARD FitzScrob & his wife --- (-after [1087/88])."
Med Lands cites:
[448] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[449] Darlington, R. R. (ed.) (1968) The Cartulary of Worcester Cathedral Priory (Register I) (London, Pipe Roll Society NS Vol. 38) ("Worcester Cathedral, I"), 148, p. 83.5


; Per Weis: “Nesta, of North Wales, b. abt. 1055/7; m. Osborn (or Osbert) Fitz Richard, liv. 1100 of Richard's Castle, co. Hereford, sheriff of Hereford, 1060, son of Richrd Fitz Scrob, d. 1067, of Richard's Castle. (CP VI:452-453; J.W. Lloyd, Hist. of Wales II:369, 395, 397 and note 135; DNB 23:307; NGSQ 50:76-77; Sanders, 75; R.R. Darlington, ed., The Cartulary of Worcester Cathedral (Register I), (1968) (being vol. 38, New Series, Publications of the Pipe Roll Society)).”.15

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 188, NORTH WALES 2:i. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 176-3, p. 165. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  3. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 177-2, p. 167.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Nesta ferch Gruffydd: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027752&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#NestMOsbernFitzRichard. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#Gruffydddied1063
  7. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 176-2, p. 165.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth (Edith) of Mercia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027598&tree=LEO
  9. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-4.
  10. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 220, de SAY 2.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Osbern FitzRichard: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027753&tree=LEO
  12. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 331. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  13. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents, 4.
  14. [S1527] GEN-MEDIEVAL/soc.genealogy.medieval: "Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ancestor table", online http://www.rootsweb.com/~medieval/llywelyn.htm. Hereinafter cited as Baldwin: Llywelyn ap Iorweth Ancestor Table.
  15. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 177-2, p. 167.
  16. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 220, de SAY 2:ii.
  17. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 221, de SAY 3.

Gruffydd (Griffit) I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales1,2

M, #10053, b. circa 1000, d. 5 August 1063
FatherLlywelyn ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd and Deheubarth3,2 b. c 980, d. 1023
MotherAngharad ferch Maredudd2
ReferenceGAV26 EDV26
Last Edited23 Dec 2020
     Gruffydd (Griffit) I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales was born circa 1000.4 He married Unknown (?) in 1039;
Her 2nd husband; his 1st wife.5,2 Gruffydd (Griffit) I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales married Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England, daughter of Aelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia and Aelfgifu (?), circa 1056;
Her 1st husband; his 2nd wife.6,7,8,1,4,9,10,11,12
Gruffydd (Griffit) I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales died on 5 August 1063 at Snowdonia; Killed.6,7,1,4,2
     GAV-26 EDV-26 GKJ-26.

; Per Weis: “Gruffydd I Ap Llywelyn, Prince of North Wales, king of Gwynedd & Powys, 1039, and Deheubarth, 1055, slain 5 Aug. 1063; m., as 1st husb., abt. 1057, Edith (or Aldgyth) (176A-4), dau. of Aelfgar (176A-3) (ASC 1035, 1051, 1053, 1055, 1057, 1058; CCN 444,604). She m. (2) abt. 1064, (Harold II )1B-23), King of England. (CP VI, 451-453; DBC 23:307; NGSQ 50 (1962): 76-77; Dict. of Welsh Biog., cit., p. 312).13
"

; Per Med Lands:
     "GRUFFYDD ap Llywelyn, son of LLYWELYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd (-killed Snowdonia 5 Aug 1063). [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son…Grufydd" succeeded his father as prince of Gwynedd after "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" was killed in 1021[426].] His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn [and] Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…were brothers by the same mother…Angharad daughter of Meredudd king of the Britons"[427]. [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd" defeated and killed "Iago son of Idwal prince of Gwynedd" and "took the government of Gwynedd and so became king of Wales from the Irish Channel to the Severn sea", dated to [1036] from the context[428].] He succeeded in 1039 as Prince of Gwynedd and Powys. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago king of Gwynedd was slain" in 1037 and that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyl governed in his stead", adding that the latter "from beginning to end pursued the Saxons and the other nations and killed and destroyed them…first…at Rhyd y Groes on the Severn"[429]. He accompanied Svein Godwinsson, son of Godwin Earl of Wessex, on an expedition into South Wales in 1046[430]. He made himself ruler of all of Wales. Allied with Ælfgar ex-Earl of East Anglia, son of Leofric Earl of Mercia, he invaded England and sacked Hereford Oct 1055. Peace was negotiated by Leofric Earl of Mercia and Harold Earl of Wessex, under which Gruffydd swore allegiance to King Edward "the Confessor"[431]. Leofgar, recently appointed Bishop of Hereford, led an army against Gruffydd but was defeated and killed 16 Jun 1056[432]. He started raiding England again after Ælfric Earl of Mercia died [1062]. England launched a full-scale campaign against him, led by Tostig Earl of Northumbria invading north Wales and Harold raiding the southern coast[433]. [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Caradoc son of Rhydderch [error for son of Grufudd son of Rhydderch?] son of Iestin hired Harallt to come with an army to S. Wales" and together they defeated Prince Gruffydd in 1060[434].] The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…fell through the treachery of his own men" in 1061[435]. Simeon of Durham records that "Griffin king of the Britons" was killed by his own men "Non Aug" in 1064[436]. Gruffydd was not caught by this pincer movement but was killed by his own men[437].
     "m firstly (1039) as her second husband, ---, formerly wife of HYWEL Prince of South Wales, daughter of ---. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyl overcame Howel and captured his wife and took her to be his own wife"[438]. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" defeated "Hywel son of Edwin and took his wife from him and kept her as his concubine" in 1038[439].
     "m secondly ([1058]) as her first husband, EALDGYTH of Mercia, daughter of ÆLFGAR Earl of Mercia & his first wife Ælfgifu. Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[440]. In a later passage, the same source names her “Aldit”[441]. She married secondly (1064/early 1066) Harold II King of England. There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth´s second marriage. Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold´s accession and [coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[442]."
Med Lands cites:
[426] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45.
[427] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125.
[428] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 51.
[429] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39.
[430] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1046.
[431] Florence of Worcester, 1055, p. 157.
[432] Florence of Worcester, 1056, p. 158.
[433] Florence of Worcester, 1063, p. 164.
[434] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 57.
[435] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 45.
[436] Simeon of Durham, Vol. II, p. 543.
[437] Florence of Worcester, 1064, p. 166, and Barlow, F. (2002) The Godwins: the Rise and Fall of a Noble Dynasty (Longman), p. 68.
[438] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 41.
[439] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 51.
[440] Le Prévost, A. (1840) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[441] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.
[442] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.2


; Per Weis: “Edith (or Aldgyth), seen at "Doomsday" 1086, death date unknown; m. (1) abt. 1057, Gruffyd I Ap Llywelyn (176-2), slain 5 Aug. 1063; m. (2) prob. 1064 Harold II (1B-23). By Gruffyd she had a daul. Nesta (176-3, 177-2). By Harold she had a son Harold, seen at Domesday 1086, later life unknown, and possibly King Harold's son Ulf. (NGSQ, vol. 50, pp. 74-78 and cited references; ES II/78)."14

; Per Med Lands:
     "EALDGYTH. Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "regina Aldgitha, comitis Ælfgari filia" as mother of King Harold´s son "Haroldum"[371]. Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[372]. In a later passage, the same source names her “Aldit”[373]. Her parentage and marriage to King Harold are confirmed by Florence of Worcester who records that "earls Edwin and Morcar…sent off their sister Queen Elgitha to Chester" after the battle of Hastings[374]. There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth´s second marriage. Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold´s accession and coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[375]. If Harold's son Ulf was legitimate, the marriage would have taken place in the earlier part of the date range which is shown above.
     "m firstly as his second wife, GRUFFYDD ap Llywellyn Prince of Gwynedd and Powys, son of LLYWELLYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd (-killed Snowdonia 5 Aug 1063).
     "m secondly ([1064/early 1066]) HAROLD Earl of Wessex, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]). He succeeded in 1066 as HAROLD II King of England."
Med Lands cites:
[371] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 276.
[372] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[373] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.
[374] Florence of Worcester, p. 170.
[375] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.11
He was King of Gwynedd and Powys in 1035.1 He was King of Seheubarth in 1055.1 He was King of Wales, [Ashley, p. 351-352] GRUFFYDD AP LLYWELYN Gwynedd and Powys, 1039-63; Deheubarth, 1044-47 and 1055-63; from 1055 also regarded as sovereign of all Wales.
Born:     date unknown but probably around 1000. Died: 5 August 1063.
Married:     c1057, Eadgyth (i.e. Edith) (c1 042-after 1070), dau. Alfgar, Earl of Mercia; 3 children.
Like the see-saw between the descendants of Augustus to be emperor of Rome, so the pendulum swung between the varied and many descendants of RHODRI MAWR for the kingship of Gwynedd. The descendants of IDWAL FOEL were fairly weak and usually destroyed each other by internecine battles. The other line, descended from Idwal's brother Elisedd, was stronger but had less opportunity to gain the throne. When they took it they were often dominant, as in the case of Gruffydd's father Llywelyn AP SEISYLL, but the most decisive of them all was Gruffydd himself. This may seem strange for a man who, in his youth, had displayed little ambition but, matured by the instruction of his father, Gruffydd turned into a virtual war machine. He seized power in Gwynedd when IAGO AB IDWAL AB MEURIG was murdered, and was generally welcomed by the populace who had enjoyed the reign of his father. Gruffydd first turned his ferocity against the Mercians who constantly harried the borders of Wales and in 1039 won a decisive victory at the battle of Rhyd-y-Groes, near Welshpool, where he slew Edwin, the brother of Earl Leofric of Mercia. The victory was so decisive that for a period the Saxons stopped all hostilities across the border. This allowed Gruffydd to turn his attention to South Wales with a sustained onslaught on HYWEL AB EDWIN of Deheubarth. The battles were intense with heavy losses on both sides and much despoiling of the land, especially around Ceredigion. After two resounding defeats, Hywel recruited an army of Vikings from Ireland and there was a climactic battle at the estuary of the river Towy in 1044, where Hywel was slain. Gruffydd's victory was brief, though, for within a few months he was challenged by GRUFFYDD AB RHYDDERCH, another of the princely descendants of Rhodri Mawr. For two years the battles continued, and when warfare did not succeed treachery was brought into play, and in 1047 over a hundred of Gruffydd ab Llywelyn's soldiers were slaughtered through deceit on the part of Gruffydd ap Rhydderch's brothers. In revenge Gruffydd laid waste to parts of Dyfed and Seisyllwg. He also went into an alliance with Swein, the new earl of Mercia, in order to have Saxon support for his claim on Deheubarth, but even this did not succeed and, for a while, Gruffydd ceased his campaigning in the south.
He turned his attention again to the eastern Marches, and sought to gain further land beyond Offa's Dyke. He entered into an alliance with Alfgar, the son of Earl Leofric of Mercia, taking advantage of rivalry between Leofric's family and that of Earl Godwin of Wessex whose son, Swein, Gruffydd's former ally, had been forced into exile in Byzantium. At about this time Gruffydd married Alfgar's daughter, Eadgyth (who would later become the wife of HAROLD II), who was aged about fifteen. A series of raids began in 1052 and between them Gruffydd and Alfgar gained much territory along the Marches. Saxon border patrols were overwhelmed even as far south as Westbury in Gloucestershire. In 1055 the town of Hereford was sacked and burnt.
Gruffydd was now at the height of his powers, for in 1055 he at last had his victory over Gruffydd ab Rhydderch, whom he slew in battle, and thereafter claimed the kingdom of Deheubarth. In 1056 the bishop of Hereford, Leofgar, led an army against Gruffydd but he was soundly defeated. By this time Gruffydd claimed sovereignty over all of Wales, although it was a tenuous claim that he could hold only by show of force, and not as a ruler in the normal sense. Nevertheless the English respected this authority and, in 1057, they at last sought a treaty with Gruffydd. After lengthy negotiations, led by Harold Godwinson and Earl Leofric, an agreement was reached, and Gruffydd swore his fealty to king EDWARD the Confessor.
One might think Gruffydd would settle down and enjoy his power and attempt to administer the rule of law across Wales, but he continued to work in alliance with Earl Alfgar, helping him to regain his lands after he was temporarily dispossessed in 1058. However, after Alfgar died in 1062, Gruffydd became vulnerable. In his old age Gruffydd let down his guard and, late in 1062, Harold Godwinson mounted a surprise attack on Gruffydd's court at Rhuddlan, destroying Gruffydd's fleet. Gruffydd escaped, but he was now a refugee. Harold, with his brother Tostig, mounted a combined attack on Wales in 1063, forcing the Welsh army into submission. Not only did Harold exact tribute and hostages but he demanded that the Welsh abandon Gruffydd. Gruffydd's own men turned on him and he was slain by Cynan ap Iago in August 1063, his head sent to Harold as a sign of the victory. Thereafter his kingdom was sub-divided by Edward and allocated to various princes. MAREDUDD AB OWAIN AB EDWIN inherited Deheubarth, whilst BLEDDYN AP CYNFYN and his brother RHIWALLON shared Gwynedd and Powys. between 1055 and 1063.4

Family 1

Unknown (?)

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 188, NORTH WALES 2. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#Gruffydddied1063. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Llywelyn ap Seisyll: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00139759&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 331, 351-352. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  5. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#HywelSouthWalesdiedafter1039
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 177-1, p. 152. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-3.
  8. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 152, MERCIA 3i.
  9. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  10. [S2084] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007: "Lady Godiva"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2007. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007."
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#EaldgythMerciaMHaroldII.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth (Edith) of Mercia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027598&tree=LEO
  13. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 176-2, p. 165. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  14. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 176A-4, p. 166.
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Nesta ferch Gruffydd: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027752&tree=LEO
  16. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#NestMOsbernFitzRichard

Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England1,2,3

F, #10054, b. circa 1040, d. after 1086
FatherAelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia4,5,6,2,3 b. c 1012, d. bt 1059 - 1062
MotherAelfgifu (?)6,2,3
ReferenceGAV26 EDV26
Last Edited23 Dec 2020
     Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England was born circa 1040; Ashley says b. ca 1042; Genealogics says b. ca 1040.7,3 She married Gruffydd (Griffit) I ap Llywelyn Prince of North Wales, son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd and Deheubarth and Angharad ferch Maredudd, circa 1056;
Her 1st husband; his 2nd wife.8,9,10,11,7,5,6,2,3 Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England married Harold II Godwinson (?) King of England, son of Godwine (?) Earl of Wessex and Gytha Thorkelsdóttir (?) of Denmark, circa March 1066 at York, Yorkshire, England;
Her 2nd husband.9,1,4,5,6,12,2,3
Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England died after 1086; Ashley and Genealogics say d. aft 1070; Weis says seen on Domesday 1086.7,13,3
     ; Per Weis: “Gruffydd I Ap Llywelyn, Prince of North Wales, king of Gwynedd & Powys, 1039, and Deheubarth, 1055, slain 5 Aug. 1063; m., as 1st husb., abt. 1057, Edith (or Aldgyth) (176A-4), dau. of Aelfgar (176A-3) (ASC 1035, 1051, 1053, 1055, 1057, 1058; CCN 444,604). She m. (2) abt. 1064, (Harold II )1B-23), King of England. (CP VI, 451-453; DBC 23:307; NGSQ 50 (1962): 76-77; Dict. of Welsh Biog., cit., p. 312).14
"
; Per Med Lands:
     "GRUFFYDD ap Llywelyn, son of LLYWELYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd (-killed Snowdonia 5 Aug 1063). [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "his son…Grufydd" succeeded his father as prince of Gwynedd after "Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" was killed in 1021[426].] His parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales which records that "Bleddyn son of Cynvyn [and] Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…were brothers by the same mother…Angharad daughter of Meredudd king of the Britons"[427]. [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd" defeated and killed "Iago son of Idwal prince of Gwynedd" and "took the government of Gwynedd and so became king of Wales from the Irish Channel to the Severn sea", dated to [1036] from the context[428].] He succeeded in 1039 as Prince of Gwynedd and Powys. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Iago king of Gwynedd was slain" in 1037 and that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyl governed in his stead", adding that the latter "from beginning to end pursued the Saxons and the other nations and killed and destroyed them…first…at Rhyd y Groes on the Severn"[429]. He accompanied Svein Godwinsson, son of Godwin Earl of Wessex, on an expedition into South Wales in 1046[430]. He made himself ruler of all of Wales. Allied with Ælfgar ex-Earl of East Anglia, son of Leofric Earl of Mercia, he invaded England and sacked Hereford Oct 1055. Peace was negotiated by Leofric Earl of Mercia and Harold Earl of Wessex, under which Gruffydd swore allegiance to King Edward "the Confessor"[431]. Leofgar, recently appointed Bishop of Hereford, led an army against Gruffydd but was defeated and killed 16 Jun 1056[432]. He started raiding England again after Ælfric Earl of Mercia died [1062]. England launched a full-scale campaign against him, led by Tostig Earl of Northumbria invading north Wales and Harold raiding the southern coast[433]. [The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Caradoc son of Rhydderch [error for son of Grufudd son of Rhydderch?] son of Iestin hired Harallt to come with an army to S. Wales" and together they defeated Prince Gruffydd in 1060[434].] The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn…fell through the treachery of his own men" in 1061[435]. Simeon of Durham records that "Griffin king of the Britons" was killed by his own men "Non Aug" in 1064[436]. Gruffydd was not caught by this pincer movement but was killed by his own men[437].
     "m firstly (1039) as her second husband, ---, formerly wife of HYWEL Prince of South Wales, daughter of ---. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Gruffudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyl overcame Howel and captured his wife and took her to be his own wife"[438]. The Gwentian Chronicle records that "Grufudd son of Llywelyn son of Seisyllt" defeated "Hywel son of Edwin and took his wife from him and kept her as his concubine" in 1038[439].
     "m secondly ([1058]) as her first husband, EALDGYTH of Mercia, daughter of ÆLFGAR Earl of Mercia & his first wife Ælfgifu. Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[440]. In a later passage, the same source names her “Aldit”[441]. She married secondly (1064/early 1066) Harold II King of England. There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth´s second marriage. Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold´s accession and [coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[442]."
Med Lands cites:
[426] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 45.
[427] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 125.
[428] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 51.
[429] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 39.
[430] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle C, 1046.
[431] Florence of Worcester, 1055, p. 157.
[432] Florence of Worcester, 1056, p. 158.
[433] Florence of Worcester, 1063, p. 164.
[434] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 57.
[435] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 45.
[436] Simeon of Durham, Vol. II, p. 543.
[437] Florence of Worcester, 1064, p. 166, and Barlow, F. (2002) The Godwins: the Rise and Fall of a Noble Dynasty (Longman), p. 68.
[438] Brut y Tywysogion (Williams), p. 41.
[439] Gwentian Chronicle, p. 51.
[440] Le Prévost, A. (1840) Orderici Vitalis Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ (Paris) ("Orderic Vitalis (Prévost)"), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[441] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.
[442] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.15
GAV-26 EDV-26.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. 8.
2. Descendants of Leofric of Mercia 2002 , Ravilious, John & Rosie Bevan.3
Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England was also known as Aeldgyth Aelfgarsdottir (?)

; This is the same person as ”Ealdgyth (daughter of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia)” at Wikipedia.16

; Per Genealogics:
     “Ealdgyth was born in England on an unknown date, the daughter of Alfgar 'the Saxon', ealdorman of Mercia, and his wife Elfgifu. About 1056 Ealdgyth married her first husband Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, king of Gwynedd Powys, Gwent, Glywsing, and Deheubarth, the son of Llywelyn ap Seisyll, king of Deheubarth and Gwynedd, and Angharad ferch Mardedudd of Wales. Gruffydd was an ally of her father, who had been deprived of his earldom of East Anglia by Harold Godwinson, earl of Wessex and his brothers. Alfgar had been banished in 1055 by the orders of King Edward 'the Confessor' and went first to Ireland accompanied by his family, including Ealdgyth, and afterwards to Wales, where he formed an alliance with Gruffydd. With the help of the army they raised in Ireland and Wales, Gruffydd and Alfgar attacked Hereford, clashed with the forces of Raoul 'the Timid', earl of Hereford, and soundly defeated them. Alfgar was afterwards reinstated as earl. In 1057, upon the death of his father Leofric, Alfgar succeeded to the earldom of Mercia.
     “Ealdgyth and Gruffydd had three children of whom only Nesta would have progeny, marrying Osbern FitzRichard. On 5 August 1063 Gruffydd was killed in Snowdonia by his own men after fleeing from the invading army of Harold Godwinson.
     “In 1065 at York, Ealdgyth married the enemy of her father and murdered husband, Harold Godwinson, earl of Wessex, who on Epiphany 6 January 1066 would be crowned King Harold II of England. Although Ealdgyth was his lawful wife and queen consort, Harold had had a common-law wife Eadgyth Swannesha for over 20 years by whom he had several children, including Gytha of Wessex. Gytha later married Vladimir II Monomakh, grand duke of Kiev, by whom she had issue.
     “By her second marriage Ealdgyth had a son Harold who had no recorded progeny. On 14 October 1066 King Harold II was killed at the Battle of Hastings by the Norman forces led by William 'the Conqueror', who would subsequently ascend the throne as King William I of England. Ealdgyth was seven months pregnant at the time of his death. Her son Harold was born in December.
     “Ealdgyth died sometime after 1070. Her son Harold by King Harold died in 1098 in Norway, where he had gone to live in exile at the court of King Magnus II Haraldsson.”.3

; Per Weis: “Edith (or Aldgyth), seen at "Doomsday" 1086, death date unknown; m. (1) abt. 1057, Gruffyd I Ap Llywelyn (176-2), slain 5 Aug. 1063; m. (2) prob. 1064 Harold II (1B-23). By Gruffyd she had a daul. Nesta (176-3, 177-2). By Harold she had a son Harold, seen at Domesday 1086, later life unknown, and possibly King Harold's son Ulf. (NGSQ, vol. 50, pp. 74-78 and cited references; ES II/78)."13

; Per Med Lands:
     "EALDGYTH. Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "regina Aldgitha, comitis Ælfgari filia" as mother of King Harold´s son "Haroldum"[371]. Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[372]. In a later passage, the same source names her “Aldit”[373]. Her parentage and marriage to King Harold are confirmed by Florence of Worcester who records that "earls Edwin and Morcar…sent off their sister Queen Elgitha to Chester" after the battle of Hastings[374]. There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth´s second marriage. Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold´s accession and coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[375]. If Harold's son Ulf was legitimate, the marriage would have taken place in the earlier part of the date range which is shown above.
     "m firstly as his second wife, GRUFFYDD ap Llywellyn Prince of Gwynedd and Powys, son of LLYWELLYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd (-killed Snowdonia 5 Aug 1063).
     "m secondly ([1064/early 1066]) HAROLD Earl of Wessex, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]). He succeeded in 1066 as HAROLD II King of England."
Med Lands cites:
[371] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 276.
[372] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[373] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.
[374] Florence of Worcester, p. 170.
[375] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.2


; Per Genealogy.EU (Wessex): “B1. Harold II, Earl of East Anglia (ca 1045-66), Wessex, Kent and Hereford, King of England (1066) -cr St.Paul's Catehdral 6.1.1066, *ca 1022, +k.a.Hastings, Sussex 14.10.1066, bur Waltham Abbey, Essex; m.York ca III.1066 Edith (*ca 1042, +in exile after 1070), dau.of Alfgar, Earl of Mercia”.4
; Per Weis: “Harold II "Godwinson," b. abt. 1022, slain in Battle of Hastings 14 Oct. 1066, Ealdorman of East Anglia, succ. father 1053 Ealdorman of Wessex, King of England 1066 )succeeded Edward the Confessor); m., as 2nd husb., Edith (176A-4), wid. of Grufydd I Ap Llywelyn (176-2), Prince of North Wales. By Ealdgith (Edith) "Swansneck", his "handfast wife" (non-Christian mar.), before he m. Edith of Mercia, he had with others ... Gytha of Wessex" (1B-24.)17
; Per Med Lands:
     "HAROLD, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]). His parentage is confirmed in several places in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[2046]. He was created Earl of the East Angles, Essex, Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in 1044 by King Edward "the Confessor". King Edward granted him part of the earldom of his brother Svein, after the latter was outlawed following his seduction of the Abbess of Leominster. After joining his father's threatened armed rebellion against the king in 1051, he fled to Ireland with his brother Leofwine[2047]. He returned from Ireland the following year and joined forces with his father[2048]. Harold was appointed to succeed his father as Earl of Wessex in 1053, his own earldom of the East Angles passing to Ælfgar son of Leofric Earl of Mercia[2049]. He led the counter-offensive against Gruffydd ap Llywellyn Prince of Wales in 1063, in reprisal for Welsh raids[2050]. On a mission to France in [1064], he was captured by Guy [de Ponthieu] Comte d'Abbeville and imprisoned at Beaurain. Guillaume II Duke of Normandy, Guy's suzerain, secured Harold's release, possibly in return for the latter's acknowledgement of Duke Guillaume as successor to the English throne, the event being recorded in the Bayeux tapestry. Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Edwardus Anglorum rex” had already sent “Rodbertum Cantuariorum archipræsulem” to Normandy to recognise Duke Guillaume as his heir, and that the king sent “Heraldum” as his representative to finalise the affair, that Harold landed at Ponthieu and was captured by “Widonis Abbatisvillæ comitis”, from whom Duke Guillaume rescued him and brought him back to Normandy where he swore allegiance to the duke, who retained “adolescentem Vulnotem fratrem eius” as hostage[2051]. According to Eadmer[2052], the reason for Harold's visit to Normandy was to negotiate the release of his brother Wulfnoth and nephew Haakon, both of whom had been held hostage there since 1051. In spite of earlier promises to Duke Guillaume, on his deathbed King Edward "the Confessor" bequeathed the kingdom to Harold. The choice was unopposed at court and Harold succeeded as HAROLD II King of England, crowned 6 Jan 1066. It is unclear whether there was a meeting, formal or informal, of a council to consider the matter, or whether members of such council took part in some form of election as it might be recognised today. There would probably have been little need for formality as the succession was presumably a foregone conclusion. Duke Guillaume branded Harold a perjurer and appealed to Pope Alexander II for support. After receiving a papal banner in response to this request, the duke gathered a sizable army during Summer 1066 ready for invasion. In response to the invasion by his brother Tostig and Harald III "Hardråde" King of Norway (who also claimed the throne of England), King Harold marched northwards and defeated the invaders at Stamford Bridge 25 Sep 1066. Harold returned south, but meanwhile Duke William's army had set sail from Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme 28 Sep. King Harold hastily reassembled his army to meet this second invasion at Hastings 14 Oct 1066, where he was killed. The Chronique de Normandie, based on le Roman de Rou, records that King Harold II was killed at Hastings by "un chevalier…Robert fils Herveis"[2053]. According to the Waltham Chronicle written some time after 1177, King Harold's body was identified on the battlefield by his mistress Eadgyth Swanneshals and taken to Waltham for burial[2054]. William of Malmesbury also says that King Harold was buried at Waltham, though by his mother[2055].
     "Betrothed ([1064]) to ADELISA de Normandie, daughter of GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy & his wife Mathilde de Flandre ([1055]-7 Dec, 1066 or after). Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Guillaume betrothed “Heraldum” to “Adelizam filiam suam” after rescuing Harold from “Widonis Abbatisvillæ comitis” and bringing him back to Normandy[2056]. Orderic Vitalis records the betrothal of Adelaide and Harold, listing her after Agatha and before Constance in his description of the careers of the daughters of King William[2057] (although in another passage he names Agatha as the daughter who was betrothed to Harold[2058]). The sources are contradictory concerning the name of the daughter betrothed to Harold, as well as the timing of her death. The only near certainty is that it would presumably have been the oldest available daughter who was betrothed to Harold. Matthew of Paris does not name her but lists her fourth among the daughters of King William, while distinguishing her from the fifth daughter betrothed to "Aldefonso Galiciæ regi"[2059]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that the (unamed, but named Adelisa in an earlier passage) daughter who was betrothed to Harold was the duke’s third daughter and that she died a virgin although she was of an age to marry[2060]. Orderic Vitalis says that Adelaide "a most fair maiden vowed herself to God when she reached marriageable age and made a pious end under the protection of Roger of Beaumont"[2061]. The daughter betrothed to Harold was alive in early 1066, according to Eadmer of Canterbury[2062] who says that Duke Guillaume requested King Harold, soon after his accession, to keep his promise to marry his daughter. This is contradicted by William of Malmesbury[2063], who says that her death before that of Edward "the Confessor" was taken by King Harold II as marking absolution from his oath to Duke Guillaume. She died as a nun at Préaux[2064]. The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "VII Id Dec" of "Adeliza filia regis Anglorum", stating that her father made a donation for her soul[2065]. The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death of "Adelina filia regis Anglorum", undated but listed among deaths at the end of the calendar year[2066].
     "m ([1064/early 1066]) as her second husband, EALDGYTH of Mercia, widow of GRUFFYDD ap Llywellyn Prince of Gwynedd and Powys, daughter of ÆLFGAR Earl of Mercia & his first wife Ælfgifu. Florence of Worcester’s genealogies name "regina Aldgitha, comitis Ælfgari filia" as mother of King Harold’s son "Haroldum"[2067]. Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[2068]. In a later passage, the same source names her “Aldit”[2069]. Her parentage and marriage with King Harold are confirmed by Florence of Worcester who records that "earls Edwin and Morcar…sent off their sister Queen Elgitha to Chester" after the battle of Hastings[2070]. There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth’s second marriage. Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold’s accession and coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[2071]. If Harold's son Ulf was legitimate (see below), the marriage would have taken place in the earlier part of the date range which is shown above.
     "Mistress (1): EADGYTH "Swanneshals [Swan-neck]", [daughter of --- & his wife Wulfgyth] (-after 1066). A mid-12th century manuscript concerning the foundation of Waltham abbey names "Editham cognomento Swanneshals" as "cubicularia" of King Harold when recording that she recovered the king’s body for burial after the battle of Hastings[2072]. The later Vita Haroldi records that "a certain woman of a shrewd intelligence, Edith by name" recovered the king’s body from the battlefield, chosen to do so "because she loved him exceedingly…[and] had been frequently present in the secret places of his chamber"[2073]. The only source so far identified which refers to an earlier document which names Eadgyth is the history of the abbey of St Benet, Holme, written by John of Oxnead in 1292, which records donations to the abbey, confirmed by King Edward in 1046, including the donation by "Edgyue Swanneshals" of "Thurgertone" (Thurgarton, Norfolk)[2074]. The fact of this donation is confirmed by the corresponding charter of King Edward, reproduced in Dugdale’s Monasticon[2075], which refers to the donation of "ecclesiam de Thurgartun cum tota villa" but omits the name of the donor. Barlow suggests that Eadgyth may have been "Ealdgyth" who is named in the will of her mother "Wulfgyth", dated to [1042/53], who bequeathed land "at Stisted, Essex to her sons Ælfketel and Ketel…at Saxlingham, Norfolk and Somerton, Suffolk to her daughters Gode and Bote, at Chadacre, Suffolk and Ashford to her daughter Ealdgyth, and at Fritton to Earl Godwin and Earl Harold"[2076]. The connection between Wulfgyth’s family and St Benet’s, Hulme is confirmed by the testament of "Ketel" (named in his mother’s will quoted above), dated to [1052/66], which includes bequests of land to the abbey[2077]. However, Ketel’s testament names his two sisters Gode and Bote, who are also named in their mother’s will, but does not name "Ealdgyth", suggesting that the latter may have predeceased her brother. None of the sources so far identified suggests, even indirectly, that Eadgyth "Swanneshals" was the mother of the seven illegitimate children of King Harold who are shown below, but this has been assumed to be the case in secondary sources.
     "[Mistress (2): --- (-after 1086). Domesday Book records "quædam concubina Heraldi" as holding three houses in Canterbury[2078]. It is not known whether this unnamed person was the same as Eadgyth "Swanneshals".] "
Med Lands cites:
[2041] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1040.
[2042] Desjardins, G. (ed.) (1879) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Conques en Rouergue (Paris) ("Conques") 15, p. 19.
[2043] Conques, 15, p. 19.
[2044] Conques, 14, p. 17.
[2045] Weir (2002), p. 32.
[2046] For example, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1049 and 1051.
[2047] Florence of Worcester, 1051, p. 152.
[2048] Florence of Worcester, 1052, p. 153.
[2049] Florence of Worcester, 1053, p. 155.
[2050] Barlow (2002), p. 68.
[2051] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXXI, p. 285.
[2052] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, Houts (2000), p. 147.
[2053] Extrait de la Chronique de Normandie, RHGF XIII, p. 236.
[2054] Watkiss, L. and Chibnall, M. (eds. and trans.) (1994) The Waltham Chronicle, pp 46-56.
[2055] Malmesbury, 247, p. 235.
[2056] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXXI, p. 285.
[2057] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115.
[2058] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, XI, p. 391.
[2059] MP, Vol. II, 1086, p. 21.
[2060] WJ VIII.34, p. 295.
[2061] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115.
[2062] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, cited in Houts, p. 149.
[2063] Malmesbury, 238, p. 227.
[2064] Houts (2000), p. 295, Table 4, which also identifies Adelisa with William's daughter Agatha who was betrothed to Alfonso VI King of Castile.
[2065] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 25.
[2066] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 241.
[2067] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 276.
[2068] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[2069] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.
[2070] Florence of Worcester, p. 170.
[2071] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.
[2072] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1861) The Foundation of Waltham Abbey, the Tract "De inventione Sanctæ Crucis nostræ in Monte Acuto et de ductione eiusdem apud Waltham" (Oxford), 21, p. 30.
[2073] Birch, W. de G. (ed.) (1885) Vita Haroldi: the Romance of the life of Harold King of England (London), pp. 187-8.
[2074] Ellis, Sir H. (ed.) (1859) Chronica Johannis de Oxenedes (London), Appendix, I, p. 292.
[2075] Dugdale Monasticon III, Abbey of St Bennet of Hulme, Norfolk, III, p. 83.
[2076] Barlow (2002), p. 56, and S 1535.
[2077] S 1519.
[2078] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, p. 791.18
She was Queen Consort of England between 4 January 1066 and 14 October 1066.16

Family 2

Harold II Godwinson (?) King of England b. bt 1022 - 1025, d. 14 Oct 1066
Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 152, MERCIA 3:i. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#EaldgythMerciaMHaroldII. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth (Edith) of Mercia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027598&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Wessex page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/wessex.html
  5. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  6. [S2084] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007: "Lady Godiva"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2007. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007."
  7. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 331, 351-352. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 177-1, p. 152. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-3.
  10. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 152, MERCIA 3i.
  11. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 188, NORTH WALES 2.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Harold II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027740&tree=LEO
  13. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 176A-4, p. 166. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  14. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 176-2, p. 165.
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#Gruffydddied1063
  16. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ealdgyth_(daughter_of_%C3%86lfgar,_Earl_of_Mercia). Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  17. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 1B-23, p. 7.
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#HaroldIIdied1066B.
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Nesta ferch Gruffydd: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027752&tree=LEO
  20. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WALES.htm#NestMOsbernFitzRichard

Harold II Godwinson (?) King of England1,2,3,4

M, #10055, b. between 1022 and 1025, d. 14 October 1066
FatherGodwine (?) Earl of Wessex5,6,7,8,4 b. c 990, d. 15 Apr 1053
MotherGytha Thorkelsdóttir (?) of Denmark2,9,7,8,4 b. c 1000, d. a Jun 1069
ReferenceEDV27
Last Edited29 Oct 2020
     Harold II Godwinson (?) King of England was born between 1022 and 1025.10,11,12,2,8,4 He and Adelidis/Adeliza (Alice) de Normandie were engaged between 1064 and 1065.13,4 Harold II Godwinson (?) King of England married Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England, daughter of Aelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia and Aelfgifu (?), circa March 1066 at York, Yorkshire, England;
Her 2nd husband.14,15,2,16,17,8,18,19
Harold II Godwinson (?) King of England died on 14 October 1066 at Battle of Hastings, Hastings, co. Sussex, England.11,1,2,10,8,4
Harold II Godwinson (?) King of England was buried after 14 October 1066 at Waltham Abbey, Waltham Abbey, Epping Forest District, co. Essex, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     1020
     DEATH     14 Oct 1066 (aged 45–46), Battle, Rother District, East Sussex, England
     Saxon Monarch. The last Saxon King of England, he reigned from January to October 1066. Harold was defeated by Wiliam the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066. During the battle, Harold was killed when an arrow was fired into his eye.
     BURIAL     Waltham Abbey, Waltham Abbey, Epping Forest District, Essex, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Added: 6 Jan 1999
     Find a Grave Memorial 4315.2,20
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "ADELISA de Normandie ([1055]-7 Dec, 1066 or after). Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Guillaume betrothed “Heraldum” to “Adelizam filiam suam” after rescuing Harold from “Widonis Abbatisvillæ comitis” and bringing him back to Normandy[53]. Orderic Vitalis names “Adelizam et Constantiam, Ceciliam et Adalam” as the daughters of “Willermus Normanniæ dux” and his wife “Mathildem Balduini ducis Flandrensium filiam, neptem...ex sorore Henrici regis Francorum”[54]. In another passage, the same source names the daughters “Agatham et Constantiam, Adelizam, Adelam et Ceciliam”[55], and in a third place “Agathen ac Adelizam, Constantiam, Adalam et Ceciliam”[56]. Orderic Vitalis records the betrothal of Adelaide and Harold, listing her after Agatha and before Constance in his description of the careers of the daughters of King William[57] (although in another passage he names Agatha as the daughter who was betrothed to Harold[58]). The sources are contradictory regarding the name of the daughter who was betrothed to Harold, as well as the timing of her death. The only near certainty is that it would presumably have been the oldest available daughter who was betrothed to Harold. Matthew Paris does not name her but lists her fourth among the daughters of King William, while distinguishing her from the fifth daughter betrothed to "Aldefonso Galiciæ regi"[59]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that the (unnamed in this passage) daughter who was betrothed to Harold was the third daughter and that she died a virgin although she was of an age to marry[60]. Orderic Vitalis says that Adelaide "a most fair maiden vowed herself to God when she reached marriageable age and made a pious end under the protection of Roger of Beaumont"[61]. The daughter betrothed to Harold was alive in early 1066, according to Eadmer of Canterbury[62] who says that Duke Guillaume requested King Harold, soon after his accession, to keep his promise to marry his daughter. This is contradicted by William of Malmesbury[63], who says that her death before that of Edward "the Confessor" was taken by King Harold II as marking absolution from his oath to Duke Guillaume. She died as a nun at Préaux[64]. A manuscript of la Trinité de Caen names "Mathildem Anglorum reginam, nostri cœnobii fondatricem, Adilidem, Mathildem, Constantiam, filias eius" heading the list of the names of nuns at the abbey[65], which, if the order of names is significant, indicates that Adelaide was older than her two named sisters. The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "VII Id Dec" of "Adeliza filia regis Anglorum", stating that her father made a donation for her soul[66]. The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death of "Adelina filia regis Anglorum", undated but listed among deaths at the end of the calendar year[67].
     "Betrothed ([1064/65]) to HAROLD Earl of Wessex, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]), who succeeded in 1066 as HAROLD II King of England."
Med Lands cites:
[53] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXXI, p. 285.
[54] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, VI, p. 92.
[55] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, V, p. 189.
[56] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VII, II, p. 159.
[57] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115.
[58] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, XI, p. 391.
[59] Matthew Paris, Vol. II, 1086, p. 21.
[60] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VIII, XXXIV, p. 310.
[61] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115.
[62] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, cited in Houts (2000), p. 149.
[63] William of Malmesbury, 238, p. 227.
[64] According to Houts (2000), p. 295, Table 4, which identifies her with William's daughter Agatha who was betrothed to Alfonso VI King of Castile.
[65] Delisle (1866), pp. 181-2.
[66] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 25.
[67] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 241.13

; Per Med Lands:
     "EALDGYTH. Florence of Worcester´s genealogies name "regina Aldgitha, comitis Ælfgari filia" as mother of King Harold´s son "Haroldum"[371]. Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[372]. In a later passage, the same source names her “Aldit”[373]. Her parentage and marriage to King Harold are confirmed by Florence of Worcester who records that "earls Edwin and Morcar…sent off their sister Queen Elgitha to Chester" after the battle of Hastings[374]. There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth´s second marriage. Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold´s accession and coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[375]. If Harold's son Ulf was legitimate, the marriage would have taken place in the earlier part of the date range which is shown above.
     "m firstly as his second wife, GRUFFYDD ap Llywellyn Prince of Gwynedd and Powys, son of LLYWELLYN ap Seisyll King of Gwynedd & his wife Angharad of Gwynedd (-killed Snowdonia 5 Aug 1063).
     "m secondly ([1064/early 1066]) HAROLD Earl of Wessex, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]). He succeeded in 1066 as HAROLD II King of England."
Med Lands cites:
[371] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 276.
[372] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[373] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.
[374] Florence of Worcester, p. 170.
[375] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.18

; Per Weis: “Edith (or Aldgyth), seen at "Doomsday" 1086, death date unknown; m. (1) abt. 1057, Gruffyd I Ap Llywelyn (176-2), slain 5 Aug. 1063; m. (2) prob. 1064 Harold II (1B-23). By Gruffyd she had a daul. Nesta (176-3, 177-2). By Harold she had a son Harold, seen at Domesday 1086, later life unknown, and possibly King Harold's son Ulf. (NGSQ, vol. 50, pp. 74-78 and cited references; ES II/78)."21

; Per Genealogics:
     “Harold II was born about 1022/1025, the second son of Earl Godwin of Wessex. By 1045 he was earl of East Anglia. In 1053 he succeeded to his father's earldom of Wessex. He became the right-hand man of King Edward 'the Confessor' and directed the affairs of the kingdom with unusual gentleness and vigour.
     “His brother Tostig became earl of the Northumbrians in 1055, and two years later two other brothers were raised to earldoms. At this time, Harold drove back the Welsh marauders and added Herefordshire to his earldom. The death in 1057 of Edward 'the Atheling', son of Edmund Ironside, opened up Harold's ambitions for the crown.
     “He made a pilgrimage to Rome in 1058, and after his return he completed his church at Waltham. In 1063, provoked by the fresh incursions of the Welsh King Griffith, he marched against him, traversed the country, beat the Welsh, and gave the government to the dead king's brothers.
     “It is impossible to state exactly the date of Harold's visit to Duke William in Normandy, although it is put at 1064. Probably Harold did make some kind of oath to William, most likely under compulsion. It is certain, however, that Harold helped William in a war against the Bretons.
     “On his return he married Ealdgyth, Griffith's widow, even though Edith Swan-neck, who had borne him five children, was still alive. In 1065 the Northumbrians rebelled against Tostig, and Harold acquiesced in their choice of Morcar and in Tostig's banishment. In January 1066 King Edward died. Harold, his nominee, was chosen king and crowned in Westminster Abbey.
     “Duke William lost no time in preparing for the invasion of England. At the same time Tostig, having tried to win the Normans and the Scots as allies, succeeded with Harold Hardrada, king of Norway. In September the two reached the Humber and Harold marched against them. At Stamford Bridge he won a complete victory on 25 September 1066, Tostig and Harald Hardrada being among the slain. Four days later William landed at Pevensey. Harold force-marched his men south and the two armies met at Senlac, about nine miles from Hastings. From nine in the morning, 14 November 1066, the English fought stubbornly until nightfall, when the pretended flight of the Normans drew them from their impregnable position and led to the Norman victory. Harold himself fell, pierced through the eye by an arrow. His body was recognised by Edith Swan-neck and he was buried at Waltham.”.8

Reference: Genealogics cites: The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales Edinburgh, 1977., Gerald Paget, Reference: I 8.8

; This is the same person as ”Harold II [Harold Godwineson]” at the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.22 EDV-27.

; Per Genealogy.EU (Wessex): “B1. Harold II, Earl of East Anglia (ca 1045-66), Wessex, Kent and Hereford, King of England (1066) -cr St.Paul's Catehdral 6.1.1066, *ca 1022, +k.a.Hastings, Sussex 14.10.1066, bur Waltham Abbey, Essex; m.York ca III.1066 Edith (*ca 1042, +in exile after 1070), dau.of Alfgar, Earl of Mercia”.2

; Per Weis: “Harold II "Godwinson," b. abt. 1022, slain in Battle of Hastings 14 Oct. 1066, Ealdorman of East Anglia, succ. father 1053 Ealdorman of Wessex, King of England 1066 )succeeded Edward the Confessor); m., as 2nd husb., Edith (176A-4), wid. of Grufydd I Ap Llywelyn (176-2), Prince of North Wales. By Ealdgith (Edith) "Swansneck", his "handfast wife" (non-Christian mar.), before he m. Edith of Mercia, he had with others ... Gytha of Wessex" (1B-24.)10

; Per Med Lands:
     "HAROLD, son of GODWIN Earl of Wessex & his wife Gytha of Denmark ([1022/25]-killed in battle Hastings 14 Oct 1066, bur [Waltham Abbey]). His parentage is confirmed in several places in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[2046]. He was created Earl of the East Angles, Essex, Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire in 1044 by King Edward "the Confessor". King Edward granted him part of the earldom of his brother Svein, after the latter was outlawed following his seduction of the Abbess of Leominster. After joining his father's threatened armed rebellion against the king in 1051, he fled to Ireland with his brother Leofwine[2047]. He returned from Ireland the following year and joined forces with his father[2048]. Harold was appointed to succeed his father as Earl of Wessex in 1053, his own earldom of the East Angles passing to Ælfgar son of Leofric Earl of Mercia[2049]. He led the counter-offensive against Gruffydd ap Llywellyn Prince of Wales in 1063, in reprisal for Welsh raids[2050]. On a mission to France in [1064], he was captured by Guy [de Ponthieu] Comte d'Abbeville and imprisoned at Beaurain. Guillaume II Duke of Normandy, Guy's suzerain, secured Harold's release, possibly in return for the latter's acknowledgement of Duke Guillaume as successor to the English throne, the event being recorded in the Bayeux tapestry. Guillaume of Jumièges records that “Edwardus Anglorum rex” had already sent “Rodbertum Cantuariorum archipræsulem” to Normandy to recognise Duke Guillaume as his heir, and that the king sent “Heraldum” as his representative to finalise the affair, that Harold landed at Ponthieu and was captured by “Widonis Abbatisvillæ comitis”, from whom Duke Guillaume rescued him and brought him back to Normandy where he swore allegiance to the duke, who retained “adolescentem Vulnotem fratrem eius” as hostage[2051]. According to Eadmer[2052], the reason for Harold's visit to Normandy was to negotiate the release of his brother Wulfnoth and nephew Haakon, both of whom had been held hostage there since 1051. In spite of earlier promises to Duke Guillaume, on his deathbed King Edward "the Confessor" bequeathed the kingdom to Harold. The choice was unopposed at court and Harold succeeded as HAROLD II King of England, crowned 6 Jan 1066. It is unclear whether there was a meeting, formal or informal, of a council to consider the matter, or whether members of such council took part in some form of election as it might be recognised today. There would probably have been little need for formality as the succession was presumably a foregone conclusion. Duke Guillaume branded Harold a perjurer and appealed to Pope Alexander II for support. After receiving a papal banner in response to this request, the duke gathered a sizable army during Summer 1066 ready for invasion. In response to the invasion by his brother Tostig and Harald III "Hardråde" King of Norway (who also claimed the throne of England), King Harold marched northwards and defeated the invaders at Stamford Bridge 25 Sep 1066. Harold returned south, but meanwhile Duke William's army had set sail from Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme 28 Sep. King Harold hastily reassembled his army to meet this second invasion at Hastings 14 Oct 1066, where he was killed. The Chronique de Normandie, based on le Roman de Rou, records that King Harold II was killed at Hastings by "un chevalier…Robert fils Herveis"[2053]. According to the Waltham Chronicle written some time after 1177, King Harold's body was identified on the battlefield by his mistress Eadgyth Swanneshals and taken to Waltham for burial[2054]. William of Malmesbury also says that King Harold was buried at Waltham, though by his mother[2055].
     "Betrothed ([1064]) to ADELISA de Normandie, daughter of GUILLAUME II Duke of Normandy & his wife Mathilde de Flandre ([1055]-7 Dec, 1066 or after). Guillaume of Jumièges records that Duke Guillaume betrothed “Heraldum” to “Adelizam filiam suam” after rescuing Harold from “Widonis Abbatisvillæ comitis” and bringing him back to Normandy[2056]. Orderic Vitalis records the betrothal of Adelaide and Harold, listing her after Agatha and before Constance in his description of the careers of the daughters of King William[2057] (although in another passage he names Agatha as the daughter who was betrothed to Harold[2058]). The sources are contradictory concerning the name of the daughter betrothed to Harold, as well as the timing of her death. The only near certainty is that it would presumably have been the oldest available daughter who was betrothed to Harold. Matthew of Paris does not name her but lists her fourth among the daughters of King William, while distinguishing her from the fifth daughter betrothed to "Aldefonso Galiciæ regi"[2059]. Guillaume de Jumièges records that the (unamed, but named Adelisa in an earlier passage) daughter who was betrothed to Harold was the duke’s third daughter and that she died a virgin although she was of an age to marry[2060]. Orderic Vitalis says that Adelaide "a most fair maiden vowed herself to God when she reached marriageable age and made a pious end under the protection of Roger of Beaumont"[2061]. The daughter betrothed to Harold was alive in early 1066, according to Eadmer of Canterbury[2062] who says that Duke Guillaume requested King Harold, soon after his accession, to keep his promise to marry his daughter. This is contradicted by William of Malmesbury[2063], who says that her death before that of Edward "the Confessor" was taken by King Harold II as marking absolution from his oath to Duke Guillaume. She died as a nun at Préaux[2064]. The necrology of Chartres cathedral records the death "VII Id Dec" of "Adeliza filia regis Anglorum", stating that her father made a donation for her soul[2065]. The necrology of Saint-Nicaise de Meulan records the death of "Adelina filia regis Anglorum", undated but listed among deaths at the end of the calendar year[2066].
     "m ([1064/early 1066]) as her second husband, EALDGYTH of Mercia, widow of GRUFFYDD ap Llywellyn Prince of Gwynedd and Powys, daughter of ÆLFGAR Earl of Mercia & his first wife Ælfgifu. Florence of Worcester’s genealogies name "regina Aldgitha, comitis Ælfgari filia" as mother of King Harold’s son "Haroldum"[2067]. Orderic Vitalis records that "Edwinus…et Morcarus comites, filii Algari…Edgivam sororem eorum" married firstly "Gritfridi…regis Guallorum" and secondly "Heraldo"[2068]. In a later passage, the same source names her “Aldit”[2069]. Her parentage and marriage with King Harold are confirmed by Florence of Worcester who records that "earls Edwin and Morcar…sent off their sister Queen Elgitha to Chester" after the battle of Hastings[2070]. There is no source which pinpoints the date of Ealdgyth’s second marriage. Freeman suggests that the absence of any reference to his queen in the sources which record the circumstances of Harold’s accession and coronation may indicate that his marriage took place afterwards[2071]. If Harold's son Ulf was legitimate (see below), the marriage would have taken place in the earlier part of the date range which is shown above.
     "Mistress (1): EADGYTH "Swanneshals [Swan-neck]", [daughter of --- & his wife Wulfgyth] (-after 1066). A mid-12th century manuscript concerning the foundation of Waltham abbey names "Editham cognomento Swanneshals" as "cubicularia" of King Harold when recording that she recovered the king’s body for burial after the battle of Hastings[2072]. The later Vita Haroldi records that "a certain woman of a shrewd intelligence, Edith by name" recovered the king’s body from the battlefield, chosen to do so "because she loved him exceedingly…[and] had been frequently present in the secret places of his chamber"[2073]. The only source so far identified which refers to an earlier document which names Eadgyth is the history of the abbey of St Benet, Holme, written by John of Oxnead in 1292, which records donations to the abbey, confirmed by King Edward in 1046, including the donation by "Edgyue Swanneshals" of "Thurgertone" (Thurgarton, Norfolk)[2074]. The fact of this donation is confirmed by the corresponding charter of King Edward, reproduced in Dugdale’s Monasticon[2075], which refers to the donation of "ecclesiam de Thurgartun cum tota villa" but omits the name of the donor. Barlow suggests that Eadgyth may have been "Ealdgyth" who is named in the will of her mother "Wulfgyth", dated to [1042/53], who bequeathed land "at Stisted, Essex to her sons Ælfketel and Ketel…at Saxlingham, Norfolk and Somerton, Suffolk to her daughters Gode and Bote, at Chadacre, Suffolk and Ashford to her daughter Ealdgyth, and at Fritton to Earl Godwin and Earl Harold"[2076]. The connection between Wulfgyth’s family and St Benet’s, Hulme is confirmed by the testament of "Ketel" (named in his mother’s will quoted above), dated to [1052/66], which includes bequests of land to the abbey[2077]. However, Ketel’s testament names his two sisters Gode and Bote, who are also named in their mother’s will, but does not name "Ealdgyth", suggesting that the latter may have predeceased her brother. None of the sources so far identified suggests, even indirectly, that Eadgyth "Swanneshals" was the mother of the seven illegitimate children of King Harold who are shown below, but this has been assumed to be the case in secondary sources.
     "[Mistress (2): --- (-after 1086). Domesday Book records "quædam concubina Heraldi" as holding three houses in Canterbury[2078]. It is not known whether this unnamed person was the same as Eadgyth "Swanneshals".] "
Med Lands cites:
[2041] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1040.
[2042] Desjardins, G. (ed.) (1879) Cartulaire de l'abbaye de Conques en Rouergue (Paris) ("Conques") 15, p. 19.
[2043] Conques, 15, p. 19.
[2044] Conques, 14, p. 17.
[2045] Weir (2002), p. 32.
[2046] For example, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1049 and 1051.
[2047] Florence of Worcester, 1051, p. 152.
[2048] Florence of Worcester, 1052, p. 153.
[2049] Florence of Worcester, 1053, p. 155.
[2050] Barlow (2002), p. 68.
[2051] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXXI, p. 285.
[2052] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, Houts (2000), p. 147.
[2053] Extrait de la Chronique de Normandie, RHGF XIII, p. 236.
[2054] Watkiss, L. and Chibnall, M. (eds. and trans.) (1994) The Waltham Chronicle, pp 46-56.
[2055] Malmesbury, 247, p. 235.
[2056] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber VII, XXXI, p. 285.
[2057] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115.
[2058] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber V, XI, p. 391.
[2059] MP, Vol. II, 1086, p. 21.
[2060] WJ VIII.34, p. 295.
[2061] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. III, Book V, p. 115.
[2062] Eadmer of Canterbury History of Recent Events in England, cited in Houts, p. 149.
[2063] Malmesbury, 238, p. 227.
[2064] Houts (2000), p. 295, Table 4, which also identifies Adelisa with William's daughter Agatha who was betrothed to Alfonso VI King of Castile.
[2065] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Eglise cathédrale de Chartres, Nécrologe du xi siècle, p. 25.
[2066] Obituaires de Sens Tome II, Prieuré de Saint-Nicaise de Meulan, p. 241.
[2067] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 276.
[2068] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber III, p. 119.
[2069] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.
[2070] Florence of Worcester, p. 170.
[2071] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England, its causes and its results 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, Appendix, Note K, p. 638.
[2072] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1861) The Foundation of Waltham Abbey, the Tract "De inventione Sanctæ Crucis nostræ in Monte Acuto et de ductione eiusdem apud Waltham" (Oxford), 21, p. 30.
[2073] Birch, W. de G. (ed.) (1885) Vita Haroldi: the Romance of the life of Harold King of England (London), pp. 187-8.
[2074] Ellis, Sir H. (ed.) (1859) Chronica Johannis de Oxenedes (London), Appendix, I, p. 292.
[2075] Dugdale Monasticon III, Abbey of St Bennet of Hulme, Norfolk, III, p. 83.
[2076] Barlow (2002), p. 56, and S 1535.
[2077] S 1519.
[2078] Freeman, E. A. (1875) The History of the Norman Conquest of England 2nd Edn. (Oxford), Vol. III, p. 791.4
He and Eadgyth Swanneshals "Swan-neck" (?) were associated;
Poss. his 1st wife. His "mistress" per Med Lands, 'children by" per Genealogics", "his 'handfast wife' (non-Christian mar.)" per Weis.8,4,12,10,23 Harold II Godwinson (?) King of England was Earl of East Anglia between 1045 and 1066.2

; Per Enc. of World History: On Edward's death Harold was chosen king by the witan and was guarding the coasts of England against William when Tostig and Haardraade appeared in the north. After a brilliant dash northward, Harold defeated them at Stamford Bridge in September, at the very moment that the Norman invaders arrived in the Channel. Rushing southward after his victory, Harold confronted the Normans, who had already landed, with a reduced, wearied, and shaken force, and was beaten and killed in the Battle of Hastings, or Senlac (Oct. 14).“.24 He was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 494-497] HAROLD II King of the English 5 January-14 October 1066. Crowned: 6 January 1066 at Westminster Abbey. Born: c1022. Died (in battle): 14 October 1066, aged 44. Buried: Battle, Sussex; remains later removed to Waltham Abbey, Essex. Married: (1) c1045, Edith Swanneshals (Swan-neck): 6 children; (2) c1066, Edith (Eadgyth) (b. c1042), dau. Alfgar, earl of Mercia, and widow of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn of Wales: 1 child. Harold is romantically portrayed as "the last of the Saxons" in the novel of that title by Lord Lytton. In some ways his heroic death at the battle of Hastings was a last ditch stand defending the old order against tyrannical oppression. On the other hand Harold was not the lily-white champion of virtue; he was a violent man with a vicious temper. He was the son of Godwin, earl of Wessex, and inherited his father's title in 1053, having previously been earl of East Anglia. He was exiled from England along with his father and brothers in 1051 when EDWARD THE CONFESSOR quarrelled with Godwin and used that as an opportunity to rid himself of someone who was becoming too powerful. Godwin and Harold nevertheless invaded England the following year. Had the family not been so popular and powerful and held in such high esteem by the English, any other king might have tried them for treason (Godwin was probably responsible for the death of Edward's elder brother Alfred, let alone this bold affront to the English crown). Edward, however, forgave Godwin (albeit unwillingly) and restored him and his sons to their earldoms. After Godwin's death, Harold, who was the eldest son, became the senior earl, and increasingly took over the administration and government of England, whilst Edward involved himself more in church affairs. By 1064 Harold was designated "Duke of the English", tantamount to heir apparent. Harold had almost certainly instigated the mysterious death of Edward the Exile, the real heir to the throne who had returned to England in 1057. Harold maintained a vicious campaign against the Welsh prince GRUFFYDD AP LLYWELLYN, whom he forced into submission first in 1057 and again in 1063, the latter campaign resulting in Gruffydd's death. Harold later married Gruffydd's widow, Edith, the daughter of the earl of Mercia, though Harold already had a wife, married according to the Danish law, also called Edith (known as Swan-neck), whom he truly loved and who bore him six children.
Sometime in 1065 Harold was at sea in the English channel when his ship was blown off course and he was driven on to the coast of Normandy. This has always been a curious episode, never fully explained. Harold purportedly agreed that Duke WILLIAM would be Edward's successor and paid homage to William. Knowing Harold's character this was unlikely, and could easily have been invented by William later, when no-one could disprove it. Whatever the circumstance, by the end of 1065 William, who had previously been made heir by Edward the Confessor, though again somewhat secretly, firmly believed he would be the next king of England. In November 1065 Tostig, Harold's brother and earl of Northumbria, was ejected from his earldom because of his callous misuse of authority. Harold attempted to mediate, but Tostig was forced to flee the country. During the winter he planned his invasion of England. On the night of January 4/5, 1066, King Edward died and Harold was proclaimed and crowned king. WILLIAM of Normandy regarded this as treachery and he too prepared to invade. The first to attempt it was Tostig with a fleet from Normandy. In May 1066 he harried the southern coast of England and round as far as Lindsey in the east, where he was defeated and fled to Scotland. He appealed to his cousin Swein in Denmark who was prepared to offer him an earldom, but not support for an invasion, so Tostig made his way to the court of Harald Haadraada, the king of Norway, and the most fearsome Viking of them all. Harald was initially unsure, knowing the strong defences of England, but Tostig convinced him and through the summer the Norwegians prepared their fleet whilst William of Normandy prepared his. Harold used the period to strengthen England's coastal defences. In September Harald Haadraada sailed with a mighty fleet of some two hundred warships, stopping first at Orkney where he gathered more supplies and men. He sailed with the earls PAUL and ERLEND down the coast to the mouth of the Tyne where Tostig waited with a further force of men from Scotland and Man. This massive force continued down the coast of Northumbria, pillaging and destroying as it went. It was met at Fulford on 20 September by an English army under earls Morcar and Edwin which was defeated. York agreed to surrender and the invaders withdrew to Stamford Bridge to await negotiators. There, on 25 September, they were surprised by the army of Harold Godwinsson which had undertaken a forced march north. The battle that followed was a total victory for Harold. Both the Norwegian king and Tostig were killed. But Harold had no time to relish his success. Two days later the wind that had stopped William sailing changed and his invasion began. Harold was forced to march south again at full speed, and the two armies met at Senlac Hill, north of Hastings on 14 October. With hindsight Harold should have waited. To engage two major invasion forces at either end of the kingdom within one month required superhuman ability. The astonishing thing is that Harold almost won. The Normans' technical sophistication was of limited use against the Saxon shield-wall with which they protected the position. A retreat by the Breton forces encouraged a pursuit that exposed the English to a cavalry counter-attack, but the battle was decided by hard, attritional fighting. As dusk came on the lofted arrows were eroding the ranks of the Saxon axemen. Harold was not killed by an arrow in his eye, but he and his brothers died defending each other to the last.
Had Harold been the victor, it is a fascinating exercise in alternative reality to consider what might have become of England. Two such great victories would have made Harold secure in his kingdom, seemingly invincible. He was not young, but there is no reason why he could not have reigned another twenty years or so. In that time, unless he changed his ways, the real Harold would have been revealed - the sly and devious son of Godwin. The Saxons might have continued to rule for another century. But such was not to be. All but one of Harold's sons lived into the 1080s and beyond, though we lose track of them before their deaths. Although the English initially rallied around the young atheling, EDGAR, they soon capitulated to Duke William who ever after was known as William the Conqueror. between 5 January 1066 and 14 October 1066.12

Family 1

Eadgyth Swanneshals "Swan-neck" (?) b. c 1025
Children

Family 2

Adelidis/Adeliza (Alice) de Normandie b. 1055, d. c 1066

Family 3

Eadgyth (Edith) (?) of Mercia, Queen of England b. c 1040, d. a 1086
Child

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Wessex page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/wessex.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Harold II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027740&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#HaroldIIdied1066B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Wessex page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/wessex.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Godwin: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080021&tree=LEO
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#Godwindied1053B.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Harold II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027740&tree=LEO
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gytha: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00080022&tree=LEO
  10. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 1B-23, p. 7. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  11. [S742] Ed. Antonia Fraser, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England (revised and updated) (n.p.: University of California Press, Berkely, 1998, unknown publish date), p. 19.
  12. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 464-497. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20Kings%201066-1603.htm#Adelisadied1066.
  14. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-3.
  15. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 152, MERCIA 3:i. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  16. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  17. [S2084] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007: "Lady Godiva"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2007. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007."
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#EaldgythMerciaMHaroldII.
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth (Edith) of Mercia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027598&tree=LEO
  20. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 30 September 2020), memorial page for Harold Godwinson II (1020–14 Oct 1066), Find a Grave Memorial no. 4315, citing Waltham Abbey, Waltham Abbey, Epping Forest District, Essex, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/4315/harold-godwinson. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  21. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 176A-4, p. 166.
  22. [S2286] Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online http://oxforddnb.com/index/, Harold II [Harold Godwineson]: https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/12360. Hereinafter cited as ODNB - Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgyth Swannesha: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027741&tree=LEO
  24. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), pp. 181-2. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  25. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 498 (Chart 34).
  26. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Wessex page - The House of Wessex: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/wessex.html
  27. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gytha of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027739&tree=LEO
  28. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#GythaMVladimirKiev.
  29. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gunnhild of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027743&tree=LEO
  30. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Gunhilddiedafter1093.

Aelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia1

M, #10056, b. circa 1012, d. between 1059 and 1062
FatherLeofric (?) Ealdorman of Mercia2,3 d. 31 Aug 1057
MotherLady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?)2 b. c 1010, d. 1080
ReferenceGAV27 EDV27
Last Edited1 Oct 2020
     Aelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia married Aelfgifu (?), daughter of Sigeferth (?) thane of East Anglia and Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England; Dunnett says Aelfgar's wife and mother of his 4 children was Aelflaed, dau. of Eldred, Earl of Northumbria.4,1,5,2 Aelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia was born circa 1012.5
Aelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia died between 1059 and 1062.4,1,2
     GAV-27 EDV-27 GKJ-27. Aelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia was also known as Alfgar (?) Earl of Mercia.6

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 152, MERCIA 3. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S2084] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007: "Lady Godiva"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2007. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007."
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#Leofricdied1057B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-2.
  5. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  6. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 331, 351-352. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Wessex page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/wessex.html
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#EaldgythMerciaMHaroldII.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth (Edith) of Mercia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027598&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Aelfgifu (?)1

F, #10057
FatherSigeferth (?) thane of East Anglia2 d. 1015
MotherEaldgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England3 d. a 1017
ReferenceGAV27 EDV27
Last Edited1 Oct 2020
     Aelfgifu (?) married Aelfgar (?) Earl of East Anglia, Earl of Mercia, son of Leofric (?) Ealdorman of Mercia and Lady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?); Dunnett says Aelfgar's wife and mother of his 4 children was Aelflaed, dau. of Eldred, Earl of Northumbria.4,1,5,6
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. The Plantagenet Ancestry Baltimore, 1975. , Lt.Col. W. H. Turton, Reference: 130
2. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle London, 1997. , Michael Swanton, editor, Reference: trees.7

; NB: There is disagreement concerning Aelfgifu/Elfgifu, who m. Aelfgar.
     Genealogics shows Aelfgifu/Elfgifu as the dau. of Sigeferth and Ealdgyth. Genealogics cites:
1. The Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, 1975 , Turton, Lt.Col. W. H.
130.
2. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, London, 1997 , Swanton, Michael, editor. trees.

     Med Lands shows her to be the dau. of Sigeferth's brother, Morcar, by a wife named Ealdgyth , dau. of Aelfthryth. Med Lands states:
     "MORCAR (-murdered Oxford summer 1015, bur Burton). King Æthelred II granted land in Derbyshire to "Morcar minister" under a charter dated 1009[217]. With his brother, he was one of the leading thegns of the northern Danelaw. Simeon of Durham records that "Sigeferth and Morkar the sons of Earngrim" were killed in 1015 on the orders of "duke Edric Streona" and that the king took possession of their estates[218]. The Historia Fundatoris of Burton Monastery records its foundation by “Consul ac comes Merciorum dominus Wulfricus Spott regali propinquus prosapiæ” in 1004, adding that "…comite Morkero cæterisque cognatis eius" were buried there[219]. m (before [1002/04]) EALDGYTH, daughter of ÆLFTHRYTH & his wife ---. Her marriage is confirmed by the will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], which bequeathes property (among other bequests) to "…minre goddehter Morkares & Aldgythe…land æt Strættune"[220]. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified. Morcar & his wife had [two] children:
i) daughter . The will of "Wulfric", dated to [1002/04], bequeathes property (among other bequests) to "…minre goddehter Morkares & Aldgythe…land æt Strættune"[221]. It is possible that this daughter was the same person as Morcar´s daughter Ælfgifu who is named below.
ii) ÆLFGIFU. The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. m as his first wife, ÆLFGAR Earl of Mercia, son of LEOFRIC Earl of Mercia & his wife Godgifu --- (-1062)."

Med Lands cites:
[217] S 922.
[218] Simeon of Durham, p. 520.
[219] Dugdale Monasticon III, Burton Monastery XXII, Historia Fundatoris et Abbatum, p. 47.
[220] S 1536.
[221] S 1536.

Conclusion: For the moment, I have chosen to follow the lineage in Genealogics, whil I examine the issue. GA Vaut.8,9,10 Aelfgifu (?) was also known as Elfgifu (?)3,6 GAV-27 EDV-27 GKJ-27.

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 152, MERCIA 3. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sigeferth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020118&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgigu: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027597&tree=LEO
  4. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-2.
  5. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  6. [S2084] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007: "Lady Godiva"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2007. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007."
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgifu: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027597&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgifu:.
  9. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#SigeferthNorthumbriadied1015. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  10. [S1549] "Author's comment", various, Gregory A. Vaut (e-mail address), to unknown recipient (unknown recipient address), 10 July 2020; unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as "GA Vaut Comment."
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#EaldgythMerciaMHaroldII.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth (Edith) of Mercia: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027598&tree=LEO

Leofric (?) Ealdorman of Mercia1,2

M, #10058, d. 31 August 1057
FatherLeofwine (?) Earl of Mercia3,4 d. b 1032
MotherAlwara (?)5
ReferenceGAV28 EDV28
Last Edited13 Dec 2020
     Leofric (?) Ealdorman of Mercia married Lady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?), daughter of unknown (?), before 1030.6,1,2,7,8
Leofric (?) Ealdorman of Mercia died on 31 August 1057 at Bromley, Staffordshire, England; Med lands says d. 30 Oct. 1057.9,6,1,8
     GAV-28 EDV-28.

; Per Med Lands:
     "LEOFRIC, son of LEOFWINE Ealdorman [of the Hwicce] in Mercia & his wife --- (-Bromley 30 Oct 1057, bur Coventry[326]). The Genealogia Fundatoris of Coventry Monastery names “Leofricum postea comitem, et Edwinum occisum per Walenses, et Normannum occisum cum Edrico duce Merciorum per Cnutonem regem” as sons of “Leofwinus comes Leicestriæ”[327]. Simeon of Durham records that King Canute appointed "Leofric" as Ealdorman [Earl] of Mercia after his brother Northman was killed in 1017[328], although this was apparently during the lifetime of their father. He and his wife founded the abbey of Coventry in 1043[329]. “Leofricus comes” founded the monastery of Coventry by undated charter[330]. ”Leofricus comes…et conjux mea Godgyve” donated property to Evesham Monastery by undated charter which names “frater meus Normannus”[331].
     "m GODGIFU, sister of THOROLD de Bukenhale, Sheriff of Lincolnshire, daughter of --- (-after [1054/57]). She is named as wife of Earl Leofric by Florence of Worcester, who specifies that she and her husband founded monasteries at Leominster, Wenlock, Chester and Stowe[332]. The Annals of Peterborough record that “Thoroldus vicecomes et frater germanus Godivæ comitissæ Leycestriæ” founded Spalding Monastery in 1052[333]. Her family origin is also indicated by the undated charter under which “Thoroldus de Bukenhale…vicecomiti” donated Spalding monastery to Croyland abbey which names “domino meo Leofrico comite Leicestriæ et…comitissa sua domina Godiva sorore mea…et cognati mei comitis Algari primogeniti et hæredis eorum”[334]. The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis names "Aediva trinepta Oslaci ducis" as wife of "Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre", when recording that they were parents of "Herwardus"[335]. "Oslaci ducis" could be "Oslac" recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as "earl [of Northumbria]" in 966[336], but any precise relationship has not been identified. ”Leofricus comes…et conjux mea Godgyve” donated property to Evesham Monastery by undated charter which names “frater meus Normannus”[337]. Godgifu wife of Leofric granted property to St Mary's, Stow by charter dated [1054/57][338]. Orderic Vitalis records that “Elfgarus comes” had founded “Coventrense cœnobium” and that “Godiova...comitissa” donated “omnem thesaurum suum” to the church[339]. She was the Lady Godiva of legend."
Med Lands cites:
[326] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159.
[327] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery III, Genealogia Fundatoris, p. 192.
[328] Simeon of Durham, p. 527.
[329] Chibnall, M. (ed. and trans.) The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, (Oxford Medieval Texts, 1969-80), Vol. II, p. 216 footnote 1.
[330] Dugdale Monasticon III, Coventry Monastery II, p. 190.
[331] Dugdale Monasticon II, Evesham Monastery, Worcestershire VIII, p. 18.
[332] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159.
[333] Dugdale Monasticon III, Spalding Monastery, Lincolnshire, I, p. 215.
[334] Dugdale Monasticon II, Croyland Monastery, Lincolnshire LXXVII, p. 119.
[335] De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis 2, p. App. 48.
[336] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 966.
[337] Dugdale Monasticon II, Evesham Monastery, Worcestershire VIII, p. 18.
[338] S 1233.
[339] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.8


Reference: (an unknown value.)9,8

Family

Lady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?) b. c 1010, d. 1080
Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 152, MERCIA 2. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S2084] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007: "Lady Godiva"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2007. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007."
  3. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 176A-1, p. 165.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#Leofwinedied1023B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alwara: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027592&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-1.
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/enguntlo.htm#GodgifuMLeofricMercia
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#Leofricdied1057B.
  9. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 176A-2, p. 151. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.

Lady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?)1

F, #10059, b. circa 1010, d. 1080
Fatherunknown (?)
ReferenceGAV28 EDV28
Last Edited9 Mar 2020
     Lady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?) was born circa 1010.1 She married Leofric (?) Ealdorman of Mercia, son of Leofwine (?) Earl of Mercia and Alwara (?), before 1030.2,1,3,4,5
Lady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?) died in 1080; van de Pas said d. 1080; Med Lands says d. aft 1054/57.3,4
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "GODGIFU (-after [1054/57]). She is named as wife of Earl Leofric by Florence of Worcester, who specifies that she and her husband founded monasteries at Leominster, Wenlock, Chester and Stowe[846]. The Annals of Peterborough record that “Thoroldus vicecomes et frater germanus Godivæ comitissæ Leycestriæ” founded Spalding Monastery in 1052[847]. Her family origin is also indicated by the undated charter under which “Thoroldus de Bukenhale…vicecomiti” donated Spalding monastery to Croyland abbey which names “domino meo Leofrico comite Leicestriæ et…comitissa sua domina Godiva sorore mea…et cognati mei comitis Algari primogeniti et hæredis eorum”[848]. The De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis names "Aediva trinepta Oslaci ducis" as wife of "Lefricus de Brunne, nepos comitis Radulfi cognominati Scalre", when recording that they were parents of "Herwardus"[849]. "Oslaci ducis" could be "Oslac" recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as "earl [of Northumbria]" in 966[850], but any precise relationship has not been identified. ”Leofricus comes…et conjux mea Godgyve” donated property to Evesham Monastery by undated charter which names “frater meus Normannus”[851]. Godgifu wife of Leofric granted property to St Mary's, Stow by charter dated [1054/57][852]. Orderic Vitalis records that “Elfgarus comes” had founded “Coventrense cœnobium” and that “Godiova...comitissa” donated “omnem thesaurum suum” to the church[853]. She was the Lady Godiva of legend.
     "m LEOFRIC Earl of Mercia, son of LEOFWINE Ealdorman of the Hwicce in Mercia (-Bromley 30 Oct 1057, bur Coventry)."
Med Lands cites:
[846] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159.
[847] Dugdale Monasticon III, Spalding Monastery, Lincolnshire, I, p. 215.
[848] Dugdale Monasticon II, Croyland Monastery, Lincolnshire LXXVII, p. 119.
[849] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), Appendix 3 De Gestis Herwardi Saxonis 2, p. App. 48.
[850] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 966.
[851] Dugdale Monasticon II, Evesham Monastery, Worcestershire VIII, p. 18.
[852] S 1233.
[853] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. II, Liber IV, IV, p. 183.4
GAV-28 EDV-28.

Reference: (an unknown value.)6,4 Lady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?) was also known as Lady Godiva (Godfigu) (?) Lady Godfigu (Lady Godiva) (?) was also known as Godgifu (?) of Backnall.3

Family

Leofric (?) Ealdorman of Mercia d. 31 Aug 1057
Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 152, MERCIA 2. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 21-1.
  3. [S2084] Leo van de Pas, "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007: "Lady Godiva"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 12 Aug 2007. Hereinafter cited as "van de Pas email 12 Aug 2007."
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/enguntlo.htm#GodgifuMLeofricMercia. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#Leofricdied1057B.
  6. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents, Chart 21-1: The legend of Lady Godiva's ride is likey not to be historical but instead an outgrowth of pagan myth and ritual. In a number of different places, the goddess of fertility has been represented as a naked woman with long hair, riding in a springtime procession. It is rather likely that the monks of Coventry, unable to suppress the fertility cult, reoriented it by substituting the pious Countess Godiva for the fertility goddess, though Hafele (1929, pp. 52-3) mentions that the legend may have arisen from a misinterpretation of the statement that Lady Godiva "stripped herself" (denudata) of her worldly possessions, donating them to Coventry Abbey."

Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence1,2

F, #10060, b. circa 855, d. before 22 June 896
FatherLouis II "The Younger" (?) King of Italy, Emperor of the East Franks1,3,4,5,6,7 b. 825, d. 12 Aug 875
MotherEngelberge/Ingelberga (?) of Alsace/di Spoleto1,4,3,5,7 d. c 900
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited14 Dec 2020
     Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence was born circa 855; Genealogy.EU (Carolin 1 page) says b. ca 852/855; Genealogics says b. ca 853; Med Lands says v. 852/55.8,1,3,5 She and Constantine (?) of Byzantium were engaged in 869; Med Lands says "Betrothed 869, contract broken autumn 869."5,9 Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence married Boson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine, son of Buvinus (?) comte de Metz, abbe laique de Gorze and Richilde (?) d'Arles, in March 876;
His 2nd wife. Med Lands says m. Mar/Jun 876.10,8,11,1,12,3,5
Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence died before 22 June 896; Stone (2000, chart 30-4) says d. before 2 April 897.10,8,1,3,5
Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence was buried after 22 June 896 at Saint Maurice de Vienne, Vienne, Departement de l'Isere, Rhône-Alpes, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown, Italy
     DEATH     unknown, Vienne, Departement de l'Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France
     Family Members
     Parents
          Louis II 825–875
          Engelberga di Spoleto
     Spouse
          Boso de Provence
     Children
          Louis Of The Holy Roman Empire
          Ermengarde d'Autun de Bourgogne
     BURIAL     Saint Maurice de Vienne, Vienne, Departement de l'Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France
     Created by: Memerizion
     Added: 29 May 2015
     Find A Grave Memorial 147145003.13,5
     GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-32.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 107.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: III-1 Neu corrections.3


; This is the same person as:
”Ermengard of Italy” at Wikipedia, as
”Ermengarde (fille de Louis II le Jeune)” at Wikipédia (Fr.),
and as ”Ermengarda (figlia di Ludovico II il Giovane)” at Wikipedia (It.)14,15,16

Reference: Weis [1992:124-5] Line 141B-17.17 Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence was also known as Ermengarde (?) d'Italie.4 Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence was also known as Irmengarde (?) of Italy.1

; Per Med Lands:
     "ERMENGARDIS ([852/55]-896 before 2 Jun, bur Vienne, Isère, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice). "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[668]. Regino records the marriage of "Hirmingardem filiam Hludowici imperatoris" and "Bosoni germano Richildis reginæ"[669]. "Ludowicus…rex" granted "nepta nostra Hirmingarda" property at Morcula and Almenno in the county of Bergamo by a charter dated 26 Feb 875[670]. Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 878. She married without her father's knowledge and against his wishes[671]. "Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender by charter dated 25 Jul 879, subscribed by "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis"[672]. She was regent for her son King Louis from 890.
     "Betrothed (869, contract broken autumn 869) to co-Emperor KONSTANTINOS, son of Emperor BASILEIOS I & his first wife Maria --- (-3 Sep 879). This betrothal sealed the alliance between the fathers of the two parties, but was annulled after the alliance broke down in 871[673]. The primary source on which it is based has not so far been identified.
     "m ([Mar/Jun] 876) as his second wife, BOSO dux in Italy, Governor and Comte de Provence, son of comte BUVINUS & his wife --- of Arles (-Vienne, Isère 11 Jan 887, bur Vienne, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice). Comte de Troyes 877. He was crowned King [of Provence] in Oct 879."
Med Lands cites:
[668] D Lu II 48, p. 159.
[669] Reginonis Chronicon 877, MGH SS I, p. 589.
[670] D Lu D 157, p. 220.
[671] Settipani (1993), p. 270.
[672] Poupardin, R. (ed.) (1920) Recueil des actes des rois de Provence 855-928 (Paris) 16, p. 31.
[673] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot), p. 264.5


; Per Med Lands:
     "BOSON, son of comte BUVINUS [Bouvin] & his wife --- d'Arles (-Vienne, Isère 11 Jan 887, bur Vienne, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice). The Annals of Hincmar name "Bosone filio Buvini quondam comitis" in 869[6]. An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[7], although it is not known whether "…Boso…" refers to the same person. His brother-in-law King Charles II "le Chauve" granted the abbey of Saint-Maurice d'Agaune to him. "Boso comes simulque Bernardus comes ad vicem" donated Nogent "in pago Otmense" for the soul of "quondam amici nostri Odonis comitis…uxoris suæ Guendilmodis" to Saint-Martin-des-Tours by charter dated 871 after 21 Jun[8]. He was invested as Comte de Vienne in 870 by King Charles II after the latter conquered the kingdom of Provence. He was installed as Comte de Berry in [872] after the deposition of Gérard comte en Aquitaine. He accompanied King Charles II to Italy in 875: an agreement dated Feb 876 of King Charles II "le Chauve" names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi" among those present in Italy with the king[9]. He was invested as dux regni Italici at Pavia in Feb 876, fulfilling the role of viceroy in the absence of the king. Recalled by Emperor Charles in early 877, Boson left his brother Richard in his place in Italy and became Governor and Comte de Provence in [877]. He took part in the general rebellion of 877, refusing to swear allegiance to Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks on his accession[10]. After the death of King Louis II, "Hugo abbas et Boso et alii" sent "Walterum Episcopum Aurelianensem et Goiranum et Anscherum comites" to Ludwig III King of the East Franks to offer him part of the kingdom in 879[11]. He was named King BOSON at Mantaille, near Vienne 15 Oct 879 by the archbishops of Vienne, Besançon, Lyon, Tarentaise, Aix and Arles, and crowned at Lyon a few days later. Settipani points out that Boson´s kingdom was not referred to as Provence or Lower Burgundy (Bourgogne transjurane), doubting even that any term was used at all to describe it[12]. He installed his capital at Vienne. The reigning Carolingian monarchs formed a league against him, captured Lyon, and besieged Vienne which fell in 882, although Boson refused to capitulate[13]. The Annales Fuldenses record that the sons of Ludwig II " der Deutsche" King of the East Franks fought "Buosonem in Galliam" in 880 and expelled him from "Madasconam urbem", accepting homage from "Bernhardum qui in ea principatum tenebat"[14]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 887 of "Buosone", leaving a young son by "filia Hludowici Italici regis"[15]. The epitaph of "Bosonis Regis" records his death "III Id Jan VIII anno regni sui"[16].
     "m firstly ---. The name of the supposed first wife of King Boson is not known. The only reference to her existence so far identified is in the Annales Fuldenses which record that "Buosone comite" abducted "filiam Hludowicis imperatoris de Italiam" by forc[e in 878, having poisoned his wife[17]. If this is correct, it is surprising that it is not reported in any other contemporary source. However, as shown below, the chronology is favourable for one of the possible daughters attributed to King Boson to have been born from a first marriage, although as the existence of this daughter is not certain this represents a circular argument for proving the king´s supposed first marriage.]
     "m [secondly] ([Mar/Jun] 876) ERMENGARDIS, daughter of Emperor LOUIS II King of Italy & his wife Engelberga --- ([852/55]-896 before 2 Jun, bur Vienne, Isère, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice). "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[18]. "Ludowicus…rex" granted "nepta nostra Hirmingarda" property at Morcula and Almenno in the county of Bergamo by a charter dated 26 Feb 875[19]. Regino records the marriage of "Hirmingardem filiam Hludowici imperatoris" and "Bosoni germano Richildis reginæ"[20]. Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 878. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Buosone comite" abducted "filiam Hludowicis imperatoris de Italiam" by force in 878, having poisoned his wife[21]. "Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender by charter dated 25 Jul 879, subscribed by "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis"[22]. The Annales Bertiniani name "Richardus frater Bosonis" when recording that, after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman, he took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882[23]. She was regent for her son King Louis from 890."
Med Lands cites:
[6] Hincmarus Annales 869, quoted in MGH SS XXIII, p. 737 footnote 8.
[7] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469.
[8] Recueil Actes Provence 15, p. 29.
[9] Karoli II Conventus Ticinensis, MGH LL 1, p. 528.
[10] Settipani (1993), pp. 369-70.
[11] Historia Regum Francorum 879, RHGF IX, p. 41.
[12] Settipani (1993), p. 372.
[13] Settipani (1993), pp. 371-2.
[14] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 394.
[15] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 887, MGH SS I, p. 404.
[16] Epitaphia III, MGH Poetæ latini IV, p. 1037.
[17] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 878, MGH SS I, p. 392.
[18] MGH Diplomata, IV, Lu II 48, p. 159.
[19] MGH Diplomata, I, Lu D 157, p. 220.
[20] Reginonis Chronicon 877, MGH SS I, p. 589.
[21] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 878, MGH SS I, p. 392.
[22] Recueil Actes Provence 16, p. 31.
[23] Annales Bertiniani III 882.18


; Per Genealogy.EU (Bosonides): “B1. Boson V, Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy (876-879), Governor of Provence (870-879), King of Provence (879-887), King of Aquitaine (881-882), *850, +19.2.887; 1m: NN; 2m: III.876 Ermengarde of Italy (*859 +21.11.896/897)”.19 She was Abbesse, Abbaye San Salvatore de Brescia between 878 and 896 at Abbaye San Salvatore de Brescia.15

Family 1

Constantine (?) of Byzantium b. 865, d. 878

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ermengard: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020442&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ermengard: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020442&tree=LEO
  4. [S1779] J Bunot, "Bunot email 24 Jan 2005: "Re: d'Auvergne -> Toulouse or Arles"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/v7pU1OHfzao/m/Q7W2eWudpCAJ) to e-mail address, 24 Jan 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Bunot email 24 Jan 2005."
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#Ermengardisdied896. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ludwig II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020438&tree=LEO
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#LouisIIEmperorItalydied875.
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 141B-17, pp. 124-5. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#Konstantinosdied879
  10. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 30-5.
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  12. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boso_of_Provence. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  13. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 18 November 2019), memorial page for Ermengarde of Italy (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 147145003, citing Saint Maurice de Vienne, Vienne, Departement de l'Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/147145003/ermengarde-of_italy. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ermengard_of_Italy
  15. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Ermengarde (fille de Louis II le Jeune): https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ermengarde_(fille_de_Louis_II_le_Jeune). Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  16. [S4765] Wikipedia - L'enciclopedia libera, online https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pagina_principale, Ermengarda (figlia di Ludovico II il Giovane): https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ermengarda_(figlia_di_Ludovico_II_il_Giovane). Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (IT).
  17. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 141B-17, pp. 124-125: "...said to be mistress before 866 of 'an Emperor of Byzantium.'"
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#BosonKingProvencedied887B
  19. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Bosonides: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Engelberge|Ingelburga: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020447&tree=LEO
  21. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#EngelbergaMGuillaumeIAquitainedied918
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis III, 'the Blind': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020443&tree=LEO
  23. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html#Lo3
  24. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#LouisKingProvencedied928
  25. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#ErmengardeMManasses

Boson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine1

M, #10061, b. 835, d. 19 February 887
FatherBuvinus (?) comte de Metz, abbe laique de Gorze1,2,3,4 b. 830
MotherRichilde (?) d'Arles1,2,3,4 d. 883
ReferenceGAV31
Last Edited14 Dec 2020
     Boson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine was born in 835; Genealogy.EU (Boson page) says b. 850; Wikipedia says b. c841.5,1,3 He married Unknown (?); his 1st wife.1 Boson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine married Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence, daughter of Louis II "The Younger" (?) King of Italy, Emperor of the East Franks and Engelberge/Ingelberga (?) of Alsace/di Spoleto, in March 876;
His 2nd wife. Med Lands says m. Mar/Jun 876.5,6,1,7,3,8,9
Boson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine died on 19 February 887 at Vienne, Departement de l'Isere, Rhône-Alpes, France (now); Genealogics, Med Lands and Wikpedia both say d. 11 Jan. 887.5,1,10,3,4
Boson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine was buried after 19 February 887 at Saint Maurice de Vienne, Vienne, Departement de l'Isere, Rhône-Alpes, France (now),

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France
     DEATH     unknown, Vienne, Departement de l'Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France
     Birth:841, Death:1/11/887.
     Roi de Bourgogne-Provence 879, duc de Lombardie, King of Provence, King of Kingdom of Provence, Count of Lyon and Vienne, Lay Abbot of St. Maurice d'Agaune.
     Boso (c. 841 – January 11, 887) was a Frankish nobleman of the Bosonid family who was related to the Carolingian dynasty and who rose to become King of Lower Burgundy and Provence.
     Boso was the son of Bivin of Gorze, Count of Lotharingia, by Richildis of Arles, the daughter of Boso the Elder by his wife Engeltrude. His maternal aunt Teutberga was the wife of Lothair II, King of Lotharingia. Boso was also the nephew of the Boso, Count of Valois, for whom he was named, and of Hucbert, lay abbot of St. Maurice's Abbey, to which Boso succeeded in 869. He would later marry Ermengard of Italy, the daughter of Louis II of Italy and granddaughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I, whom he married at age 35.
     Family Members
     Parents
      Bivin de Vienne de Provence
      Richilde d'Arles
     Spouse
      Ermengarde of Italy
     Siblings
      Richilde d'Ardennes de Provence 845–910
      Richard Duke of Burgundy 858–921
     Children
      Louis Of The Holy Roman Empire
      Ermengarde d'Autun de Bourgogne
     BURIAL     Saint Maurice de Vienne, Vienne, Departement de l'Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France
     Created by: Memerizion
     Added: 29 May 2015
     Find A Grave Memorial 147144713.11
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "ERMENGARDIS ([852/55]-896 before 2 Jun, bur Vienne, Isère, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice). "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[668]. Regino records the marriage of "Hirmingardem filiam Hludowici imperatoris" and "Bosoni germano Richildis reginæ"[669]. "Ludowicus…rex" granted "nepta nostra Hirmingarda" property at Morcula and Almenno in the county of Bergamo by a charter dated 26 Feb 875[670]. Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 878. She married without her father's knowledge and against his wishes[671]. "Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender by charter dated 25 Jul 879, subscribed by "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis"[672]. She was regent for her son King Louis from 890.
     "Betrothed (869, contract broken autumn 869) to co-Emperor KONSTANTINOS, son of Emperor BASILEIOS I & his first wife Maria --- (-3 Sep 879). This betrothal sealed the alliance between the fathers of the two parties, but was annulled after the alliance broke down in 871[673]. The primary source on which it is based has not so far been identified.
     "m ([Mar/Jun] 876) as his second wife, BOSO dux in Italy, Governor and Comte de Provence, son of comte BUVINUS & his wife --- of Arles (-Vienne, Isère 11 Jan 887, bur Vienne, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice). Comte de Troyes 877. He was crowned King [of Provence] in Oct 879."
Med Lands cites:
[668] D Lu II 48, p. 159.
[669] Reginonis Chronicon 877, MGH SS I, p. 589.
[670] D Lu D 157, p. 220.
[671] Settipani (1993), p. 270.
[672] Poupardin, R. (ed.) (1920) Recueil des actes des rois de Provence 855-928 (Paris) 16, p. 31.
[673] Ostrogorsky, G. (1952) Geschichte des byzantinischen Staates, French translation (1977) Histoire de l'Etat Byzantin (Payot), p. 264.9


Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 107.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: III-1 Neu corrections.
3. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.10
He was Cte de Vienne et d'Arles. (See attached map of the Carolingian Empire in 880 By Niconaike - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39615802.)1

; Per Genealogics:
     “Boso was the son of Buvinus (Bouvin), Graf von Metz. His aunt Teutberga, daughter of Boso 'The Old', count of Arles, for whom he was named, was the first wife of Lothar II, king of Lorraine. Boso was also a nephew of Teutberga's brother Hugbert, count of Arles, lay abbot of the Abbey of Saint Maurice-in-Valais, to which he succeeded as lay abbot in 869.
     “In 870 Emperor Charles 'the Bald' married Boso's sister Richeut. This marriage paved the way for Boso's career in the service of his royal brother-in-law. In the same year Boso was appointed count of Lyon and Vienne, replacing Gerard de Roussillon. In 872 Charles appointed him chamberlain and _magister ostiariorum_ (master of porters) to his heir Louis II 'the Stammerer'. Boso was also invested as count of Bourges. Louis was reigning as a subordinate king of Aquitaine, but because of his youth, it was Boso who looked after the administration of that realm.
     “In the autumn of 875 Boso accompanied Charles on his first Italian campaign, and at the diet of Pavia in February 876 he was appointed arch-minister and _missus dominicus_ for Italy and elevated to the rank of duke. He was probably also charged with the administration of Provence. He acted as a viceroy and increased his prestige even more in 876 by marrying Ermengard, the only daughter of the Emperor Ludwig II, king of Italy, and his wife Ingelberga. Their son Louis III would have progeny and become king of Lower-Burgundy and Italy.
     “Boso disapproved of Charles' second Italian campaign in 877 and conspired with other like-minded nobles against the emperor. After Charles' death in October, the nobles forced Charles' son Louis II 'the Stammerer', now king of West-France, to confirm their rights and privileges. Boso also formed close relations with the papacy and accompanied Pope John VIII in September 878 to Troyes, where the pope asked King Louis for his support in Italy. The pope adopted Boso as his son and probably offered to crown Louis emperor. It is said that he wanted to crown Boso emperor.
     “In April 879 Louis died, leaving behind two sons, Louis III and Karlmann, as well as a pregnant wife. Boso joined with other western Frankish nobles and advocated making Louis III of France the sole heir of the western kingdom, but eventually both brothers were elected kings. Boso, however, renounced allegiance to both brothers and in July claimed independence by using the style _Dei gratia id quod sum_ (by the Grace of God, that is what I am). He also claimed that his imperial father-in-law had named him as his heir. On 15 October 879 the bishops and nobles of the region around the rivers Rhône and Saône assembled in the synod of Mantaille elected Boso king as successor to Louis 'the Stammerer', the first non-Carolingian king in Western Europe in more than a century. This event marks the first occurrence of a 'free election' among the Franks, without regard to royal descent, inspired by a canonical principle (but not constant practice) of ecclesiastical elections.
     “Boso's realm, usually called the kingdom of Provence, comprised the ecclesiastical provinces of the archbishops of Arles, Aix, Vienne, Lyon (without Langres), and probably Besançon, as well as the dioceses of Tarentaise, Uzès and Viviers.
     “After Louis and Karlmann had divided their father's realm in Amiens in March 880, the two brothers joined to march against Boso. They took Mâcon and the northern parts of Boso's realm. Then uniting their forces with those of Charles III 'the Fat', later the Holy Roman Emperor, they unsuccessfully besieged Vienne from August to November.
     “In August 882 Boso was again besieged at Vienne by his brother Richard 'le Justicier', count of Autun, duke of Burgundy, who took the city in September. After this Boso could not regain most of his realm and was restricted to the vicinity of Vienne.
     “Boso died on 11 January 887 and was succeeded by his son Louis III, known as 'the Blind'. It is possible (but not certain) that the famous Guille or Wille de Provence, queen of Upper Burgundy, was his daughter, presumably by an earlier wife than Ermengarde. She married Rudolf I, king of Upper Burgundy.”.10

; This is the same person as:
”Boso of Provence” at Wikipedia and as
”Boson de Provence” at Wikipédia (Fr.)3,12 He was Count of Bourges.1 GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-32.

; Per Genealogy.EU (Bosonides): “B1. Boson V, Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy (876-879), Governor of Provence (870-879), King of Provence (879-887), King of Aquitaine (881-882), *850, +19.2.887; 1m: NN; 2m: III.876 Ermengarde of Italy (*859 +21.11.896/897)”.13

; Per Med Lands:
     "BOSON, son of comte BUVINUS [Bouvin] & his wife --- d'Arles (-Vienne, Isère 11 Jan 887, bur Vienne, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice). The Annals of Hincmar name "Bosone filio Buvini quondam comitis" in 869[6]. An agreement between Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks and his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks dated Jun 860 names "nobilis ac fidelibus laicis…Chuonradus, Evrardus, Adalardus, Arnustus, Warnarius, Liutfridus, Hruodolfus, Erkingarius, Gislebertus, Ratbodus, Arnulfus, Hugo, item Chuonradus, Liutharius, Berengarius, Matfridus, Boso, Sigeri, Hartmannus, Liuthardus, Richuinus, Wigricus, Hunfridus, Bernoldus, Hatto, Adalbertus, Burchardus, Christianus, Leutulfus, Hessi, Herimannus, item Hruodulfus, Sigehardus"[7], although it is not known whether "…Boso…" refers to the same person. His brother-in-law King Charles II "le Chauve" granted the abbey of Saint-Maurice d'Agaune to him. "Boso comes simulque Bernardus comes ad vicem" donated Nogent "in pago Otmense" for the soul of "quondam amici nostri Odonis comitis…uxoris suæ Guendilmodis" to Saint-Martin-des-Tours by charter dated 871 after 21 Jun[8]. He was invested as Comte de Vienne in 870 by King Charles II after the latter conquered the kingdom of Provence. He was installed as Comte de Berry in [872] after the deposition of Gérard comte en Aquitaine. He accompanied King Charles II to Italy in 875: an agreement dated Feb 876 of King Charles II "le Chauve" names "Bosonis…ducis et sacri palatii archiministri atque imperiali missi" among those present in Italy with the king[9]. He was invested as dux regni Italici at Pavia in Feb 876, fulfilling the role of viceroy in the absence of the king. Recalled by Emperor Charles in early 877, Boson left his brother Richard in his place in Italy and became Governor and Comte de Provence in [877]. He took part in the general rebellion of 877, refusing to swear allegiance to Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks on his accession[10]. After the death of King Louis II, "Hugo abbas et Boso et alii" sent "Walterum Episcopum Aurelianensem et Goiranum et Anscherum comites" to Ludwig III King of the East Franks to offer him part of the kingdom in 879[11]. He was named King BOSON at Mantaille, near Vienne 15 Oct 879 by the archbishops of Vienne, Besançon, Lyon, Tarentaise, Aix and Arles, and crowned at Lyon a few days later. Settipani points out that Boson´s kingdom was not referred to as Provence or Lower Burgundy (Bourgogne transjurane), doubting even that any term was used at all to describe it[12]. He installed his capital at Vienne. The reigning Carolingian monarchs formed a league against him, captured Lyon, and besieged Vienne which fell in 882, although Boson refused to capitulate[13]. The Annales Fuldenses record that the sons of Ludwig II " der Deutsche" King of the East Franks fought "Buosonem in Galliam" in 880 and expelled him from "Madasconam urbem", accepting homage from "Bernhardum qui in ea principatum tenebat"[14]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 887 of "Buosone", leaving a young son by "filia Hludowici Italici regis"[15]. The epitaph of "Bosonis Regis" records his death "III Id Jan VIII anno regni sui"[16].
     "m firstly ---. The name of the supposed first wife of King Boson is not known. The only reference to her existence so far identified is in the Annales Fuldenses which record that "Buosone comite" abducted "filiam Hludowicis imperatoris de Italiam" by forc[e in 878, having poisoned his wife[17]. If this is correct, it is surprising that it is not reported in any other contemporary source. However, as shown below, the chronology is favourable for one of the possible daughters attributed to King Boson to have been born from a first marriage, although as the existence of this daughter is not certain this represents a circular argument for proving the king´s supposed first marriage.]
     "m [secondly] ([Mar/Jun] 876) ERMENGARDIS, daughter of Emperor LOUIS II King of Italy & his wife Engelberga --- ([852/55]-896 before 2 Jun, bur Vienne, Isère, cathédrale de Saint-Maurice). "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted the abbey of San Salvatore to "nostra coniux…Angilberga ante filiam…nostrum Hermengardem" by charter dated at Venosa 28 Apr 868[18]. "Ludowicus…rex" granted "nepta nostra Hirmingarda" property at Morcula and Almenno in the county of Bergamo by a charter dated 26 Feb 875[19]. Regino records the marriage of "Hirmingardem filiam Hludowici imperatoris" and "Bosoni germano Richildis reginæ"[20]. Abbess of San Salvatore at Brescia 878. The Annales Fuldenses record that "Buosone comite" abducted "filiam Hludowicis imperatoris de Italiam" by force in 878, having poisoned his wife[21]. "Boso…et coniunx mea Hirmingardi proles imperiales" donated property "in pago Laticense…in villa Lantinus" to the abbey of Montiérender by charter dated 25 Jul 879, subscribed by "Richardi comitis, Teutbaldi comitis, Bernardi comitis"[22]. The Annales Bertiniani name "Richardus frater Bosonis" when recording that, after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman, he took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882[23]. She was regent for her son King Louis from 890."
Med Lands cites:
[6] Hincmarus Annales 869, quoted in MGH SS XXIII, p. 737 footnote 8.
[7] Adnuntatio domni Karoli, MGH LL 1, p. 469.
[8] Recueil Actes Provence 15, p. 29.
[9] Karoli II Conventus Ticinensis, MGH LL 1, p. 528.
[10] Settipani (1993), pp. 369-70.
[11] Historia Regum Francorum 879, RHGF IX, p. 41.
[12] Settipani (1993), p. 372.
[13] Settipani (1993), pp. 371-2.
[14] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 394.
[15] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 887, MGH SS I, p. 404.
[16] Epitaphia III, MGH Poetæ latini IV, p. 1037.
[17] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 878, MGH SS I, p. 392.
[18] MGH Diplomata, IV, Lu II 48, p. 159.
[19] MGH Diplomata, I, Lu D 157, p. 220.
[20] Reginonis Chronicon 877, MGH SS I, p. 589.
[21] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 878, MGH SS I, p. 392.
[22] Recueil Actes Provence 16, p. 31.
[23] Annales Bertiniani III 882.4
He was King of Provence (Weis says "King") between 870 and 879.14,1,13 He was Duke of Lombardy between 876 and 879.1 He was King of Aquitaine between 881 and 882.1

Family 1

Unknown (?)
Child

Family 2

Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence b. c 855, d. b 22 Jun 896
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  2. [S1779] J Bunot, "Bunot email 24 Jan 2005: "Re: d'Auvergne -> Toulouse or Arles"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/v7pU1OHfzao/m/Q7W2eWudpCAJ) to e-mail address, 24 Jan 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Bunot email 24 Jan 2005."
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boso_of_Provence. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#BosonKingProvencedied887B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 30-5.
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 141B-17, pp. 124-5. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ermengard: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020442&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#Ermengardisdied896.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Boso: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020441&tree=LEO
  11. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 12 October 2019), memorial page for Boso de Provence (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 147144713, citing Saint Maurice de Vienne, Vienne, Departement de l'Isère, Rhône-Alpes, France ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/147144713/boso-de_provence. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  12. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Boson de Provence: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boson_de_Provence. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  13. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Bosonides: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  14. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 141B-17, pp. 124-125.
  15. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Welf 1 page - The House of Welfen: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf1.html
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Engelberge|Ingelburga: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020447&tree=LEO
  17. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#EngelbergaMGuillaumeIAquitainedied918
  18. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html#Lo3
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis III, 'the Blind': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020443&tree=LEO
  20. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#LouisKingProvencedied928
  21. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#ErmengardeMManasses

Louis III "The Blind" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Lower-Bourgogne and Italy1,2,3

M, #10062, b. before 882, d. 5 June 928
FatherBoson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine4,5,6,2,3 b. 835, d. 19 Feb 887
MotherErmengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence6,7,2,4,3 b. c 855, d. b 22 Jun 896
ReferenceGAV32 EDV31
Last Edited14 Dec 2020
     Louis III "The Blind" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Lower-Bourgogne and Italy married Eadgifu/Edgiva (?), daughter of Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex and Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent; Welf 1 page says that it was a Graf Ludwig im Thurgau, son of Rudolf I, who married Edgiva; Cerdic 1 page says she "m.in infancy Louis III the Blind, King of Provence (*ca 880, +5.6.928) /OR Ebehard, Count of Nordgau (+ca 960.)8,9,10" Louis III "The Blind" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Lower-Bourgogne and Italy was born before 882; Genealogy.EU (Boson page) says b. 880-883; Genealogics says b. ca 880; Weis says b. ca 883.11,4,2,12 He married Anna (?) of Byzantium, daughter of Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium and Zoe Tzautzina, between June 900 and July 900;
His 1st wife; Genealogy.EU (Boson page) says m. 905; Med Lands says betrothed Jun/Jul 900.11,13,1,10,3,14,12 Louis III "The Blind" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Lower-Bourgogne and Italy married Aelis/Adelheid/Adelaide (?) de Bourgogne, daughter of Rudolf I (?) King of Upper Bourgogne and Willa I (?) of Vienne, between 902 and 905;
His 2nd wife; Boson page says m. 914; Leo van de Pas says m. ca 18 Jan 913.15,16,4,2,3
Louis III "The Blind" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Lower-Bourgogne and Italy died on 5 June 928 at Arles, Departement des Bouches-du-Rhône, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France (now).11,4,2,3,13,12
     ; This is the same person as ”Louis the Blind” at Wikipedia and as ”Louis III l'Aveugle” at Wikipédia (FR).17,18 GAV-32 EDV-31 GKJ-31.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 128.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: II 189.2


; Per Genealogy.EU (Bosonides): “C1. Louis III "l'Aveugle" "the Blind", King of Provence (887-928), King of Italy (900-905), Emperor (901-905), *880-883, +5.6.928; 1m: 905 Anna of Byzantium (*ca 890 +912), dau.of Emperor Leo VI (?); 2m: 914 Adelaide de Bourgogne (*914 +10.5.943)”.19

; Per Weis: “Louis III, 'the Blind,' b. abt. 883, d. 5 June 928, King of Provence and Italy 900; m. (1) Anna (141A-17), of Byzantium, dau. of Leo VI (141A-16), Emperor of Byzantium. (ES II/189, Brandenburg, cit; West Winter, VI.12. Gens. 15-18: don Stone, Some ancient and Meieval Descents...: Chart 30, "Descent from Charlemagne").”.12

; Per Med Lands:
     "LOUIS (late 882 or after-Arles 5 Jun 928). Herimannus names "puer Ludowicus" son of Boson "ex filia Ludowici Italiæ imperatoris" when recording that he was adopted by Emperor Karl III after his father's death[34]. The Annales Bertiniani name "Richardus frater Bosonis" when recording that, after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman, he took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882[35], which suggests that Louis was born after the siege of Vienne. The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 887 of "Buosone", leaving a young son by "filia Hludowici Italici regis" but does not name him[36]. His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 6 Jun 903 under which "Hludovicus…imperator augustus" confirmed privileges which Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks had ceded to "fideles nostri Liutfridus, Hugo atque Teutbertus comites" at the request of "Adalelmo comite et eius coniugi Rotlindi", the charter naming "rex genitor nostri Boso"[37]. "Ludovico" is named as brother of Engelberga in the latter's donation to Cluny dated Jan 917[38]. He was adopted by his maternal great-uncle Emperor Karl III "der Dicke/le Gros" at Kirchen-am-Rhein end May 887, at the request of his mother, rendering him eligible to be elected king according to the rules of Carolingian succession[39]. He was elected LOUIS King [of Provence] at Valence in 890 by the Archbishops of Lyon, Arles, Vienne and Embrun, ruling over Provence and Viennois under the regency of his mother[40]. He was called to Italy in 896 by opponents of Berengario King of Italy, captured Pavia, expelled Berengario, and was elected LOUIS III King of Italy at Pavia 12 Oct 900, crowned the same day. He claimed the imperial crown from Pope Benedict IV, and was crowned Emperor LUDWIG III in Rome 15 or 22 Feb 901, although this was only recognised in Lombardy and Tuscany. He was expelled from Pavia by King Berengario in Jul 902, whereupon he returned to Vienne, but continued to call himself emperor. He was recalled to Italy in 905 by Adalbero II Marchese of Tuscany and reconquered the kingdom, but was captured by King Berengario at Verona and blinded 21 Jul 905. Regino records that "Hludowicus filius Bosonis" expelled "Berengarium" from Italy in 905[41]. He was freed and returned to Provence, where he continued to reign at Vienne, but in name only as Hugues Comte d'Arles was appointed governor[42]. "Ludowicus imperator augustus" restored property to the church of Avignon at the request of "comes nosterque propinquus Boso" by charter dated to [907/10][43].
     "Betrothed ([Jun/Jul] 900]) ANNA, daughter of Emperor LEON VI & his second wife Zoe Zautsina ([886/88]-[901/early 904], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles). The basis for this betrothal is a letter written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French translation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his unsuitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'accord…conclu avec le Franc…tu lui destinais comme épouse ta fille unique…[au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrivé l'infortune que l'on sait"[44]. The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipani proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia who married Adalberto Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (his blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Louis III King of Italy (his title in 900). Settipani assumes that the marriage actually took place. However, the translation only refers to a proposed marriage ("…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that the marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever left Byzantium for Provence. Anna is not named in any of the surviving charters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted. As this would have been the first marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperors (no previous betrothals having resulted in marriage), this absence from contemporary western documentation is therefore striking. It also contrasts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine origin of Theophano, wife of Emperor Otto II (even though Theophano's precise ancestry is unrecorded), although it is recognised that Anna´s career was cut short by premature death in contrast to Theophano´s. Traditional genealogies[45] show Emperor Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged first marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose name. However, another possible explanation is that the name was a symbol of the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two successor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustrious predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", completely independent of his maternal ancestry. Tougher suggests that Anna was legitimate, born after her parents' marriage, and that the marriage to King Louis did not take place[46]. If he is correct about her legitimacy at birth, this excludes her from being the mother of King Louis's son Charles Constantin, if the latter's birth date is correctly estimated below. Anna was crowned Augusta in Constantinople in [899/900], after the death of her mother and before the third marriage of her father[47]. Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna et Eudocia, filiæ beati eiusdem Leonis ex [secunda uxore] Zoe", the Greek text specifying "A??? ??? A???" although the editor suggests that "???????" be substituted for the second Anna (without giving his reasons: this may result from confusion with Anna's older half-sister of that name), were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[48]. It is not known whether this is an error, but in any case both daughters named Anna (assuming that there were two) must have died young. Her burial in Constantinople suggests that Anna never left her father's court.
     "m ([Jun 902/905]) ADELAIS, daughter of ---. "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted property at Tressin, Viennois to "fideli nostro Girardo" at the request of "coniux nostra Adalaida" by charter dated 18 Jan 915[49]. Her origin is not known. According to Poupardin[50], she was Adelais, relative [maybe niece] of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy [Welf]. Presumably this is based on the two charters dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943 under which "Carolus comes" is named "consanguineus noster" by Conrad I King of Burgundy[51]. The potential problem with this is the apparently impossible marriage of King Louis with his own niece. The solution would be either that Adelais was the daughter of King Rudolf by an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage, or that King Rudolf's known wife Willa was not the daughter of Boson King [of Provence]. The problem is discussed fully by Settipani[52]. The discussion proceeds on the basis that Adelais was in some way related to King Rudolf, but the precise basis for this speculation does not appear to be clearly stated. The estimated date for this relatively obscure marriage is based on its having taking place during the ex-emperor's period of exile in Vienne, before his recall to Italy, at a time when he would not have been considered a great marriage prospect by more prominent prospective fathers-in-law. Another difficulty is that “consanguineus” in the 943 charters could indicate a more remote relationship than second cousin."
Med Lands cites:
[34] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 887, MHG SS V, p. 109.
[35] Annales Bertiniani III 882.
[36] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 887, MGH SS I, p. 404.
[37] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 12, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 221.
[38] Cluny Tome I, 205, p. 193.
[39] Settipani (1993), p. 377.
[40] Settipani (1993), p. 377.
[41] Reginonis Chronicon 905, MGH SS I, p. 610.
[42] Settipani (1993), pp. 377-8.
[43] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 12, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 221.
[44] Settipani (1991), p. 7 footnote 5.
[45] For example ES II 189, replacement table at end of ES III.1.
[46] Tougher, S. (1997) The Reign of Leo VI, pp. 147-8 [MB].
[47] Settipani (1991), p. 8.
[48] De Ceremoniis, Book II, ch. 42, p. 643.
[49] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 16, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 226.
[50] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117, citing Poupardin, R. (1901) Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (855-933?) (Paris), p. 206-7.
[51] Cluny Tome I, 622, p. 579, and I.631, p. 588.
[52] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117.3


; Per Weis: “Anna, of Byzantium, b. 886/8, d. abt. 914; m. abt 900 Louis III (141B-18) 'the Blind', b. abt. 883, d. 5 June 928, King of Provence and Italy. (Brandenburg)”.13

; Per Genealogy.EU (Byzant 10): “B3. [2m.] Anna, *898, +914; m.905 Emperor Louis III "the Blind" (+928)”.20

; Per Med Lands:
     "ANNA (-[901/early 904]). Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon crowned "Annam Zoes filiam Zantzæ neptem" as "Augusta", recorded in the passage which follows the record of her mother's death and before the text which mentions her father's remarriage, presumably therefore dated to early 900[1129]. Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna et Eudocia, filiæ beati eiusdem Leonis ex [secunda uxore] Zoe" (the Greek text specifying "A??? ??? A???" although the editor suggests that "???????" be substituted for the second Anna without giving his reasons: this may result from confusion with Anna's older half-sister of that name) were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1130]. It is not known whether this is an error, but in any case both daughters named Anna (assuming that there were two) must have died young. The basis for her betrothal is a letter written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French translation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his unsuitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'accord…conclu avec le Franc…tu lui destinais comme épouse ta fille unique…[au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrive l'infortune que l'on sait"[1131]. The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipani proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia who married Adalberto Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (his blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Louis III King of Italy (his title in 900). Settipani assumes that the marriage actually took place. However, the translation only refers to a proposed marriage ("…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that the marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever left Byzantium for Provence. Her burial in Constantinople suggests that she never left her father's court. Anna is not named in any of the surviving charters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted. This would have been the first marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperors as no previous betrothal resulted in a marriage. This absence from contemporary western documentation is therefore striking. It also contrasts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine origin of Theofano, wife of Emperor Otto II, even though Theofano's precise ancestry is still a mystery (although it is recognised that Anna's career was cut short by a premature death in contrast to Theofano's). Traditional genealogies[1132] show Emperor Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged first marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose name. However, another possible explanation is that the name symbolised the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two successor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustrious predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", completely independent of his mother's maternal ancestry. Tougher suggests that Anna was legitimate, born after her parents' marriage, and that the marriage to King Louis did not take place[1133]. If he is correct about her legitimacy at birth, this excludes her from being the mother of King Louis's son Charles Constantin.
     "Betrothed ([Jun/Jul] 900) LOUIS King [of Provence], son of BOSON King [of Provence] & his second wife Ermengardis [Carolingian] (late 882 or after-Arles 5 Jun 928). He was recognised in 900 as LOUIS III King of Italy, in opposition to Berengario I Marchese of Friulia. He was crowned Emperor LUDWIG III in 901, deposed in 902."
Med Lands cites:
[1129] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Imperium Leonis Imperatoris, 17, p. 364.
[1130] De Ceremoniis Book II, ch. 42, p. 643.
[1131] Settipani (1991), p. 7 footnote 5.
[1132] For example ES II 189, replacement table at end of ES III.1.
[1133] Tougher (1997), pp. 147-8 [MB].14


; Per Med Lands:
     "[ADELAIS. According to Poupardin[96], Adelais wife of Louis King [of Provence] was the daughter of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy. Presumably this is based on the two charters dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943 under which "Carolus comes" is named "consanguineus noster" by Conrad I King of Burgundy[97]. The potential problem with this hypothesis is the apparently impossible marriage of King Louis with his own niece. Possible solutions would be either that Adelais was the daughter of King Rudolf by an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage, that King Rudolf's known wife Willa was not the daughter of Boson King [of Provence], or that Adelais was more remotely related to the king, as tentatively shown in the present document. The problem is discussed fully by Settipani[98]. Another problem is that “consanguineus” in the 943 charters could indicate a much more remote relationship than second cousin. The estimated date for her marriage is based on its having taking place during the ex-emperor's period of exile in Vienne, before his recall to Italy, at a time when he would not have been considered a great marriage prospect by more prominent prospective fathers-in-law. "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted property at Tressin, Viennois to "fideli nostro Girardo" at the request of "coniux nostra Adalaida" by charter dated 18 Jan 915[99].
     "m ([Jun 902/905]) LOUIS "l'Aveugle" King [of Provence], ex-King of Italy, ex-Emperor LOUIS III, son of BOSON King [of Provence] & his second wife Ermengardis [Carolingian] (before 882-Arles 5 Jun 928).]"
Med Lands cites:
[96] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117, citing Poupardin (1901), pp. 206-7.
[97] Cluny, Tome I, 622, p. 579, and I.631, p. 588.
[98] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117.
[99] Poupardin (1920) 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 16, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 226.16
He was King of Provence between 887 and 928.1 He was King of Italy between 900 and 905.1 He was Holy Roman Emperor between 901 and 905.21,22,1

Family 1

Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) b. c 923

Family 3

Aelis/Adelheid/Adelaide (?) de Bourgogne d. 10 May 943
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis III, 'the Blind': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020443&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#LouisKingProvencedied928. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html#Lo3
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Boso: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020441&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#BosonKingProvencedied887B
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ermengard: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020442&tree=LEO
  8. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  9. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis III: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020443&tree=LEO
  11. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 30-6.
  12. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 141B-18, p. 136.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  13. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 141A-17, p. 135.
  14. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#Annadied914
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aelis|Adelheid de Bourgogne: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020437&tree=LEO
  16. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BURGUNDY%20KINGS.htm#AdelaisMbefore915LouisIIIProvence
  17. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Blind. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  18. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Louis III l'Aveugle: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_III_l%27Aveugle. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  19. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Bosonides: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html#Lo3
  20. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The Macedonian family (Byzant 10): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html#AK7
  21. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 141A-17, p. 124. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  22. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 175. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  23. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berengar_I_of_Italy
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020445&tree=LEO
  25. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#CharlesConstantindied962
  26. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rudolf of Provence: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020446&tree=LEO

Anna (?) of Byzantium1,2,3

F, #10063, b. between 886 and 888, d. between 901 and 904
FatherLeo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium1,2,4,3 b. 1 Sep 866, d. 12 May 912
MotherZoe Tzautzina1,3 d. 899
ReferenceGAV32 EDV31
Last Edited14 Dec 2020
     Anna (?) of Byzantium was born between 886 and 888; Genealogy.EU (Byzant 10 page) says b. 898.5,6,1 She married Louis III "The Blind" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Lower-Bourgogne and Italy, son of Boson V (?) Ct of Bourges, Cte de Vienne et d'Arles, Duke of Lombardy, Governor of Provence, King of Provence, King of Aquitaine and Ermengarde (?) of Italy, Queen of Provence, between June 900 and July 900;
His 1st wife; Genealogy.EU (Boson page) says m. 905; Med Lands says betrothed Jun/Jul 900.5,7,8,9,10,3,11
Anna (?) of Byzantium died between 901 and 904; Stone (2000) chart 30-6: "very likely ca. 901/903; Med Lands says d. 901/early 904.5,1,3
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "LOUIS (late 882 or after-Arles 5 Jun 928). Herimannus names "puer Ludowicus" son of Boson "ex filia Ludowici Italiæ imperatoris" when recording that he was adopted by Emperor Karl III after his father's death[34]. The Annales Bertiniani name "Richardus frater Bosonis" when recording that, after the capture of Vienne by the forces of King Carloman, he took “uxorem Bosonis et filiam eius” back to “comitatum suum Augustudensem” in 882[35], which suggests that Louis was born after the siege of Vienne. The Annales Fuldenses record the death in 887 of "Buosone", leaving a young son by "filia Hludowici Italici regis" but does not name him[36]. His parentage is confirmed by the charter dated 6 Jun 903 under which "Hludovicus…imperator augustus" confirmed privileges which Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks had ceded to "fideles nostri Liutfridus, Hugo atque Teutbertus comites" at the request of "Adalelmo comite et eius coniugi Rotlindi", the charter naming "rex genitor nostri Boso"[37]. "Ludovico" is named as brother of Engelberga in the latter's donation to Cluny dated Jan 917[38]. He was adopted by his maternal great-uncle Emperor Karl III "der Dicke/le Gros" at Kirchen-am-Rhein end May 887, at the request of his mother, rendering him eligible to be elected king according to the rules of Carolingian succession[39]. He was elected LOUIS King [of Provence] at Valence in 890 by the Archbishops of Lyon, Arles, Vienne and Embrun, ruling over Provence and Viennois under the regency of his mother[40]. He was called to Italy in 896 by opponents of Berengario King of Italy, captured Pavia, expelled Berengario, and was elected LOUIS III King of Italy at Pavia 12 Oct 900, crowned the same day. He claimed the imperial crown from Pope Benedict IV, and was crowned Emperor LUDWIG III in Rome 15 or 22 Feb 901, although this was only recognised in Lombardy and Tuscany. He was expelled from Pavia by King Berengario in Jul 902, whereupon he returned to Vienne, but continued to call himself emperor. He was recalled to Italy in 905 by Adalbero II Marchese of Tuscany and reconquered the kingdom, but was captured by King Berengario at Verona and blinded 21 Jul 905. Regino records that "Hludowicus filius Bosonis" expelled "Berengarium" from Italy in 905[41]. He was freed and returned to Provence, where he continued to reign at Vienne, but in name only as Hugues Comte d'Arles was appointed governor[42]. "Ludowicus imperator augustus" restored property to the church of Avignon at the request of "comes nosterque propinquus Boso" by charter dated to [907/10][43].
     "Betrothed ([Jun/Jul] 900]) ANNA, daughter of Emperor LEON VI & his second wife Zoe Zautsina ([886/88]-[901/early 904], bur Constantinople Church of the Holy Apostles). The basis for this betrothal is a letter written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French translation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his unsuitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'accord…conclu avec le Franc…tu lui destinais comme épouse ta fille unique…[au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrivé l'infortune que l'on sait"[44]. The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipani proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia who married Adalberto Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (his blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Louis III King of Italy (his title in 900). Settipani assumes that the marriage actually took place. However, the translation only refers to a proposed marriage ("…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that the marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever left Byzantium for Provence. Anna is not named in any of the surviving charters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted. As this would have been the first marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperors (no previous betrothals having resulted in marriage), this absence from contemporary western documentation is therefore striking. It also contrasts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine origin of Theophano, wife of Emperor Otto II (even though Theophano's precise ancestry is unrecorded), although it is recognised that Anna´s career was cut short by premature death in contrast to Theophano´s. Traditional genealogies[45] show Emperor Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged first marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose name. However, another possible explanation is that the name was a symbol of the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two successor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustrious predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", completely independent of his maternal ancestry. Tougher suggests that Anna was legitimate, born after her parents' marriage, and that the marriage to King Louis did not take place[46]. If he is correct about her legitimacy at birth, this excludes her from being the mother of King Louis's son Charles Constantin, if the latter's birth date is correctly estimated below. Anna was crowned Augusta in Constantinople in [899/900], after the death of her mother and before the third marriage of her father[47]. Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna et Eudocia, filiæ beati eiusdem Leonis ex [secunda uxore] Zoe", the Greek text specifying "A??? ??? A???" although the editor suggests that "???????" be substituted for the second Anna (without giving his reasons: this may result from confusion with Anna's older half-sister of that name), were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[48]. It is not known whether this is an error, but in any case both daughters named Anna (assuming that there were two) must have died young. Her burial in Constantinople suggests that Anna never left her father's court.
     "m ([Jun 902/905]) ADELAIS, daughter of ---. "Hludowicus…imperator augustus" granted property at Tressin, Viennois to "fideli nostro Girardo" at the request of "coniux nostra Adalaida" by charter dated 18 Jan 915[49]. Her origin is not known. According to Poupardin[50], she was Adelais, relative [maybe niece] of Rudolf I King of Upper Burgundy [Welf]. Presumably this is based on the two charters dated 28 Mar 943 and 18 May 943 under which "Carolus comes" is named "consanguineus noster" by Conrad I King of Burgundy[51]. The potential problem with this is the apparently impossible marriage of King Louis with his own niece. The solution would be either that Adelais was the daughter of King Rudolf by an earlier otherwise unrecorded marriage, or that King Rudolf's known wife Willa was not the daughter of Boson King [of Provence]. The problem is discussed fully by Settipani[52]. The discussion proceeds on the basis that Adelais was in some way related to King Rudolf, but the precise basis for this speculation does not appear to be clearly stated. The estimated date for this relatively obscure marriage is based on its having taking place during the ex-emperor's period of exile in Vienne, before his recall to Italy, at a time when he would not have been considered a great marriage prospect by more prominent prospective fathers-in-law. Another difficulty is that “consanguineus” in the 943 charters could indicate a more remote relationship than second cousin."
Med Lands cites:
[34] Herimanni Augiensis Chronicon 887, MHG SS V, p. 109.
[35] Annales Bertiniani III 882.
[36] Annales Fuldensium Pars Quinta, auctore Quodam Bawaro 887, MGH SS I, p. 404.
[37] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 12, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 221.
[38] Cluny Tome I, 205, p. 193.
[39] Settipani (1993), p. 377.
[40] Settipani (1993), p. 377.
[41] Reginonis Chronicon 905, MGH SS I, p. 610.
[42] Settipani (1993), pp. 377-8.
[43] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 12, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 221.
[44] Settipani (1991), p. 7 footnote 5.
[45] For example ES II 189, replacement table at end of ES III.1.
[46] Tougher, S. (1997) The Reign of Leo VI, pp. 147-8 [MB].
[47] Settipani (1991), p. 8.
[48] De Ceremoniis, Book II, ch. 42, p. 643.
[49] Recueil Actes Provence 42, p. 78, and Chartarium Viennensium 16, in Vienne Saint-André-de-Bas, p. 226.
[50] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117, citing Poupardin, R. (1901) Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (855-933?) (Paris), p. 206-7.
[51] Cluny Tome I, 622, p. 579, and I.631, p. 588.
[52] Settipani (1993), p. 379 footnote 117.10


; Per Genealogy.EU (Bosonides): “C1. Louis III "l'Aveugle" "the Blind", King of Provence (887-928), King of Italy (900-905), Emperor (901-905), *880-883, +5.6.928; 1m: 905 Anna of Byzantium (*ca 890 +912), dau.of Emperor Leo VI (?); 2m: 914 Adelaide de Bourgogne (*914 +10.5.943)”.12

; Per Weis: “Louis III, 'the Blind,' b. abt. 883, d. 5 June 928, King of Provence and Italy 900; m. (1) Anna (141A-17), of Byzantium, dau. of Leo VI (141A-16), Emperor of Byzantium. (ES II/189, Brandenburg, cit; West Winter, VI.12. Gens. 15-18: don Stone, Some ancient and Meieval Descents...: Chart 30, "Descent from Charlemagne").”.11 GAV-32 EDV-31 GKJ-31.

; Per Genealogy.EU (Byzant 10): “B3. [2m.] Anna, *898, +914; m.905 Emperor Louis III "the Blind" (+928)”.13

; Per Weis: “Anna, of Byzantium, b. 886/8, d. abt. 914; m. abt 900 Louis III (141B-18) 'the Blind', b. abt. 883, d. 5 June 928, King of Provence and Italy. (Brandenburg)”.7

; Per Med Lands:
     "ANNA (-[901/early 904]). Theophanes Continuatus records that Emperor Leon crowned "Annam Zoes filiam Zantzæ neptem" as "Augusta", recorded in the passage which follows the record of her mother's death and before the text which mentions her father's remarriage, presumably therefore dated to early 900[1129]. Emperor Konstantinos VII's De Ceremoniis Aulæ records that "Anna et Eudocia, filiæ beati eiusdem Leonis ex [secunda uxore] Zoe" (the Greek text specifying "A??? ??? A???" although the editor suggests that "???????" be substituted for the second Anna without giving his reasons: this may result from confusion with Anna's older half-sister of that name) were buried in the church of the Holy Apostles[1130]. It is not known whether this is an error, but in any case both daughters named Anna (assuming that there were two) must have died young. The basis for her betrothal is a letter written by Nikolaos Mystikos, which Settipani quotes in French translation, recalling the writer's admonishing Emperor Leon VI for his unsuitable third marriage (dated to Spring 900), excused because of "l'accord…conclu avec le Franc…tu lui destinais comme épouse ta fille unique…[au] cousin de Berta auquel il est arrive l'infortune que l'on sait"[1131]. The date, the relationship with "Berta" (assuming, as Settipani proposes, that this is Berta daughter of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia who married Adalberto Marchese of Tuscany), and "l'infortune" (his blinding) are consistent with "le Franc" being identified with Louis III King of Italy (his title in 900). Settipani assumes that the marriage actually took place. However, the translation only refers to a proposed marriage ("…tu lui destinais…") and provides no proof that the marriage ever happened or, if it did occur, that the bride ever left Byzantium for Provence. Her burial in Constantinople suggests that she never left her father's court. Anna is not named in any of the surviving charters of Emperor Louis, nor has any mention of her been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted. This would have been the first marriage between the families of the eastern and western emperors as no previous betrothal resulted in a marriage. This absence from contemporary western documentation is therefore striking. It also contrasts sharply with the extensive records which relate the Byzantine origin of Theofano, wife of Emperor Otto II, even though Theofano's precise ancestry is still a mystery (although it is recognised that Anna's career was cut short by a premature death in contrast to Theofano's). Traditional genealogies[1132] show Emperor Louis III's son, Charles Constantin, as the child of this alleged first marriage of Emperor Louis, presumably because of his grandiose name. However, another possible explanation is that the name symbolised the emperor's hope that his son would one day unite the two successor parts of the ancient Roman empire, in the name of his illustrious predecessors Emperors Charlemagne and Constantine I "the Great", completely independent of his mother's maternal ancestry. Tougher suggests that Anna was legitimate, born after her parents' marriage, and that the marriage to King Louis did not take place[1133]. If he is correct about her legitimacy at birth, this excludes her from being the mother of King Louis's son Charles Constantin.
     "Betrothed ([Jun/Jul] 900) LOUIS King [of Provence], son of BOSON King [of Provence] & his second wife Ermengardis [Carolingian] (late 882 or after-Arles 5 Jun 928). He was recognised in 900 as LOUIS III King of Italy, in opposition to Berengario I Marchese of Friulia. He was crowned Emperor LUDWIG III in 901, deposed in 902."
Med Lands cites:
[1129] Theophanes Continuatus, VI, Imperium Leonis Imperatoris, 17, p. 364.
[1130] De Ceremoniis Book II, ch. 42, p. 643.
[1131] Settipani (1991), p. 7 footnote 5.
[1132] For example ES II 189, replacement table at end of ES III.1.
[1133] Tougher (1997), pp. 147-8 [MB].3

Family

Louis III "The Blind" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Lower-Bourgogne and Italy b. b 882, d. 5 Jun 928
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#Annadied914. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Leo VI 'the Wise': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215859&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 30-6.
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 141A-17, p. 124. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 141A-17, p. 135.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  8. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis III: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020443&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/PROVENCE.htm#LouisKingProvencedied928
  11. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 141B-18, p. 136.
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Bosonides: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html#Lo3
  13. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The Macedonian family (Byzant 10): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html#AK7
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berengar_I_of_Italy. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.

Chrothais (?)1

F, #10064
ReferenceGAV32 EDV32
Last Edited18 Apr 2020
     Chrothais (?) married Pepin/Pippin I Karlmann (?) King of Italy, son of Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West and Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau, Queen of the Franks, circa 795;
Stone (2000) Chart 31, Note 1: "Settipani and Van Kerrebrouck (1993) are the primary authority for the line given above. Their information differs from most modern accounts in two ways. First, they supply the name of the mother of King Bernard as Chrothais (pp. 211, 170), identifying her (as others have) as a close relative of the half-brothers Alard (or Adalard) and Wala, sons of Duke Bernard and successive Abbots of Corbie. (Moriarty (1955) proposed that the mother of King Bernard was a daughter of Duke Bernard, but Settipani and Van Kerrebrouck (pp. 3 55-8) list no daughter named Chrothais.) And, second, they supply (p. 222) Liedgardis as the possible name of the wife of Herbert I, Count of Vermandois, whereas Moriarty (1985, p. 6) gives the name as Bertha, daughter of Guerri I, Count of Morvois, citing Chaume's Les Origines du Duché de Bourgogne but pointing out that no wife is given by Brandenburg, Winkhaus or Isenburg."
Sources:
** Moriarty, George Andrews. 1955. "Genealogical Research in Europe: The Wife should be Mother) of Bernard of Italy." New England Historical and Genealogical Register 109: 1 75-178.
** ------------, 1985. The Plantagenet Ancestry of King Edward III and Queen Philippa. Salt Lake City: Mormon Pioneer Genealogical Society. The original manuscript is in Boston at the New England Historic Genealogical Society, with copies at Salt Lake City and Philadelphia (at the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania).
** Settipani, Christian, and Patrick Van Kerrebrouck. 1993. La préhistoire des Capetiens [481 -987 Premiere partie: Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens. Villeneuve d'Ascq (France): P. Van Kerrebrouck.2,3

     ; Per Racines et Histoire: "3) Pépin 1er d’Italie ° 04/773 + 08/07/810 (Milan) Roi des Lombards, couronné 15/07/781 (Rome)
     ép. 1) 795 Berthe de Toulouse (fille de Guillaume, comte de Toulouse)
     ép. 2) Chrotaïs ° 780 (fille de Bernard, fils de Charles Martel.)4"

GAV-32 EDV-32 GKJ-33.

Family

Pepin/Pippin I Karlmann (?) King of Italy b. Apr 773, d. 8 Jul 810
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  2. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), Chart 31, Note 1.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin I (Karlmann): http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020039&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Vermandois, Valois & Vexin, p. 3: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Vermandois-Valois-Vexin.pdf. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  5. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 50-15, p. 51. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Berthaid/Berta/Bothaidis: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331026&tree=LEO

Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium1,2

M, #10065, b. 1 September 866, d. 12 May 912
FatherMichael III "Mythistés" (?) Emperor of Byzantium1,2 b. 19 Jan 840, d. 24 Sep 867
MotherEudokia Ingerina (?)1,3,4 b. c 840, d. bt 882 - 883
ReferenceGAV33
Last Edited15 Dec 2020
     Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium was born on 1 September 866.5,6,1,3 He married Theophano (?) in 885; his 1st wife.1,2 Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium married Zoe Tzautzina; his 2nd wife.5,1,2 Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium married Eudoxia Baiana in 899; his 3rd wife.1,2 Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium married Zoe Carbonospine; his 4th wife.1,2,7
Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium died on 12 May 912 at age 45; Leo van de Pas says d. 11 May 912.5,6,1,2
     ; Per Genealogics:
     “Leo/Leon was recorded as a son of Basil I the Macedonian and his second wife, Eudokia Ingerina. However it is accepted that he was in fact the son of Emperor Michael III, as his mother had been this Emperor's mistress. Educated by the patriarch Photius, Leo was more scholar than soldier. As well as completing the canon of laws, Leo wrote several decrees (novels) dealing with a wide range of ecclesiastical and secular problems. His other works include a funeral panegyric on his father, liturgical poems, sermons and orations, secular poetry, and military treatises. His imperial laws, written in Greek, became the legal code of the Byzantine Empire.
     “Made Co-Emperor in 870, he succeeded to the throne on his father's death. His foreign policy was directed mainly against the Arabs and the Bulgars. The able commander Nicephorus Phocas the Elder was recalled from his successful campaigns against the Lombards in south Italy to assist in the Balkans.
     “After Byzantium met with reverses in the West, Sicily was lost to the Arabs in 902, Thessalonica was sacked by Leo of Tripoli, and the Aegean was open to constant attack from Arab pirates. The Byzantine navy was strengthened, and it successfully attacked the Arab fleet in the Aegean in 908. However Leo of Tripoli defeated the Byzantine naval expedition of 911-912.
     “Byzantium's enemy to the north was Simeon, the Bulgar ruler. Hostilities broke out over a trade dispute in 894 and the Byzantines, aided by the Magyars of the Danube-Dnieper region, forced Simeon to agree to a truce. However, in 896 with the help of the nomadic Pechenegs, Simeon took revenge on the Byzantines, forcing them to pay an annual tribute to the Bulgars.
     “During Leo's reign the Russian prince Oleg sailed to Constantinople and in 907 obtained a treaty regulating the position of Russian merchants in Byzantium, which was formally ratified in 911. Because of his anxiety for a male heir Leo married four times, incurring the censure of the church.”.3

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 141.
2. Genealogists' Magazine Journal of the Society of Genealogists London, Reference: March 1991.3
GAV-33.

; Stone (2000) Chart 40-2: "Leo married four times trying to beget a male heir. Known as "the Philosopher", he was more a scholar than a soldier. He completed the legal codification begun by Basil I."8 He was Emperor of Byzantium between 886 and 912.5,6,1

; Per Enc. of World History: "Leo VI (the Wise), a somewhat pedantic philosopher, but nevertheless a determined ruler with a high sense of his office and obligations. He deposed Photius at once and put the Ignatians back in power. The result was a renewal of the union with Rome (900), which, however, could hardly have been more than external. The reign of Leo was also marked by further legislative work. The Basilika (887-93) provided a series of 60 new law books, consisting largely of a compilation of decrees since the time of Justinian."9

Family 1

Theophano (?) b. c 865, d. 10 Nov 897
Child

Family 2

Zoe Tzautzina d. 899
Child

Family 3

Eudoxia Baiana

Family 4

Zoe Carbonospine b. 885, d. 920
Child

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Leo VI 'the Wise': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215859&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Leo VI 'the Wise': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215859&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eudokia Ingerina: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215858&tree=LEO
  5. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), Chart 40-2.
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 141A-16, p. 124. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Zoe Karbunopsina: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215863&tree=LEO
  8. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents.
  9. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 188. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  11. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#Annadied914. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215864&tree=LEO

Zoe Tzautzina

F, #10066, d. 899
ReferenceGAV33
Last Edited15 Dec 2020
     Zoe Tzautzina married Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium, son of Michael III "Mythistés" (?) Emperor of Byzantium and Eudokia Ingerina (?); his 2nd wife.1,2,3
Zoe Tzautzina died in 899.1
     GAV-33.

Family

Leo VI "The Philosopher" (?) Emperor of Byzantium b. 1 Sep 866, d. 12 May 912
Child

Citations

  1. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), Chart 40-2.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Leo VI 'the Wise': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215859&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzant 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/BYZANTIUM.htm#Annadied914. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

Michael III "Mythistés" (?) Emperor of Byzantium1

M, #10067, b. 19 January 840, d. 24 September 867
FatherTheophilos (?) Emperor of Byzantium1,2 b. 813, d. 20 Jan 842
MotherSaint Theodora (?) Empress of Byzantium1,3 b. 815, d. 23 Feb 867
ReferenceGAV34
Last Edited15 Dec 2020
     Michael III "Mythistés" (?) Emperor of Byzantium married Eudoxia Dekapolitissa.1 Michael III "Mythistés" (?) Emperor of Byzantium was born on 19 January 840; Genealogy.EU (Byzantium 9 page) says b. 839.4,1,5
Michael III "Mythistés" (?) Emperor of Byzantium died on 24 September 867 at age 27.4,1,5
     GAV-34. He was Emperor of Byzantium between 842 and 867 at Constantinople, Byzantium.6

Family 1

Eudoxia Dekapolitissa

Family 2

Eudokia Ingerina (?) b. c 840, d. bt 882 - 883
Child

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 9 page (The Frygian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant9.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theophilos: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00270655&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theodora: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00270656&tree=LEO
  4. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), Chart 40-1.
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_III. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 141A-15, p. 124. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Leo VI 'the Wise': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215859&tree=LEO

Eudokia Ingerina (?)1

F, #10068, b. circa 840, d. between 882 and 883
FatherInger Martinakios2
ReferenceGAV34
Last Edited15 Dec 2020
     Eudokia Ingerina (?) was born circa 840.3,4 She married Basileos I "the Macedonian" (?) Emperor of Byzantium, son of Konstantinos (?) and Pankalo (?), between 865 and 866; his 3rd wife.3,5,6,7
Eudokia Ingerina (?) died between 882 and 883.3,5,4
     GAV-34.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. 141.
2. Nos Ancêtres de l'Antiquité Paris, 1991 , Christian Settipani, Reference: 17.
3. The Genealogist Magazine Published in New York.1


; Stone (2000) Chart 40-1: "she was the mother of Leo VI, but whether by Michael III or Basil I is uncertain“.8 She and Michael II "the Stammerer" (?) Emperor of Byzantium were concubine of Emperor Michael III.5

Family 2

Michael III "Mythistés" (?) Emperor of Byzantium b. 19 Jan 840, d. 24 Sep 867
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eudokia Ingerina: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215858&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Inger Martinakios: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00270653&tree=LEO
  3. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), Chart 40-1.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eudokia Ingerina: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215858&tree=LEO
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Basilius I "the Macedonian": http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215857&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eudokia Ingerina: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215858&tree=LEO
  8. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine of Byzantium: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215876&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alexander: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215877&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Stephanos: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215878&tree=LEO
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Leo VI 'the Wise': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215859&tree=LEO

Basileos I "the Macedonian" (?) Emperor of Byzantium1

M, #10069, b. between 831 and 832, d. 29 August 886
FatherKonstantinos (?)1,3 b. 810, d. bt 838 - 840
MotherPankalo (?)1,2 b. 815, d. a 838
Last Edited12 Dec 2020
     Basileos I "the Macedonian" (?) Emperor of Byzantium was born between 831 and 832 at Adrianople (near modern Edirne), Turkey (now); Genealogy.EU (Byzantium 10 page) says b. 812.4,5 He married Tekla (?), daughter of Theophilos (?) Emperor of Byzantium and Saint Theodora (?) Empress of Byzantium; per Genealogy.EU (Byzant 9 page) his 1st wife; per Leo van de Pas "affair with."5,6,7 Basileos I "the Macedonian" (?) Emperor of Byzantium married Maria (?); his 2nd wife.6,1 Basileos I "the Macedonian" (?) Emperor of Byzantium married Eudokia Ingerina (?), daughter of Inger Martinakios, between 865 and 866; his 3rd wife.4,6,1,8
Basileos I "the Macedonian" (?) Emperor of Byzantium died on 29 August 886; Stone (2000, Chart 40-1) says b. 887.4,6,1
     ; Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: II 141
2. Genealogists' Magazine Journal of the Society of Genealogists London, Reference: March 1991
3. Nos Ancêtres de l'Antiquité Paris, 1991 , Christian Settipani, Reference: 187.1

; Stone (2000) Chart 40-1: "He arranged the assassination of his co-emperor Michael III and founded the Macedonian dynasty. He continued Michael's successful policies and instituted various legal and financial reforms. He was generally successful against the Arabs." He was Emperor of Byzantium between 867 and 886.4,1

; Basil I, founder of the Macedonian dynasty (he was really of Armenian extraction, though born in Macedonia). His reign initiated what was probably the most glorious period of Byzantine history, a period of brilliant military success, material prosperity, and cultural development. Basil I's ambition was to restore the empire both internally and externally. He rebuilt the army and, especially, the navy and did much to revise the legal system: the Procheiros Nomos (879), a compilation of the most important parts of the Justinian code; the Epanagoge (886), a manual of customary law.

Basil I's reign was also marked by the gradual emergence of a system comparable to western European feudalism: in return for their service to the state, high-ranking officials were given land with peasants to till the fields. This practice led to the appearance of powerful provincial magnates, called dynatoi. However, there was no contract between lord and vassal: the emperor could dispossess the dynatoi at any time.9

Family 1

Tekla (?)

Family 2

Maria (?)

Family 3

Eudokia Ingerina (?) b. c 840, d. bt 882 - 883
Children

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Basilius I "the Macedonian": http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215857&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pankalo: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215848&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Konstantinos: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215847&tree=LEO
  4. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), Chart 40-1.
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 9 page (The Frygian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant9.html
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Byzantium 10 page (The Macedonian family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/byzant/byzant10.html
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Thekla: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00270657&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eudokia Ingerina: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215858&tree=LEO
  9. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 187. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine of Byzantium: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215876&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alexander: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215877&tree=LEO
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Stephanos: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00215878&tree=LEO

Genebald I (?) of the Franks

M, #10070, b. WFT Est. 242-300, d. 350
FatherDogobert (?) b. WFT Est. 208-271, d. 317
Last Edited6 Dec 2002
     Genebald I (?) of the Franks was born WFT Est. 242-300.1 He married an unknown person WFT Est. 266-332.1
Genebald I (?) of the Franks died in 350 at France.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Walter (?) of the Franks

M, #10071, b. WFT Est. 189-243, d. 306
FatherClodius (?) III b. WFT Est. 180-218, d. 298
Last Edited6 Dec 2002
     Walter (?) of the Franks was born WFT Est. 189-243.1 He married an unknown person WFT Est. 212-275.1
Walter (?) of the Franks died in 306 at France.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Clodius (?) III

M, #10072, b. WFT Est. 180-218, d. 298
FatherBartherus Franks b. WFT Est. 154-190, d. 272
Last Edited6 Dec 2002
     Clodius (?) III was born WFT Est. 180-218.1 He married an unknown person WFT Est. 201-251.1
Clodius (?) III died in 298 at France.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Bartherus Franks

M, #10073, b. WFT Est. 154-190, d. 272
FatherHilderic Franks b. WFT Est. 135-166, d. 253
Last Edited29 May 2001
     Bartherus Franks was born WFT Est. 154-190.1 He married an unknown person WFT Est. 175-224.1
Bartherus Franks died in 272 at France.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Hilderic Franks

M, #10074, b. WFT Est. 135-166, d. 253
FatherSunno Franks b. WFT Est. Bef. 137, d. 213
Last Edited29 May 2001
     Hilderic Franks was born WFT Est. 135-166.1 He married an unknown person WFT Est. 156-201.1
Hilderic Franks died in 253 at France.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Sunno Franks

M, #10075, b. WFT Est. Bef. 137, d. 213
FatherFarabert Franks b. WFT Est. Bef. 109, d. 186
Last Edited29 May 2001
     Sunno Franks married an unknown person WFT Est. 119-171.1 He was born WFT Est. Bef. 137.1
Sunno Franks died in 213 at France.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Farabert Franks

M, #10076, b. WFT Est. Bef. 109, d. 186
FatherClodomir Franks IV b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. 166
MotherHasilda Of Rugij (?) b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. WFT Est. Bef. 100
Last Edited29 May 2001
     Farabert Franks was born WFT Est. Bef. 109.1 He married an unknown person WFT Est. Bef. 143.1
Farabert Franks died in 186 at France.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Clodomir Franks IV

M, #10077, b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. 166
FatherMarcomir Franconia IV b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. 149
MotherAthildis (?) b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. WFT Est. Bef. 100
Last Edited29 May 2001
     Clodomir Franks IV was born WFT Est. Bef. 100.1
Clodomir Franks IV died in 166 at France.1

Family

Hasilda Of Rugij (?) b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. WFT Est. Bef. 100
Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Hasilda Of Rugij (?)

F, #10078, b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. WFT Est. Bef. 100
Last Edited29 May 2001
     Hasilda Of Rugij (?) died WFT Est. Bef. 100.1 She was born WFT Est. Bef. 100.1

Family

Clodomir Franks IV b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. 166
Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Dogobert (?)

M, #10079, b. WFT Est. 208-271, d. 317
FatherWalter (?) of the Franks b. WFT Est. 189-243, d. 306
Last Edited6 Dec 2002
     Dogobert (?) was born WFT Est. 208-271.1 He married an unknown person WFT Est. 232-302.1
Dogobert (?) died in 317.1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.

Marcomir Franconia IV

M, #10080, b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. 149
Last Edited29 May 2001
     Marcomir Franconia IV was born WFT Est. Bef. 100.1
Marcomir Franconia IV died in 149 at Franconia.1

Family

Athildis (?) b. WFT Est. Bef. 100, d. WFT Est. Bef. 100
Child

Citations

  1. [S741] Unknown compiler, World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1., CD-ROM (n.p.: Brøderbund Software, Inc., Release date: March 27, 1998). Hereinafter cited as World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1.