David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland1,2,3

M, #4231, b. 1080, d. 24 May 1153
FatherMalcolm III Canmore (?) King of Scots4,3 b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
MotherSaint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland5,4,3 b. 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093
ReferenceGAV24 EDV24
Last Edited3 Sep 2014
     David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland was born in 1080; Genealogy.EU (Dunkeld page) says b. 1083/84.6,7,1,3 He married Maude (Matilda) de Huntingdon Countess of Huntingdon & Northumberland, daughter of Waltheof II (?) Earl of Huntingdon, Northampton & Northumberland and Judith (?) of Lens, in 1113; her 2nd husband.8,7,1,9,3,10
David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland died on 24 May 1153 at Carlisle, co. Cumberland, England.7,1,3,10
David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland was buried after 24 May 1153 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.7,2,3


     David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland
weis 170-22. GAV-24 EDV-24.

David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland
After Earl [of Huntingdon] Simon's [de St. Liz] death his widow Maud married DAVID I of Scotland, who consequently became Earl of Huntingdon too, keeping the Earldom even after he succeeded his brother as King of Scots. He sided with the EMPRESS MAUD against STEPHEN but came to terms with the latter and made the Earldom over to his son Henry.11

David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland
David I "the Saint", Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, King of Scotland (1124-53), *ca 1083/84, +Carlisle, Cumbria 24.5.1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife; m.1113/14 Matilda (*ca 1074, +23.4.1130/22.4.1131, bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire), dau.of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton.3

David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland
David I "the Saint," King of Scotland, 23 Apr 1124-1153; Earl of Huntingdon, in England; b. 1085, Scotland; d. 24 May 1153, Carlisle, Cumberland; md (her 2nd) 1113/1114, Matilda (Maud) of Huntingdon, widow of Simon de St. Liz.12,13 He was Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton.3 He was King of Scotland: [Ashley, p. 403-405] DAVID (I) THE SAINT Scotland, 23(?) April 1124-24 May 1153. Titles: king of Scotland, earl of Huntingdon and Northampton (from 1113) and prince of Cumbria (1113-1124). Born: c1084. Died: Carlisle, 24 May 1153, aged about 69. Buried: Dunfermline Abbey. Married: 1113, Matilda (c1072-c1 130), dau. Waltheof, earl of Northumberland, and widow of Simon de St Liz, earl of Northampton and Huntingdon: 4 children. David was the youngest son of MALCOLM III and his English wife Margaret. He was about forty when he came to the throne, mature in his character, his outlook and his ability to govern. He had spent much of his youth, since the year 1093, at the court of HENRY I of England, who was his brother-in-law. Since his infancy he had been raised by Margaret with a respect for learning and the church, and it seems he had a tremendous respect for fair play, a trait let down only in his old age when he ultimately failed to uphold his promise of support for MATILDA. In 1107 David's elder brother ALEXANDER inherited the Scottish throne. Apparently their elder brother EDGAR had entreated that Scotland be divided between them, with David ruling the Lowlands south of the Clyde. Alexander did not honour this, and though David threatened to lead an army against him, it came to nothing. It was not until 1113, when David married Matilda, and inherited vast lands in Northumberland, Northampton and Huntingdon, that Alexander relented and allowed David to become sub-king of the Lowlands. Since David also became earl of Huntingdon he was both a Norman baron and a Scottish king, which was immensely important in understanding the power that David was able to wield and the respect he had to be accorded by his peers.
When David became king in 1124 he continued the reforms started by his mother and brothers, but it was under David that it all came into shape. Chief of these reforms was the feudalisation of lowland Scotland. Tracts of land were given to Anglo-Norman barons in exchange for their loyalty and service. Amongst them were Robert de Brus, the ancestor of ROBERT BRUCE, who was given the lordship of Annandale, and Walter Fitzalan, who became High Steward of Scotland and thus the ancestor of the Stewart dynasty. This process was described by the disgruntled Highlanders as "invasion by invitation", and led to at least two revolts during David's reign (by ANGUS, earl of Moray, the grandson of LULACH, in 1130 who was killed at the battle of Strathcarro; and by Wimund, bishop of the Isles in 1140) and eventually the declaration of independence by SOMERLED of Argyll after David's death. Nevertheless, David's gradual reform brought a cohesiveness to Scotland that it had previously never enjoyed, particularly in the strength of the church and the world of learning. He founded the bishoprics of Aberdeen, Brechin, Caithness, Dunblane and Ross as well as the monasteries at Holyrood, Melrose, Kinloss, Newbattle and Dundrennan. He also forged strong links with Rome. Even during his life he had come to be regarded as a saintly king by his people, the epithet Saint David remained after his death, even though he was never formally canonized. It was David who really forged Scotland as a prosperous kingdom, introducing a strong coinage, and developing towns like Berwick, Edinburgh, Jedburgh, Stirling and Perth as major trading centres from which the king drew revenues. David also redrew the Scottish administrative map, creating the counties which remained until the reorganization of 1975. Justice was dispensed by a system of justiciars. In all these things David created the modern Scotland.
In military matters he was less strong and only partly successful. In 1127 he agreed, along with other English barons, to recognize Henry I's daughter, MATILDA, as the next ruler of England. He used this as an excuse in 1135, on the death of Henry and the succession of STEPHEN, to invade northern England, laying claim to Northumberland and Cumberland initially in the name of Matilda. The next three years saw considerable bloodshed in Northumberland where David's soldiers committed awful atrocities. Eventually David was defeated by the northern barons under Thurstan, archbishop of York, at Cowton Moor, near Northallerton, on 22 August 1138 at the battle of the Standard. David continued to press his claims in the north and Stephen, unable to fight his war on two fronts, eventually reached an agreement whereby David was granted the earldom of Northumberland provided he swore fealty to Stephen. The earldom was bestowed upon David's son, Henry, who was the king designate.
David switched sides again to support Matilda when she gained the upper hand in February 1141 and he ventured as far south as London for her coronation. However, he was expelled from London in September by Stephen's troops and only narrowly escaped back to Durham without being captured. Thereafter he remained on the sidelines, a nominal supporter of the Empress, but not engaging in further conflict. In 1149 he gained a promise from Matilda's son HENRY (II) that, should he become king, he would grant David the lands of Northumberland and Cumbria. When David died at Carlisle in May 1153 he almost certainly regarded himself as lord of all the lands from Caithness in the north to Cumbria and Northumberland in the south. Though these southern lands were never formally part of the kingdom of Scotland, David doubtless believed they would be.
Neither of David's own sons came to the throne. His firstborn, Malcolm, had been murdered in infancy, probably about 1114. Henry, who was groomed as the next king, died in 1152, aged thirty-eight. Henry's young son, MALCOLM, was promptly declared the king designate, though he was only twelve. between 23 April 1124 and 24 May 1153.13,14
David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scotland was a witness to the he witnessed a charter in 1128 for the foundation of Holyrood Abbey by King David I for the Canons Regular of St. Augustine. with Walter de Graham of Abercorn in 1128 at Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland.15

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:viii. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 397, 403-405. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  6. [S742] Ed. Antonia Fraser, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England (revised and updated) (n.p.: University of California Press, Berkely, 1998, unknown publish date), p. 19.
  7. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), pp. 113-114, HUNTINGDON 3.
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 148-24, p. 130. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  10. [S1896] Douglas Richardson, "Richardson email 22 June 2005: "Extended Pedigree of Counts of Boulogne-sur-Mer"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 22 June 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Richardson email 22 June 2005."
  11. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Huntingdon Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  12. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  13. [S599] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 28 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 14, Ed. 1, family # 1829 (n.p.: Release date: October 20, 1997, unknown publish date).
  14. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 170-22, pp. 147-148.
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, William de Graham, of Abercorn: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00127771&tree=LEO
  16. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), pp. 113-114, HUNTINGDON 3:v.
  17. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), pp. 113-114, HUNTINGDON 3:vi.
  18. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), pp. 113-114, HUNTINGDON 3:iii.

Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots1,2,3

M, #4232, b. 1077, d. 23 April 1124
FatherMalcolm III Canmore (?) King of Scots2,3,4 b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
MotherSaint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland2,5,4,3 b. 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093
ReferenceGAV25
Last Edited28 Apr 2018
     Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots was born in 1077.6,2,3 He married Sibylla (?), daughter of Henry I "Beauclerc" (?) King of England and Sibylla Corbet of Alcester, circa 1107.7,1,2,3
Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots was buried in 1124 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.8


Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots died on 23 April 1124 at Stirling Castle, Stirling, Scotland.6,9,1,8,3
Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots was buried circa 27 April 1124 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.1,3


     GAV-25. He was King of Scotland: [Ashley, p. 402-403] ALEXANDER (I) THE FIERCE Scotland, 8 January 1 107-23(?) April 1124. A younger son of MALCOLM III and his English queen Margaret, he succeeded his brother EDGAR. It is possible that Alexander already ruled parts of Scotland as sub-king to Edgar who seemed to have little interest in Scotland beyond Lothian, and when Alexander succeeded to the throne it was intended that he share the kingdom with his brother DAVID. Alexander chose not to, and David threatened to invade the kingdom, but was never able to raise a sufficiently large army. It was not until 1113 that Alexander granted David territory in Strathclyde and the Borders. Upon his accession, Alexander married Sybilla, the fifteen year old illegitimate daughter of HENRY I. Henry was already Alexander's brother-in-law, as Henry had married Alexander's sister Edith. During the first phase of his reign Alexander was clearly Henry's vassal: he even accompanied Henry in his campaign into Wales against GRUFFYDD AP CYNAN in 1114. However, by the second half of his reign, Alexander had shifted back toward the heart of old Scotland, or Alba, and had taken up residence at Scone. It may be now that he earned his nickname of "the Fierce", apparently after the ferocious way he quelled an uprising by the men of Moray. It may have been through such an indomitable strength of character that Alexander began to win over the Highland Scots, despite considerable opposition. Alexander began a programme of castle construction, including the one at Stirling. His court became one of splendour - there is mention of Arab stallions and Turkish men-at-arms. Alexander also continued his mother's reforms in anglicising the Scottish church, and was the first to introduce coinage into Scotland. His reforms saw the introduction of the first sheriffs in Scotland as controller's of the king's peace. Thus, by the end of Alexander's reign, there had been a measurable shift toward uniting the older Scottish culture with the new Anglo-Norman world. Alexander had achieved this through his own strength and willpower, leaving a steady base for his brother David. Alexander died at Stirling Castle and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey. between 1107 and 1124.10,8,2

Family 1

Child

Family 2

Sibylla (?) b. c 1091, d. 12 Jul 1122

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:vi. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  6. [S742] Ed. Antonia Fraser, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England (revised and updated) (n.p.: University of California Press, Berkely, 1998, unknown publish date), p. 19.
  7. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), p. 95, Fitz PIERS 2.
  8. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 397, 402-403. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  9. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), pp. 183-185, NORMANDY 8:xiii.
  10. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix IV: The Scottish Royal Dynasties. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  11. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 397.

Edgar (?) King of Scots1,2,3

M, #4233, b. circa 1074, d. 8 January 1106
FatherMalcolm III Canmore (?) King of Scots4,5,3 b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
MotherSaint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland4,6,5,3 b. 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093
Last Edited13 Dec 2003
     Edgar (?) King of Scots was born circa 1074.7,4,3
Edgar (?) King of Scots died on 8 January 1106 at Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland.7,1,4,3
Edgar (?) King of Scots was buried after 8 January 1107 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.1,3


     He was King of Scotland: EDGAR Scotland, October 1097-8 January 1107. Edgar was the son of MALCOLM Ill and his second wife, Margaret, the sister of EDGAR THE ATHELING. In 1095 WILLIAM II declared Edgar king of Scotland, and it is likely that Edgar claimed lands in Lothian and Bernicia. No doubt skirmishes continued over the next couple of years, but in October 1097 Edgar succeeded in deposing both Donald and Edmund.
It is surprising that Edgar did not face a revolt from the Highlands, as he showed them little respect. Soon after his accession Magnus III of Norway led a major expedition to his territories in northern Britain. He deposed the earls of Orkney, PAUL and ERLEND, who were Edgar's step-brothers, and set off on a wave of conquest around the Scottish coast. Edgar quite happily gave Magnus sovereignty over the Hebrides. These islands were heavily populated by Norse or Gallo-Norse and seemed far removed from Edgar's world. Part of this arrangement, however, meant that the holy island of Iona came under Norwegian rule, which must have alienated many Scots.
Although Edgar was sensible enough not to encourage a wave of Norman settlement in Scotland, he increased his ties with England. He was already beholden to William II for gaining the throne, and was present at the coronation of HENRY I in August 1100. Three months later Henry married Edgar's sister Edith. This had been a move by Henry to tie himself closer to the Saxon kings, as Edith was the great-granddaughter of EDMUND II, but it also tightened the link with the Scottish king. Edgar preferred to stay in close contact with his Saxon and Norman colleagues. He remained in Lothian, living mostly in Edinburgh, and it does not appear that he ventured far beyond. He played the part of a Norman vassal to the letter and it is of little surprise that by this time the Norman kings of England began to regard Scotland, certainly the border territory, as their domain.
Edgar reigned for a little over nine years. He was only in his mid-thirties when he died early in 1107. He never married and was succeeded by his brother ALEXANDER. between October 1097 and 8 January 1107.8,4,3

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:v. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 397, 402. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  4. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  7. [S742] Ed. Antonia Fraser, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England (revised and updated) (n.p.: University of California Press, Berkely, 1998, unknown publish date), p. 19.
  8. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix IV: The Scottish Royal Dynasties. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.

Edward (?)1,2

M, #4234, b. circa 1070, d. 16 November 1093
FatherMalcolm III Canmore (?) King of Scots3,4,2,5 b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
MotherSaint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland3,6,2 b. 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093
Last Edited1 May 2006
     Edward (?) was born circa 1070.2
Edward (?) died on 16 November 1093 at Edwardisle nr Alnwick, Jedburgh, Scotland.7,3,2
Edward (?) was buried after 16 November 1093 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.2


     Edward (?)
(an unknown value.)8

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 397. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  3. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco002.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  7. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:iii. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  8. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).

Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland1,2,3

M, #4235, b. 1033, d. 1099
FatherDuncan I "the Gracious" (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (?) King of Scotland4,3,5 b. 1001, d. 14 Aug 1040
MotherSuthen (?) of Northumbria3,6 b. 1009, d. 1040
ReferenceGAV24 EDV24
Last Edited20 May 2020
     Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland was born in 1033.7,4,3
Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland died in 1099 at Rescobie, Forfarshire, Scotland; blinded and imprisoned.3,1,4
     GAV-24 EDV-24.

Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland
Donald III Bane, Mormaer of Gowrie, co-King of Scotland (1093-94)+(1094-97), *ca 1033, +blinded and imprisoned Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099, bur Dunkeld Abbey later removed to Isle of Iona; m.NN.3 Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland was also known as Domnall Bán mac Donnchada (Donaldbane), (?) King of Scotland (Alba).8 He was King of Scotland: [Ashley, p. 400] DONALD III BANE (THE WHITE) sometimes called DONALBAIN Scotland 13 November 1093-May 1094 (deposed); restored 12 November 1094- October 1097. Born: c1033. Died: Rescobie, 1099, aged 66. Buried: Dunkeld Abbey, later removed to Iona.
Married (name and date unknown): 1 daughter. Donald was the younger brother of MALCOLM III and for most of his life probably had no designs on the Scottish throne. He was almost certainly made mórmaer of Gowrie around the year 1060 but there is no record that he played any part in Malcolm's affairs. It is possible that the two brothers were estranged and that Donald did not support Malcolm's and Margaret's reforms. He lived in exile in Ireland and the Western Isles and thereby endeared himself to the pro-Gaelic party in Scotland. After the death of Malcolm and his heir Edward, it was Donald who was raised to the throne during the days of confusion over the succession. Donald was sixty, and although his hair had probably turned white (hence his nickname) he was evidently strong and hale of body. Donald and his supporters promptly expelled the Norman and Saxon refugees in Scotland. As a consequence Malcolm's eldest son, DUNCAN, who had hitherto also shown no interest in the kingship, but who had lived as a hostage at the courts of WILLIAM I and II of England for many years, came into the picture. He was supported by William II and his army defeated Donald and drove him out of Scotland. Duncan held the throne for only seven months before being defeated by Donald at the battle of Monthecin in November 1094, after which Donald was restored to the throne. However, Donald now divided the kingdom between himself and his nephew EDMUND, with Donald's rule amongst the heart of his supporters in the Highlands north of the Forth/Clyde valley. This arrangement survived for less than three years as another of Malcolm's sons, EDGAR, received greater support from William II and deposed Donald and Edmund in October 1097. Donald was blinded and imprisoned at Rescobie in Forfarshire, where he died some eighteen months later. He was buried at Dunkeld Abbey but later his remains were removed to Iona by his adherents. He was the last Scottish king to be buried there, and thus marks the end of the old tradition of Gaelic kings. between 1093 and 1098.9,2,4

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), pp. 226-227, SCOTLAND 24. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 198. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  4. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  5. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Suthen (of Northumbria): https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022595&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  8. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/dunca001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  9. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix IV: The Scottish Royal Dynasties. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.

Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling1,2

M, #4236, b. 1016, d. 1057
FatherEdmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England1,2 b. 993, d. 30 Nov 1016
MotherEaldgyth (Edith) (?)1,2 d. a 1017
ReferenceGAV25 EDV25
Last Edited13 May 2020
     Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling was born in 1016.3,4,5,2 He married Agatha (?) of Poland, daughter of Mieszko II Lambert (?) King of Poland and Rixa (Richeza) (?) Countess of Pfalz-Lorraine, Queen of Poland, at Kyiv (Kiev), Ukraine (now).5,1,6,7
Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling died in 1057 at London, England.8,4,5,2
     Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling
Per Genealogics:
     "Edward 'Atheling' was born in 1016, the son of Edmund II Ironside, king of England, and Ealdgyth. After the accession of Knud 'den Store', by the treaty of Olney Knud was charged with the safe-keeping of Edmund and Edward Atheling. However Knud had no intention of raising up future opponents for his own sons. He sent the young Athelings overseas with the intent that they be put to death. Apparently the two princes were sent to the king of the Swedes ('ad regem Suanorum') with the intent of meeting a swift end, but the Swedish king relented and sent them eastwards. Edward is believed to have lived for a period in Rus. However Poland was the more likely Slavic destination for the Athelings in late 1016 or 1017. The favourable reception the Athelings received in Poland was not what Knud had intended.
     "Edward is believed to have gone to Hungary in 1046 as part of the army that placed András I on the Hungarian throne. By then Edward was married to Agatha, most probably the daughter of Mieszko II, king of Poland, and Richeza de Lorraine, and a relative of the Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich III. They had three children of whom only their daughter Margaret would have progeny.
     "Edward died in 1057 soon after returning to England with his family."7 GAV-25 EDV-25 GKJ-26.

Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling
Per Med Lands:
     "EDWARD ([1016/17]-London 19 Apr 1057, bur London St Paul's). Maybe twin with his brother Edmund or, as noted above, born posthumously. He is the first prince in the Wessex royal family to have been named after his father, which suggests that he may have been born posthumously which could have justified this departure from the normal naming practice. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [him] into Hungary … [where] he grew up to be a good man"[1906]. Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edward "épousa la fille du roi et regna sur les Huns"[1907]. Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court"[1908]. According to Adam of Bremen, the two brothers were "condemned to exile in Russia"[1909]. Geoffrey Gaimar (in an altogether confusing account) names "Li uns…Edgar…li alters…Edelret" as the children of King Edmund, recounting that they were sent first to Denmark and later to "Russie [Susie], e vint en terre de Hungrie"[1910]. Edward’s life in exile is discussed in detail by Ronay[1911]. Humphreys infers from the chronicles of Gaimar, Adam of Bremen and Roger of Hoveden that Edward spent some time at the court of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev[1912]. Assuming he was in exile in Hungary from childhood, he may have left for Kiev in 1037 with András Prince of Hungary who fled Hungary after the 1037 disgrace of his father, although this is unlikely for the reasons explained above in relation to his brother Edmund. If this is correct, he would have returned with András in [1046/47] when the latter succeeded as András I King of Hungary after King Péter Orseolo was deposed. Aldred Bishop of Worcester, ambassador of King Edward "the Confessor", "proposed to the emperor to send envoys to Hungary to bring back Edward and have him conducted to England"[1913], according to Florence of Worcester to be groomed to succeed to the English throne[1914]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edward died "at London soon after his arrival"[1915] before meeting his uncle the king and also states his burial place[1916].
     "m (Kiev[1917] [1040/45]) AGATHA, daughter of --- ([1025/35]-). Agatha is named as the wife of Edward in many sources[1918], but her origin has been the subject of lively debate for years. The early 12th century chronicles are contradictory. The assertion by Orderic Vitalis that she was "daughter of Solomon King of the Magyars"[1919] can be dismissed as impossible chronologically. One group of chroniclers suggest a German origin, saying that she was "the daughter of the brother of the Emperor Henry". This includes John of Worcester ("filia germani imperatoris henrici"[1920], in a passage which Humphreys speculates was written some time between 1120 and 1131 although possibly based on the earlier work of Marianus Scotus), Florence of Worcester ("daughter of the brother of Emperor Henry"[1921]), the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ("the emperor's kinswoman"[1922] and, in relation to her daughter Margaret, "descended from the emperor Henry who had dominion over Rome"[1923]). Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edwardo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "filiam germani sui Henrici imperatoris…Agatha"[1924]. Matthew of Paris calls Agatha "soror Henrici imperatoris Romani" when recounting the ancestry of Henry II King of England[1925]. A second group of chroniclers propose a Russian origin, suggesting that Agatha belonged to the family of Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev. For William of Malmesbury, she was "sister of the [Hungarian] queen", which from a chronological point of view could only refer to Anastasia Iaroslavna, wife of King András I. In a 13th century interpolation in one copy of the Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ (written in [1130]) she was "ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum"[1926]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agatham regine Hunorem sororem"[1927], the Hungarian Magyars frequently, though incorrectly, being referred to as "Huns" in many other sources. Lastly, Roger of Wendover records that "Eadwardus" married "reginæ Hungariæ sororem…Agatham"[1928]. In considering the German origin theory, the uterine half-brothers ("germani") of Emperor Heinrich III provide a likely candidate. These half-brothers were Liudolf von Braunschweig, Markgraf in Friesland (son of Gisela of Swabia, mother of Emperor Heinrich III, by her first marriage with Bruno Graf [von Braunschweig]), and Ernst von Babenberg Duke of Swabia and his younger brother Hermann IV Duke of Swabia (sons of Gisela by her second marriage). The latter, the Babenberg brothers, born in [1014/16], were both too young to have been Agatha's father so can be dismissed. Liudolf von Braunschweig was first proposed as Agatha's father in 1933[1929], and has been the preferred candidate for many historians since then[1930]. His birth date is estimated at [1003/05] (see BRUNSWICK) which is consistent with his having been Agatha's father. The marriage taking place in Kiev would not exclude a German origin, as contacts were reported between Kiev and the imperial court in 1040[1931], when Russia was aiming to create a tripartite alliance with England and Germany to weaken Denmark, and also in 1043[1932], when the situation required review following the accession of King Edward "the Confessor" in England. The major drawback to the German origin theory is the total absence of onomastic connections between the Braunschweig family and the descendants of Edward and Agatha, although this is not of course conclusive to prove or disprove the hypothesis. The Russian origin theory has also found considerable academic support[1933]. Edmund must have had contact with the Russian royal family during his period in Kiev, assuming it is correct, as suggested above, that he spent time there during his exile. There are numerous onomastic connections between the the extended family of Grand Prince Iaroslav and the descendants of Edward and Agatha. For example, the names of Edward and Agatha's own daughters, Margaret and Christina, were both used in the Swedish royal family, to which Grand Prince Iaroslav's wife belonged. In the next generation, among Queen Margaret's own children, the name David is one which seems only to have been used in the Kiev ruling family among all contemporary European royal dynasties. The major problem with the Russian origin theory is the complete failure to explain the source references to Agatha's family relationship with the emperor, which it is unwise to dismiss as completely meaningless. It is of course possible that neither of these theories is correct, and that Agatha belonged to a minor German, Russian or Hungarian noble family the importance of whose family connections were exaggerated in the sources. Edward's relationship to the kings of England may, at the time of his marriage, have seemed remote and unimportant in eastern Europe, especially as England was ruled by Danish kings whose position must then have seemed secure. He may not have provided a sufficiently attractive marriage prospect for a prominent European princess. In conclusion, therefore, there is no satisfactory way of deciding between each of the competing theories concerning Agatha's origin and it appears best to classify it as "unknown". It is unlikely that the mystery of Agatha's origin will ever be solved to the satisfaction of all. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, after the Norman conquest, Agatha left England with her children in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1934]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1935]. According to Weir, in old age, possibly after the death of her daughter Queen Margaret, she became a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne[1936], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified."
Med Lands cites:
[1906] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1057.
[1907] Orderic Vitalis I, p. 165.
[1908] Florence of Worcester, 1017, p. 133.
[1909] Adami Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificium ex Recensione Lappenbergii, MGH SS II, p. 51.
[1910] Geoffrey Gaimar, lines 4516-17, 4563-4590, pp. 154, 156-7.
[1911] Ronay (1989).
[1912] Humphreys, W. 'Agatha, Mother of St. Margaret: The Slavic versus Salian solutions - a critical overview', Foundations: Newsletter of the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Vol 1, No 1 (Jan 2003), p. 31, available at (30 Jul 2003), p. 333, which also cites Fest, S. (1938) The Sons of Eadmund Ironside (Budapest), the last noting the opinion of Karácsonyi in 1928.
[1913] Florence of Worcester, 1054, p. 156.
[1914] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159.
[1915] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159.
[1916] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1057, and E, 1057, the latter mentioning his burial place.
[1917] Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ, written [1130], quoted in Ronay (1989), pp. 116 and 197 footnote 17.
[1918] Including MP, Vol. II, p. 22.
[1919] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 273.
[1920] Darlington, Reginald R. & McGurk, Patrick editors, trans. Jennifer Bray and Patrick McGurk (1995) The Chronicle of John of Worcester, Vol II: The Annals from 450 to 1066 (Oxford: Clarendon Press), 1017, cited in Humphreys (2003), p. 34.
[1921] Florence of Worcester, 1017, p. 133.
[1922] "Caseres maga", Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1057.
[1923] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1067.
[1924] Aelredus Rievallensis Abbas, Genealogia Regum Anglorum, Migne, Patrologia Latina, Vol 195, col. 733D and 734B.
[1925] MP, Vol. II, 1155, p. 209.
[1926] Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ, quoted in Ronay (1989), p. 117.
[1927] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1100, MGH SS XXIII, p. 814.
[1928] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 462.
[1929] Herzog, Joszef (1933), Skóciai Szent Margit származásának kérdése [The problem of St Margaret of Scotland's Scottish origins].
[1930] Including De Vajay, S. (1962) 'Agatha, Mother of Saint Margaret Queen of Scotland' Duquesne Review: Journal of Social Sciences, 7: 71-80, and Faris, David & Richardson, Douglas (1998) 'The Parents of Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile' New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 152: 224-235.
[1931] Saxo Grammaticus, 1040, MGH SS VI, p. 684.
[1932] Annales Altahenses Maiores, MGH XX, p. 798.
[1933] Including Jetté, R. (1996) 'Is the Mystery of the Origin of Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile, finally solved?', New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 150: 417-32, and Ingham, N. W. (1998) 'Has a missing daughter of Iaroslav Mudriy been found?', Russian History 23 (3):231-70.
[1934] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1067.
[1935] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 2.9


Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 191.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to Amercia bef.1700 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, Reference: 2.
3. The Worcester Manuscript in The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, London, 1997, Swanton, Michael editor.
4. The Scottish Genealogist, Quarterly Journal of the Scottish Genealogy Society. Jun 2009 70 and onwards - John Ravilious.7



Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling and Agatha (?) of Poland
Per Genealogy.EU: "Edward "the Exile", styled Atheling and adopted as King Edward the Confessor's heir, *1016, +London 1057, bur Old St.Paul's Cathedral; m. in Kiev Agatha of Kiev (+before 1093)."1
Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling was a witness to the NB: There are various theories about the parents of the Agatha who m. Edward Aetheling and other about who the Polish wife of Imre of Hungary were.
     Guido & Ravilious [2012:84-87] have a long discussion concerning the theory that Imre had a Polish wife and the possibility that this wife might have been an Agatha, dau. of Mieszko II. They propose that the same dau. of Mieszko that m. Edward Aetheling also m. Imre.
     Med Lands (Ref #1) shows and unnamed dau. of Mieszko marrying Imre. As for Edward, Med Lands (Ref #2) only shows that he m. a wife named Agatha, and then presents a synopsis of the various theories concerning her parentage.(but not the Polish one reviewed by Guido and Ravilious, op. cit.) Med Lands (Ref #3) discusses the possibility that Imre might have m. a dau. of Mieszko II, without naming her and in reviewing several competing theories for her origin.
Conclusion: For the present, I have created a second Agatha "(2?)" as wife of Imre and sister to Agatha 1, wife of Exward GA Vaut with Agatha (2?) (?) of Poland.10,11,12,13,14,15

Family

Agatha (?) of Poland b. c 1014, d. c 1070
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  4. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  5. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-21, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Agatha of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020120&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO
  8. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  9. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  10. [S4750] Michael Anne Guido and John P. Ravilious, "From Theophanu to St. Margaret of Scotland: A study of Agatha's ancestry", Foundations IV:81-121 (Vol. IV, 2012): pp. 84-87, 116. Hereinafter cited as "From Theophanu to St. Margaret."
  11. [S1549] "Author's comment", various, Gregory A. Vaut (e-mail address), to unknown recipient (unknown recipient address), 12 May 2020; unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as "GA Vaut Comment."
  12. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/agath000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, Ref #1: https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#dauMieszkoMImreHungary
  14. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, Ref #2: https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm.
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, Ref #3: https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#Imredied1031
  16. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar Atheling: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020121&tree=LEO

Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England1,2,3

M, #4237, b. 993, d. 30 November 1016
FatherAethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless2,1,4 b. c 968, d. 23 Apr 1016
MotherElgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?)1,3,4 b. c 963, d. Feb 1002
ReferenceGAV26 EDV26
Last Edited13 Nov 2005
     Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England was born in 993; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 2 page) says b. ca 988/90.1,5,6 He married Ealdgyth (Edith) (?), daughter of Aelfthryth (?), in August 1015 at Malmsbury, Wiltshire, England; her 2nd husband.7,5,4
Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England was buried in 1016 at Glastonbury Abbey, England.7


Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England died on 30 November 1016 at London, England; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 2 page) says "possibly murdered."6,8,7,5,1
Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England was buried after 30 November 1016 at Glastonbury Abbey, co. Somerset, England.1


     Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England
Edmund II "Ironside", King of England (1016) -cr Old St.Paul's Cathedral IV.1016, *ca 988/90, +possibly murdered at Oxford 30.11.1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset; m.Malmesbury, Wiltshire VIII.1015 Edith N (+Hungary after 1017); issue may have been twins.1 GAV-26 EDV-26 GKJ-27.

Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England
He was chosen king by the Londoners on his father's death (April, 1016), while King Cnut (also spelt Canute) was elected at Southampton by the Witan. Edmund hastily levied an army in the west, defeated Cnut twice, raised the siege of London, and again routed the Danes. Known as 'Ironside' for his courage, he devoted his short reign to defending his inheritance against the ravages of Cnut.

In this he was severely hampered by the behaviour of one of his father's favourites, Edric Streona (Grasper). On one battlefield Edric mounted a hill and held up a severed head, saying it was Edmund's. At this the king removed his helmet to show himself alive, then violently hurled his spear at Edric. Glancing off Edric's shield, the spear pierced two soldiers standing beside him.

However, defeat at the battle of Ashington forced Edmund to make terms with Cnut and they agreed to divide the kingdom, Cnut retaining Mercia and Northumbria, Edmund all the south, the survivor to succeed to the whole. Apparently King Edmund was treasonably slain a few days afterwards.5

Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England
Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 190
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to Amercia bef.1700 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, Reference: 2.5 He was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 485-486] EDMUND II IRONSIDE King of the English, 23 April-30 November 1016. Crowned: Old St Paul's Cathedral, April 1016. Born: c989. Died (murdered?): London, 30 November 1016, aged 27. Buried: Glastonbury Abbey. Married: August(?) 1015, Edith, widow of Sigeferth, thane of East Anglia: 2 children. Edmund was the second son of ATHELRED (II) and became the heir to the throne after the eldest son, Athelstan, fell in battle some time in 1014. Edmund had already done his share of fighting, and had proved himself valiant, but once the heir he became even more determined. Angered at the weakness of his father, who had already been expelled from England by SWEIN in 1013, only to return a few months later promising to rule strongly and wisely, Edmund carved out his own plan to recover England. There was some respite during 1014 when CANUTE left England to gain the throne of Denmark, though Athelred used that time to exact retribution from those he believed had betrayed him. One of these was Sigeferth, a thane of East Anglia, who had been amongst the first to submit to Swein when he landed at Gainsborough in August 1013. Sigeferth was executed and his widow, Edith, imprisoned at Malmesbury. Edmund rescued Edith and married her. This action gained the support of the Danelaw of Mercia and the north, but divided Britain, with Athelred retaining support in the south. When Canute returned to England in September 1015 only Edmund's army was prepared. Athelred's men would not fight unless led by the king but he was seldom available (he was increasingly ill) and his own ealdormen were always on the verge of desertion. Athelred died in April 1016 and Edmund was promptly declared king. There was no time for celebrations. Edmund and Canute's armies clashed at five major battles during the year. The outcome was rarely decisive, both sides claiming victory. Edmund succeeded in holding London against Canute's siege and he probably would have defeated the Danes at Sherstone had not one of his ealdormen (the ever-traitorous Eadric of Shropshire) tricked the Saxons into believing Edmund was dead. Canute defeated Edmund at Ashingdon, in Essex, on 18 October, but by this time both sides were battle-weary. One further engagement was fought near Deerhurst in Gloucester, at which point both parties agreed to negotiate. At the Treaty of Olney, signed at the end of October, Canute was granted Mercia and Northumbria, and Edmund remained in Wessex. Edmund returned to London. He had been seriously wounded at Ashingdon, and his continued fighting had not improved his health. Nevertheless his death, just one month later, still shocked the Saxon nation. There was talk of murder and the weight of evidence supports this. Later rumours of a particularly nasty disembowelling whilst on the privy have never been disproved. With his death Canute soon convinced the English to accept him as king. Edmund's sons were despatched from England, and other young Saxon princes were transferred to places of safety. Only one of them, Edmund's son Edward (the father of EDGAR ATHELING), would return. between 23 April 1016 and 30 November 1016.9,8,7

Family

Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) d. a 1017
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO
  4. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund II Ironside: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020116&tree=LEO
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-20, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 485-486. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  8. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  9. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-19.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020123&tree=LEO

Ealdgyth (Edith) (?)1,2,3,4

F, #4238, d. after 1017
FatherAelfthryth (?)5
ReferenceGAV26 EDV26
Last Edited8 Mar 2020
     Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) married Sigeferth (?) thane of East Anglia; her 1st husband.2,3,6 Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) married Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England, son of Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless and Elgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?), in August 1015 at Malmsbury, Wiltshire, England; her 2nd husband.2,7,6
Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) died after 1017 at Hungary.4
     GAV-26 EDV-26 GKJ-27.

Ealdgyth (Edith) (?)
Sister of Ealdorman Eadric Streona of Mercia.8,9

Family 2

Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England b. 993, d. 30 Nov 1016
Children

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 485-486. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020117&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aelfthryth: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00312627&tree=LEO
  6. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund II Ironside: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020116&tree=LEO
  8. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  9. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgigu: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027597&tree=LEO
  11. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Malet_(companion_of_William_the_Conqueror). Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020123&tree=LEO

Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless1,2

M, #4239, b. circa 968, d. 23 April 1016
FatherEdgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England b. 943, d. 8 Jul 975
MotherElfrida (Aelfthryth) (?)1 b. c 945, d. c 17 Nov 1002
ReferenceGAV27
Last Edited11 May 2020
     Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless was born circa 968.3,4,1 He married Elgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?), daughter of Thored (Torin) (?) Ealdorman of Northumbria, in 985.5,1,6,7 Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless married Emma (?) of Normandy Queen of Eng., daughter of Richard I "The Fearless" (?) 3rd Duke of Normandy and Gunnora (Gunnor, Gonnor) de Crepon Duchess of Normandy, on 5 April 1002 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.8,5,4,1,9,10,7
Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless died on 23 April 1016 at London, England.3,4,1
Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless was buried on 23 April 1016 at Old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England.4,1


     Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless
Per Genealogics:
     "According to St. Dunstan his life began with an ill-omen, for at his baptism he made water in the font. From this 'the man of God' predicted the slaughter of the English people that would take place in his time. He became king after the murder of his elder brother Edward, but his kingdom was eventually dismembered by his son, Edmund Ironside, and Cnut the Dane. Though not as capable as his predecessors, he reigned longer than anyone before him.
     "His derogatory nickname, coined in the twelfth century, is merely a pun on his name, meaning 'noble counsel'. The early years (973-983) were dominated by his mother, his personal rule over the period from 983 till 993 was oppressive. Unfortunately, the Viking assaults starting in 988 were of a ferocity unmatched since Alfred's day, and he could do little but negotiate temporary respites and massive tributes which encouraged further attacks.
     "He tried to combat the Vikings by diplomacy, notably by marrying Emma, daughter of the Duke of Normandy, and raising a fleet and large armies. In 1000 he led an expedition to Strathclyde to disrupt the Viking settlements around the Irish Sea.
     "On 13 November 1002, St. Brice's day, he ordered all the Danish men who were in England to be slain, because the king had been informed that they would treacherously deprive him, and then all his councillers, of life, and possess this kingdom afterwards. Aethelred's reward for this was the wrath of King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark whose sister had been a victim of the massacre.
     "Sweyn, together with his son, Cnut, began conquering territory. His unexpected attacks in southern and midland England both destroyed the morale of king and country and so disillusioned the nobility that Aethelred could no longer trust them. In 1013 when Sweyn was chosen king, Aethelred fled, then returned in 1014, after Sweyn had died, promising better rule.
     "However, when he failed to reassert control, his son Edmund made himself independent ruler in the Danelaw, which in turn was taken by Cnut. This assisted the collapse of the kingdom of Aethelred, who died in 1016."11 GAV-27 EDV-26 GKJ-28.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy, Oxford, 1988., John Cannon, Ralph Griffiths, Reference: 74 biography.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to Amercia bef.1700 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, Reference: 2.
3. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 190.11



Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless and Elgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?)
Per Genealogy.EU: "Ethelred II "the Unraed or Redeless", meaning without counsel, King of England (978-1013)+(1014-16), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 4.4.978, *ca 966/8, +London 23.4.1016, bur Old St.Paul's Cathedral, London;
     1m: ca 980/5 Elgiva (*ca 963, +Winchester II.1002, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of either Ealdorman Ethelbert or Thored, Ealdorman of York;
     2m: Winchester Cathedral 5.4.1002 Emma of Normandy (*ca 985/7 +14.3.1052.)2" Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 481-484] ATHELRED (II) THE UNREADY King of the English, 18 March 978-December 1013, 3 February 1014-23 April 1016. Crowned: Kingston-upon-Thames, 4 April 978. Born: c968. Died: London, 23 April 1016, aged 48. Buried: Old St Paul's Cathedral, London. Married: (1) c985, Elgiva (c963-1002), dau. Thored, ealdorman of Northumbria: 13 children; (2) 5 April 1002, Emma (c985-1052), dau. Richard, duke of Normandy: 3 children. Athelred is remembered colloquially and half-jokingly today as the Unready, although the nickname was really a clever pun on his name, athel "noble" and ræd "counsel", meaning "noble counsel". Throughout his reign Athelred was ill-advised and if he made his own decision, he was as likely to change his mind, hence the nickname, ræd-less, or lacking counsel. He was a better administrator than history has given credit, but he was a hopeless king and leader.
He was the son of EDGAR and his second (or third) wife Elfrida. At the time of Edgar's death there were many who supported Athelred as the next king, but the witan elected his elder half-brother EDWARD. When Edward was murdered three years later, Athelred's supporters, who included his mother and the Mercian ealdorman Alfhere, ensured that Athelred came to the throne. He was still probably under ten, and Elfrida and Alfhere dominated the government of England. Alfhere had been the main opponent to Edward and led the anti-monastic movement which flared up following the death of Edgar. Alfhere believed that the monasteries were becoming too rich and powerful too quickly and that they could control the shires. Alfhere was implicated in the murder of Edward. Interestingly it was he who translated Edward's body from its hasty burial at Wareham to Shaftesbury, where it was buried amongst great ceremony and talk of miracles. Alfhere remained the most powerful ealdorman until his death in 983. He succeeded in shaping Athelred's policy toward reducing the power of the monasteries, although Athelred later over-turned this. Alfhere also had to face the impact of the first Danish raids for thirty years, which marked the beginning of the end for the Saxon kingdom. When he died, Alfhere was not much loved, being regarded as something of a bully.
After Alfhere's death Athelred endeavoured to exert his own authority and even his mother's considerable power waned, though she lived till 1002. There was a period in the late 980s when Athelred sought to reduce the power of the church, but he subsequently reverted to his father's interests and promoted the construction of new monasteries under the new order. He also endeavoured to update the laws of the country and reorganize local government. This culminated in the Wantage Code of 997 which, compared to past law codes, showed an unprecedented willingness to accept local customs, especially those amongst the Danes of eastern England. Many of the odd and curious anomalies that we have in our customs and codes of conduct in this country were enshrined under this Code. Had Athelred's reign been measured by his willingness and ability to reform and organize, he would have been remembered kindly, but his mettle was tested when the Danish raids returned and England was pushed to the limit.
The raids began in a comparatively small way as early as 980 and continued through to 982. Most of the raids were in the south west, but Southampton was severely damaged and London was attacked and burned in 982. Raids ceased for the next few years and perhaps Athelred was lulled into a false sense of security, for in 987 they began again, once more in the south-west and then, in 991, a major battle at Maldon in Essex. The Danish leader Olaf Tryggvason outwitted the East Saxon ealdorman Beortnoth, and the Saxons were killed to a man. The first payment of danegeld, or what amounted to protection money, arose following this battle, a policy instigated at the suggestion of Sigeric, the archbishop of Canterbury, who was one of Athelred's poor advisers. Olaf used this ploy as he moved around the south and east, plundering and destroying and then extracting payment. In 994, after the Danes had invaded London, Athelred paid 16,000 pounds in danegeld, but this time on the basis that Olaf would accept Christianity and never again raid Britain. Olaf kept his promise. He used the money to strengthen his fleet and finance his bid for the kingship of Norway. But his command was superseded by others who had made no such agreement, and so the raids continued. Each year the danegeld increased until the riches of England were savagely reduced. In addition the monasteries were plundered and destroyed and with armies being kept mobilised for most of the year men were unable to harvest. The country grew poorer, the men weaker, and spirits lower. The men had no equivalent of ALFRED or EDWARD (THE ELDER) or ATHELSTAN to look to for leadership. Athelred had never been tested as a battle commander and he had no idea what to do. He also had to face desertion from amongst his own ealdormen, whose actions in fleeing the command of battle further weakened their men's morale. Athelred seemed powerless to punish them. Instead he shifted from one mad scheme to another, none of which worked and all of which reduced the country's morale further. At one point in 1009, he demanded that a whole new fleet be constructed, but he was unable to find sufficient able commanders and had no battle plans to meet the Danes in the waters they controlled. The fleet spent more time anchored off-shore than in battle, and once it moved into battle it was destroyed. Athelred did nothing to save it but left it to its fate. The venture was a disaster and drained the country's resources further. In 1002 Athelred married Emma, daughter of Richard, duke of Normandy. The marriage was almost certainly to create an alliance whereby Richard stopped the Danes using Normandy as a base for raiding southern England. Richard no doubt played his part, but the plan was another of Athelred's ineffective tactics.
Probably his worst decision was the St Brice's Day massacre on 13 November 1002. He ordered the killing of every Dane who lived in England except the Anglo-Danes of the Danelaw. It is unlikely that the edict was carried out to the letter, but there was fearful slaughter across southern England which left a bitter stain on Athelred's character. Even if the resident Danes had supported him previously, they now turned against him. The massacre brought back to English shores the Danish commander SWEIN who had accompanied Olaf on earlier missions. Legend has it that Swein's sister and her husband had been killed in the massacre and Swein returned to exact revenge. Swein's campaign lasted from 1003 to 1007 when Athelred agreed a peace treaty with him and paid over an immense danegeld of 30,000 pounds. Swein returned to Denmark, but new commanders took his place and the raids and slaughter continued. The next major enemy was Thorkell the Tall, who arrived with a major army in August 1009 and left a wave of destruction across southern England. The low point of this campaign was the murder of Alphege, the archbishop of Canterbury in 1012. Thorkell had not condoned the murder and he subsequently offered his services to help protect England. Athelred had to raise a new tax, the heregeld, to pay for Thorkell's army, but this band of mercenaries was more effective than the English army because it had a strong, sound leader. Nevertheless, the whole of England had now become a battlefield, and the English were prepared to submit. Swein read the signs correctly when he returned to England. He landed in the Humber in August 1013, and the Northumbrians immediately submitted, followed soon by the Danes of Danelaw. Athelred waited with Thorkell's fleet in the Thames off London, so Swein marched on Bath, where the Mercians and West Saxons capitulated. By December 1013 London collapsed and Athelred fled to Normandy.
Swein died only three months later and Athelred was recalled, when Swein's son, CANUTE, returned to establish himself in Denmark. Athelred's return was conditional on that he governed "more justly than he had done in the past." Matters did not improve, however. Early in the fighting against Canute, in 1014 Athelred's eldest son and heir, Athelstan, was killed in battle. Early in 1015 Athelred executed the two leading thanes of the Danelaw, whom he regarded as traitors, which did not endear him to Mercia or the north. His son, EDMUND, gained the support of the Danelaw, and when Canute returned later in 1015, England was divided and the armies refused to move against the Danes unless the king himself commanded them. By now, though, Athelred was dying. Although he was only forty-eight, he had lived longer than many of his predecessors and was worn out by the fighting. He died on 23 April 1016, leaving Edmund to continue to battle for survival. between 978 and 1016.12,13,3,14,4

Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless
Per Enc. of World History: "An ebb in Viking raids was followed by a fresh onset during the reign of Ethelred the Unready (978-1016), led by Sven I (Forked Beard), king of Denmark. Danegeld had been sporadically collected under Alfred; now it was regularly levied and used as tribute to buy off the invaders. This tax, and the invasions, led to a rapid decline of the freeholders to a servile status. Under Canute, the Danegeld was transformed into a regular tax for defense. Collection of the Danegeld, originally in the hands of the towns, fell increasingly to the lord of the manor, and it was only a step from holding him for the tax to making him lord of the land from which the tax came." in 991.14

Family 2

Emma (?) of Normandy Queen of Eng. b. c 982, d. 6 Mar 1051/52
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  3. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  4. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 481-484. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  5. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 74, ENGLAND 19. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 235-19, p. 201. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Normandy page (Normandy Family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/normandy/normandy.html
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Emma of Normandy: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020115&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  12. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 1-19, p. 2.
  13. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-18.
  14. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 181. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elgiva/Alfgifu of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00108329&tree=LEO
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Egbert of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331085&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edred of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331086&tree=LEO
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331088&tree=LEO
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgyth of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028864&tree=LEO
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wulfhild of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331093&tree=LEO
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgiva of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331091&tree=LEO
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331089&tree=LEO
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Athelstan of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331084&tree=LEO
  25. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Sudeley Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  26. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Boulogne.pdf, p. 3. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  27. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Godgifudiedbefore1049. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  28. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Godgifu of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00012362&tree=LEO

Elgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?)1,2

F, #4240, b. circa 963, d. February 1002
FatherThored (Torin) (?) Ealdorman of Northumbria3,2,4
ReferenceGAV27 EDV27
Last Edited12 May 2020
     Elgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?) was born circa 963.1,2 She married Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless, son of Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England and Elfrida (Aelfthryth) (?), in 985.5,2,4,6
Elgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?) died in February 1002.1,2
     Elgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?) and Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless
Per Genealogy.EU: "Ethelred II "the Unraed or Redeless", meaning without counsel, King of England (978-1013)+(1014-16), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 4.4.978, *ca 966/8, +London 23.4.1016, bur Old St.Paul's Cathedral, London;
     1m: ca 980/5 Elgiva (*ca 963, +Winchester II.1002, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of either Ealdorman Ethelbert or Thored, Ealdorman of York;
     2m: Winchester Cathedral 5.4.1002 Emma of Normandy (*ca 985/7 +14.3.1052.)7" GAV-27 EDV-27 GKJ-28. Elgiva (Aelfgifu, Elfreda) (?) was also known as Elfgifu.8

Reference: Geenalogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 190.9

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 481-484. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-18.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 74, ENGLAND 19. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  6. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  8. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elgiva/Alfgifu of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00108329&tree=LEO
  11. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Egbert of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331085&tree=LEO
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edred of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331086&tree=LEO
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331088&tree=LEO
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgyth of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028864&tree=LEO
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wulfhild of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331093&tree=LEO
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgiva of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331091&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331089&tree=LEO
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Athelstan of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331084&tree=LEO

Ealhswith (?) of Mercia1,2

F, #4241, b. between 850 and 855, d. between 5 December 902 and 903
FatherAethelred Mucil/Mucel (?) Ealdorman of the Gaini2,3
MotherEadburh (?)2
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited10 May 2020
     Ealhswith (?) of Mercia was born between 850 and 855 at Mercia, England.1 She married Alfred "the Great" (?) King of England, son of Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex and Osburh/Osburga (?), in 868.4,5,1,2
Ealhswith (?) of Mercia died between 5 December 902 and 903 at St. Mary's Abbey, Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.6,5,1,2
     GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-30.

Ealhswith (?) of Mercia
(an unknown value.)7,8 Ealhswith (?) of Mercia was also known as Ethelswitha (?)1

Family

Alfred "the Great" (?) King of England b. 849, d. 26 Oct 899
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Ealhswith: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/ealhs000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Æthelred Mucil/Mucel: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/aethe003.htm
  4. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-15, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  5. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 298, 319-321. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  6. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), appendix. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  7. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  8. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  9. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm
  10. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elftrudis|Alfthryth of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00018646&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  12. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Aelfthrythdied929MBaudouinIIFlanders. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  13. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 468 (Chart 30).

Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England1,2,3

M, #4242, b. 943, d. 8 July 975
FatherEdmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England3 b. c 922, d. 26 May 946
MotherSaint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?)3 d. 18 May 944
ReferenceGAV28 EDV29
Last Edited19 Sep 2014
     Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England married Saint Wulfthryth/Wulfrida (?)2 Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England was born in 943.2,4,3 He married Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?), daughter of Ordmaer (?) Ealdorman of Hertford, circa 960; his 1st wife.2,4,3 Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England married Elfrida (Aelfthryth) (?), daughter of Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon, in 965.5,6,3
Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.2,4,3
Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England was buried after 8 July 975 at Glastonbury Abbey, co. Somerset, England.4,3


     Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England
Edgar "the Peacable", King of England (959-975) -cr Bath Abbey 11.5.973, *ca 943, +Winchester 8.7.975, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset; 1m: ca 961 Ethelfleda "the Fair" (+in childbirth ca 962, bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire), dau.of Ealdorman Ordmaer; 2m: ca 964/5 Elfrida (*Lydford Castle, Devon ca 945, +as a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire ca.17.11.1002, bur ther), dau.of Ordgar, Ealdorman of Devon.3 GAV-28 EDV-29. He was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 478-480] EDGAR THE PEACEABLE King of the English, 1 October 959-8 July 975 (he was appointed king of Mercia and Northumbria from 957). Crowned: Bath Abbey, 11 May 973. Born: c943. Died: Winchester, 8 July 975, aged 32. Buried: Glastonbury Abbey. Married: (1) c960, Athelfleda, dau. Ordmaer, ealdorman of Hertford: either divorced c961 or died c961 or c964: 1 son; (2) c964, Elfrida (c945-c1002), dau. Ordgar, ealdorman of Devon, and widow of Athelwald, ealdorman of East Anglia: 2 children. Also had at least one illegitimate child. The Saxon name Eadgar means "rich in spears", which was undoubtedly a recognition of his inheritance of military power. When Edgar's uncle EADRED died in 955, his brother EDWY became king in Wessex whilst Edgar was appointed to the kingship of Mercia and Northumbria. He was only twelve at the time and did not assume full authority until he was about fifteen, by which time he was welcomed, as Edwy was a weak and unpopular king. Edgar had been raised in East Anglia, in the household of Athelstan, the ealdorman of the old territory of the Danelaw which covered all of east Anglia and Danish Mercia. As such Edgar was already a popular prince amongst the middle-English and Danes and was readily accepted as king, whereas Edwy was seen as a weak and troublesome youth. By November 957 the Mercians and Northumbrians had renounced their allegiance to Edwy. Both kings were advised (or controlled) by a strong council which had led to conflict with Edwy who had expelled bishop Dunstan. When Edgar came of age he recalled Dunstan and was enthusiastic about his ideas for reforming the English church. When Edwy died in October 959, Edgar also became king of Wessex and as the archbishopric of Canterbury was vacant with the recent death of Oda, Dunstan was appointed to that see. With the support of the king, Dunstan introduced a major programme of monastic reform, not all of which was happily accepted at the time, but which brought Saxon England in line with developments on the continent. All secular clergy were ejected, and the church officials were granted considerable independence from the crown. The most extreme of these was the creation of the soke of Peterborough, where the abbot of St Peters had almost total independence. Many of the monasteries that had been destroyed during the Danish invasions were restored. It was only a period of peace that could allow such rebuilding and change. Edgar, for all that he was not a soldier or strategist to match his father or grandfather, was able to work alongside strong and well organized ealdormen in governing the kingdom and in ensuring its safety. All the time England seemed in capable hands, the Norse and Danes bided their time.
In 973 Edgar gave a demonstration of authority. Although he probably had a formal coronation when he became king of Wessex, Dunstan believed there was a need for a major ceremony similar to those of the King of the Franks and the German Emperor. The ceremony was delayed for some years because Dunstan was unhappy with Edgar's dissolute life. For all he supported the church reform Edgar was not a particularly religious man. There were rumours about his private life, which may have some base of truth. He had married a childhood friend, Athelfleda, early in life, but it seems that either she died in childbirth around the year 961 or the two became separated because of Edgar's amorous adventures with Wulfryth. Stories were later attached to the episode that Edgar had seduced a nun, but although Wulfryth later became a nun, the real story seems to be that he fell in love with a lady who bore him a child, but she either chose to enter (or was banished to) a nunnery and they probably never married. Edgar then became romantically entangled with Elfrida, who was already married, and again the scandalmongers hinted that the two might have planned the murder of her husband, Edgar's onetime foster-brother Athelwald in 964, in order to marry. Elfrida later came to epitomise the image of the wicked stepmother in her relationship with Edgar's youngest child, EDWARD (THE MARTYR). All of these shenanigans caused Dunstan to counsel Edgar to change his ways. Perhaps as he passed from youth into adulthood he became less reckless, and in 973 Dunstan agreed to a major ceremony at Bath. The coronation had double significance. For the first time a Saxon king was crowned as king of all the English, a title used by previous monarchs but never as part of their coronation. Edgar was thus the first genuine king of England. At the same time Elfrida was also crowned, the first queen of the English. This ceremony has remained essentially the same in content ever since. Following the coronation, Edgar put on a display of force. His army marched along the Welsh border from Bath to Chester, showing his authority over the Welsh, whilst his fleet sailed through the Irish Sea, also demonstrating his subjugation of the Norse who still held power in that area at Dublin and on Man. At Chester eight kings of Wales and the north assembled to make their submission to him. A later chronicler suggested that these eight kings then rowed Edgar along the river Dee with him at the helm. Strong though that image is, it is unlikely. It is more probable that there was a ceremonial voyage along the Dee with Edgar at the helm, and the other kings in submission. The coronation and ceremony were immensely significant. Although Edgar's position had been achieved by his predecessors, he was able to capitalise on it and demonstrate his authority over all of Britain with the exception of Orkney. Not all monarchs were present, the most noticeable absentee being OWAIN AP HYWEL of Deheubarth, though his absence was due to domestic strife rather than lack of respect. THORFINN SKULL-SPLITTER was not present, but as he owed his allegiance to the Norwegian crown, he might be excused - although, interestingly, MAGNUS HARALDSSON of Man and the Isles was present.
The ceremony marked the end of a peaceful and prosperous reign, and it was fortunate that the English could not see ahead as Edgar's was the last reign of peace and harmony. The Saxon world would thereafter start to disintegrate and within less than a century be almost wiped away. between 1 October 959 and 8 July 975.6,7,2,4

Family 1

Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?) d. c 962
Child

Family 3

Elfrida (Aelfthryth) (?) b. c 945, d. c 17 Nov 1002
Children

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 74, ENGLAND 18. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  4. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 478-480. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  5. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-18, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-17.
  8. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 468 (Chart 30).

Elfrida (Aelfthryth) (?)1

F, #4243, b. circa 945, d. circa 17 November 1002
FatherOrdgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon1 b. bt 894 - 923, d. bt 948 - 1008
ReferenceGAV28 EDV28
Last Edited18 Nov 2003
     Elfrida (Aelfthryth) (?) married Athelwald (?) Ealdorman of East Anglia.2 Elfrida (Aelfthryth) (?) was born circa 945 at Lydford Castle, Devonshire, England.1 She married Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England, son of Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England and Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?), in 965.3,4,1
Elfrida (Aelfthryth) (?) died circa 17 November 1002 at Wherwell Abbey, co. Hampshire, England; buried there.1
     GAV-28 EDV-28 GKJ--29.

Elfrida (Aelfthryth) (?)
(an unknown value.)5,3

Family 2

Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England b. 943, d. 8 Jul 975
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 478-480. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  4. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-18, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  5. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  6. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 468 (Chart 30).

Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon1

M, #4244, b. between 894 and 923, d. between 948 and 1008
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited18 Nov 2003
     Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon was born between 894 and 923; date is WFT estimate.2,3
Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon died between 948 and 1008; date is WFT estimate.2,3
     GAV-29 EDV-29 GKJ-30.

Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon
(an unknown value.)2,3

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 478-480. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  3. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html

Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England1,2

M, #4245, b. circa 922, d. 26 May 946
FatherEdward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,2 b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
MotherEadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent1,2,3,4 b. c 903, d. 25 Aug 968
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited5 Oct 2019
     Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England was born circa 922.5,6,1,2 He married Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?), daughter of Wynflæd (?), circa 940; his 1st wife.5,1,2 Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England married Aethelfleda (?) of Domerham, daughter of Alfgar (?) Ealdorman of Wiltshire, circa 946; his 2nd wife.5,6,1,2
Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England was buried in 946 at Glastonbury Abbey, England.6


Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England died on 26 May 946 at Pucklechurch, England; Murdered.5,6,1,2
Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England was buried after 26 May 946 at Glastonbury Abbey, England.1


     GAV-29 EDV-29 GKJ-30.

Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England
Edmund I "the Magnificent", King of England (939-946), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 29.11.939, *ca 921, +murdered at Pucklechurch, Dorset 26.5.946, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Dorset; 1m: ca 940 St.Elgiva (+Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset ca 944, bur there), her origins are unknown; 2m: ca 946 Ethelfleda (+as a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset after 975, bur there), dau.of Alfgar, Ealdorman of the Wilsaetas; all issue by 1m.1 He was King of Wessex and Mercia; King of England: [Ashley, pp. 475-476] EDMUND (I) THE MAGNIFICENT King of the English, 27 October 939-26 May 946. Crowned: Kingston-upon-Thames, 29 November 939. Born: c921; Died: murdered Pucklechurch, 26 May 946, aged about 24. Buried: Glastonbury Abbey. Married: (1) c940, Elgiva (d. c944/5): 3 children; (2) c946, Athelfleda dau. Alfgar, ealdorman of Wiltshire: no children. The name Eadmund in Saxon meant "protector of riches" giving an indication of Edmund's presumed role as guardian of the realm. Edmund was the half-brother of ATHELSTAN, and the first child of EDWARD THE ELDER'S third marriage. He had been raised in Athelstan's household and once old enough had accompanied Athelstan in several of his campaigns, fighting heroically at Brunanburh in 937. As Athelstan had no children, Edmund succeeded him, even though he was only eighteen. His reign began inauspiciously, as the Norse king of Dublin, OLAF GOTHFRITHSON, regarded him as a weak successor and took the opportunity to regain his family's hold on York. This he did in little over a month after Edmund's succession, followed by his army's march down into Mercia, devastating countryside and towns, including Tamworth, before they were confronted by Edmund at Leicester. A rather ineffectual siege followed from which Olaf and his chief adviser, Wulfstan, archbishop of York, escaped. Talks followed which resulted in Olaf being allowed to retain the kingship over York, as well as rule over the Danish territories in East Anglia and the Five Boroughs. The Danes were none too pleased about this, as they were enemies of the Norse. Nevertheless, Edmund managed to recover from this ignominy. After only eighteen months, Olaf died. His successor, OLAF SITRICSON, was not quite his match. Edmund undertook a lightning strike across Mercia in 942 and recovered the Danish territories. Soon after Olaf was driven out of York, and was replaced by his cousin, RAGNALL GOTHFRITHSON, who was open to discussion with Edmund and more prepared to accept Christianity. Olaf took refuge in the kingdom of Strathclyde where guerilla warfare now existed between the Norse factions. Edmund took this as an opportunity to resolve the problem once and for all. In 944 he led an army into northern Britain. In the battle in York Ragnall was killed and York came back under Saxon control. The following year the army marched on Strathclyde. Olaf was driven out and back to Ireland. The king DONALD was also ejected, and Edmund conquered all of the Norse lands in Cumbria. These he handed to the new Scots king MALCOLM (I) on the basis that he would remain faithful to Edmund and not support the Norse.
From an ignominious start, Edmund's reign now looked highly successful. He had regained the territories that he had lost and was recognized as overlord by all the native kings. At twenty-four he should have been set for an auspicious reign, but then tragedy struck. In May 946 Edmund was celebrating the feast of St Augustine at Pucklechurch, north of Bath. During the feast he recognized a thief called Leofa whom Edmund had exiled six years earlier. Edmund asked his steward to arrest the man but a fight followed in which Edmund intervened and was stabbed. He soon died of his wounds. Edmund had two infant sons, EDWY and EDGAR, both of whom would become kings, but he was succeeded by his brother EADRED. between 27 October 939 and 26 May 946.7,8,5,6,2

Family 1

Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) d. 18 May 944
Children

Family 2

Aethelfleda (?) of Domerham d. a 975

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Eadgifu Of Kent (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 86894684, citing Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England ; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/86894684/eadgifu-of_kent. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  5. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  6. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 473 (Chart 31), 475-476. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  7. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-17, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  8. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-16.

Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?)1

F, #4246, d. 18 May 944
MotherWynflæd (?)2
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited3 Nov 2013
     Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) married Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England, son of Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex and Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent, circa 940; his 1st wife.1,3,4
Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) died on 18 May 944 at Shaftesbury Abbey, England; buried there.5,1,6,3,4
     GAV-29 EDV-29 GKJ-30. Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) was also known as St. Elgiva.7

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  2. [S1836] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 14 Nov 2004: "Re: Wynflaed, great-grandmother of Æthelræd II of England"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 14 Nov 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 14 Nov 2004."
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  5. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-15.
  6. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 473 (Chart 31), 475-476. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  7. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.

Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,2

M, #4247, b. between 871 and 872, d. 17 July 924
FatherAlfred "the Great" (?) King of England2,3 b. 849, d. 26 Oct 899
MotherEalhswith (?) of Mercia2,3,4 b. bt 850 - 855, d. bt 5 Dec 902 - 903
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited28 May 2020
     Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex was born between 871 and 872 at Dorsetshire, England;
Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1 page) says b. ca 871/2
per The Henry Project: "Date of birth: say ca. 872.
Place of birth: Unknown.
Eadweard was the second surviving child of a marriage which occurred in 868, according to Asser [Asser, c. 29 (pp. 23-4)]. Thus, the given estimate should not be off by much."
Find A Grave says b. 874. Genealogics says b ca 871.5,2,3,6,7 He married Ecgwynn (?) circa 893; Genealogics says this was a "Union"; Wikipepedia says his 1st wife.2,3,7 Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex married Elfleda|Aelflaed (?), daughter of Aethelhelm (?) Ealdorman of Wiltshire and Aethelglyth (?) of Mercia, circa 900;
His 2nd wife.8,2,3,7,9 Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex married Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent, daughter of Sigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent, in 919;
His 3rd wife.10,2,3,11,12,9
Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex died on 17 July 924 at Farndon-on-Dee, England.10,5,2,3,7
Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex was buried after 17 July 924 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.2,3


     Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex
Per The Henry Project: "Eadweard witnesses a Kentish charter of Ælfred the Great as king in 898 ["Eadweard rex" Cart. Sax., 2: 220 (#576)]. When Ælfred died in October 899, he was succeeded by his son Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder" ["Her gefor Ælfred ... & þa feng Eadweard his sunu to rice." ASC(A) s.a. 901 (orig. 900) ("Here died Alfred ... And then Edward, his son, succeeded to the kingdom." ASC(Eng), 91-2); ASC(E) s.a. 901; "Huic filius successit Eadwardus, cognomento Senior" John Worc., s.a. 901 (1: 117)]. Eadweard was crowned on Whitsunday, 8 June 900 ["Successor equidem tum monarchiæ Eaduuerdus post filius supra memorati regis coronatur ipse stemate regali a primatis electus pentecostes in die..." Æthelweard, 50-1]. Eadweard's reign was marked by continued progress against the Danes, in cooperation with his sister Æthelflæd and her husband Æthelred, leader of the Mercians. When Æthelflæd died in 918, her daughter Ælfwynn was deprived of control in Mercia [ASC(C) s.a. 918, 919 (Mercian Register)].When Eadweard died in 924 [see below], he was succeeded by his son Æthelstan, perhaps after a short reign by his son Ælfweard [see below]. Eadweard's nickname of "the Elder" is not contemporary, but was assigned later to distinguish him from the two other Anglo-Saxon kings of that name. [For the chronology of Eadweard's reign, see Angus (1938); Wainwright (1945); Vaughan (1954)]"

Bibliography

AC = John Williams ab Ithel, ed., Annales Cambriæ (Rolls Series 20, London, 1860).

Æthelweard = A. Campbell ed., Chronicon Æthelweardi/The Chronicle of Æthelweard, (New York, 1962).

Angus (1938) = W. S. Angus, "The Chronology of the Reign of Edward the Elder", English Historical Review 53 (1938): 194-210.

AU = Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, eds., The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983).

Beaven (1917) = Murray L. R. Beaven, "The Regnal Dates of Alfred, Edward the Elder, and Athelstan", English Historical Review 32 (1917): 517-531.

Besly (1840) = Jean Besly, Histoire des comtes de Poictou et ducs de Guyenne (new ed., Paris, 1840, orig. publ. 1647).

Cart. Sax. = Walter de Gray Birch, ed., Cartularium Saxonicum, 4 vols. (1885-99).

Chaume (1925) = Maurice Chaume, Les origines du duché de Bourgogne, 4 vols. (Dijon, 1925).

Chaume (1931) = Maurice Chaume, "Le problème des origines de la maison de Savoie" (Études carolingiennes, II), Annales de Bourgogne 3 (1931): 120-161.

Coronini (1770) = Rudolph Coronini, Specimen genealogico-progonologicum ad illustrandam augustam Habsburgo-Lotharingicam prosapiam ... (Vienna, 1770).

Crawford Charters = A. S. Napier & W. H. Stevenson, Anecdota Oxoniensia - The Crawford Collection of Early Charters and Documents (Oxford, 1895).

CS = W. M. Hennessy, ed. & trans., Chronicum Scotorum (Rolls Series 46, London, 1866).

Dümmler (1876) = Rudolf Köpke & Ernst Dümmler, Kaiser Otto der Große (Leipzig, 1876).

Dümmler (1877) = Ernst Dümmler, ed., Liudprandi episcopi Cremonensis opera omnia (MGH SRG, Hannover, 1877).

Dumville (1986) = David N. Dumville, "The West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List: Manuscripts and Texts", Anglia 104 (1986): 1-32.

Fiala (1889) = Eduard Fiala, Beschreibung der Sammlung böhmischer Münzen und Medaillen des Max Donebauer (Prague, 1889).

Germond (1982) = Arthur Germond, "The Daughters of King Edward the Elder", Journal of Ancient and Medieval Studies 1 (1982): 91-. [Not seen by me]

HBC = F. Maurice Powicke & E. B. Fryde, eds., Handbook of British Chronology (2nd ed., London 1961).

Hlawitschka (1976) = Eduard Hlawitschka, "Die verwandtschftlichen Verbinderungen zwischen dem hochburgundischen und dem niederburgundischen Königshaus. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Geschichte Burgunds in der 1. Hälfte des 10. Jahrhunderts", in Schlügl und Herde, Grundwissenschaften und Geschichte. Festschrift für Peter Acht (Münchener historische Studien Abtielun geschichtl. Hilfswissenschaften 15, 1976), 28-57.

Hlawitschka (2006) = Eduard Hlawitschka, Die Ahnen de hochmittelalterlichen deutschen Könige, Kaiser und ihrer Gemahlinnen. Ein kommentiertes Tafelwerk. Band I: 911-1137, 2 vols. (MGH Hilfsmittel, 25, Hannover, 2006).

John Worc. = Benjamin Thorpe, ed., Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis, 2 vols., (London, 1848-9). (The work formerly attributed to Florence of Worcester is now generally attributed to John of Worcester.) Also edited more recently in Darlington & McGurk, eds., The Chronicle of John of Worcester, 3 vols. (Oxford, 1995-). I do not have easy access to the latter edition, and most of the citations are given from Thorpe's edition.

Kelley (1989) = David H. Kelley, "The House of Aethelred", in Lindsay L. Brook, ed., Studies in Genealogy and Family History in Tribute to Charles Evans On the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday (Association for the Promotion of Scholarship in Genealogy, Occasional Publication No. 2, Salt Lake City, 1989), 63-93.

Lauer (1900) = Ph. Lauer, Le Règne de Louis IV d'Outre-Mer (Paris, 1900).

Lib. Monast. Hyde = Edward Edwards, ed., Liber Monasterii de Hyda: a Chronicle and Chartulary of Hyde Abbey, Winchester, 455-1023 (Rolls Series 45, London, 1866).

Lib. Vit. Hyde = Walter de Gray Birch, Liber Vitae: Register and Martyrology of New Minister and Hyde Abbey Winchester (London, 1892).

Mathieu (2006) = Jean-Noël Mathieu, "La lignée maternelle du pape Léon IX et ses relations avec les premiers Montbéliard", in Georges Bischoff & Benoît-Michel Tock, eds., Léon IX et son temps (Turnhout, Belgium, 2006), 77-110.

MGH DD = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Diplomata series (H I = Heinrich I).

MGH SS = Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores series.

Mem. Dunstan = William Stubbs, ed., Memorials of Saint Dunstan Archbishop of Canterbury (Rolls Series 63, London, 1874).

Nelson (1991) = Janet Nelson, "Reconstructing a Royal Family: Reflections on Alfred, From Asser, chapter 2", in Ian Wood & Niels Lund, eds., People and Places in Northern Europe 500-1600 - Essays in Honour of Peter Hayes Pawyer (Woodbridge, 1991), 47-66.

Onom. Anglo-Sax. = William George Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cambridge, 1897). Spellings of Anglo-Saxon names on this page have been standardized according to this source.

Orna (1965) = Bernard Orna, "Tracing a lost princess", Coins and Medals 2.2 (October 1965): 94-6.

Poole (1911) = Reginald L. Poole, "Burgundian Notes I: The Alpine Son-in-Law of Edward the Elder", English Historical Review 26 (1911): 310-7.

Poupardin (1901) = René Poupardin, Le royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens (Paris, 1901).

R. Diceto = William Stubbs, ed., Radulfi de Diceto Decani Lundonensis Opera Historica - The Historical Works of Master Ralph de Diceto Dean of London, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 68, London 1876).

Rec. actes Lothair & Louis V = Louis Halphen & Ferdinand Lot, eds., Recueil des actes de Lothaire et de Louis V rois de France (Paris, 1908).

Richard (1903) = Alfred Richard, Histoire des comtes de Poitou 778-1204, 2 vols. (Paris, 1903).

Robinson (1923) = J. Armitage Robinson, The Times of Saint Dunstan (Oxford, 1923).

Rog. Hoveden = William Stubbs, ed., Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene, 4 vols. (Rolls Series 51, 1868-71). For an English translation, see Henry T. Riley, trans., The Annals of Roger de Hoveden, 2 vols. (London, 1853). Citations are from the edition of Stubbs.

Rog. Wendover = Henry O. Coxe, ed., Rogeri de Wendover Chronica, sive Flores Historiarum, 2 vols. (London, 1841).

Sawyer (1968) = P. H. Sawyer, Anglo-Saxon Charters. An Annotated List and Bibliography (London, 1968).

Searle (1899) = William George Searle, Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings and Nobles (Cambridge, 1899).

Sim. Durh. = Thomas Arnold, ed., Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia, 2 vols. (Rolls Series 75, 1882-5).

Vaughan (1954) = Richard Vaughan, "The Chronology of the Parker Chronicle, 890-970", English Historical Review 69 (1954): 59-66.

Wainwright (1945) = F. T. Wainwright, "The Chronology of the 'Mercian Register' ", English Historical Review 60 (1945): 385-392.

Weir (1989) = Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Families - The Complete Genealogy (London, 1989).

Williams (1978) = Ann Williams, "Some Notes and Considerations on Problems Connected with the English Royal Succession, 860-1066, Proceedings of the Battle Conference on Anglo-Norman Studies 1 (1978): 144-167, 225-233.

Wm. Malmes, Gesta Pont. = N. E. S. A. Hamilton, ed., Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi de Gestiis Pontificum Anglorum libri quinque (Rolls Series 52, London, 1870).

Wm. Malmes., Gesta Regum = William Stubbs, ed., Willelmi Malmesbiriensis Monachi De gestis regum Anglorum. libri quinque; Historiæ Novellæ libri tres, 2 vols. (Rolls series 90, 1887-9).

Wood (2004) = Michael Wood, "Anglo-Saxon Pedigrees Annotated", Foundations 1 (2004): 269-274, 375-385, 445-457.3

Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex
Per Genealogy.EU: "Edward "the Elder", King of Wessex (899-924), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 31.5/8.6.900, *ca 871/2, +Farndon-on-Dee 17.7.924, bur Winchester Cathedral; 1m: Egwina (+ca 901/2), dau.of a Wessex nobleman; 2m: ca 901/2 Elfleda (+920, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of Ealdorman Ethelhelm; 3m: ca 920 Edgiva (*ca 905, +25.8.968, bur Canterbury Cathedral), dau.of Sigehelm, Ealdorman of Kent."2

Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex
Per Genealogics:
     "Edward was born about 871, the son of Alfred 'the Great', king of England and Ealswith. In 917 the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_ recorded: 'Many people who had been under the rule of the Danes both in East Anglia and in Essex submitted to him; and all the army in East Anglia swore agreement with him, that they would agree to all that he would, and would keep peace with all with whom the king wishes to keep peace, both at sea and on land.'
     "Overshadowed by his father Alfred and upstaged by his son Athelstan, it was Edward who reconquered much of England from the Danes (909-919), established an administration for the kingdom of England, and secured the allegiance of Danes, Scots, Britons and English. Using Alfred's methods and in alliance with Mercia, he spread English influence and control. The Danes of Northumbria were defeated at Tettenhall (in Staffordshire) in 910, the Viking kingdom of York acknowledged his power in 918, and most Welsh kings submitted to him. In 921 the submission of Viking York and Northumbria as well as the kings of Strathclyde and the Scots gave his kingdom primacy in the British Isles.
     "Edward was a patient planner, a systematic organiser, and a bold soldier; by the time he died (at Farndon-on-Dee on 17 July 925) he had completed the New Minster at Winchester where he himself was buried. Though Edward had married twice, his eldest son and successor Athelstan was the son of a mistress."7

Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex
Per Wikipedia:
     "Edward the Elder (c. 874 – 17 July 924) was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 899 until his death. He was the elder son of Alfred the Great and his wife Ealhswith. When Edward succeeded to the throne, he had to defeat a challenge from his cousin Æthelwold, who had a strong claim to the throne as the son of Alfred's elder brother and predecessor, Æthelred.
     "Alfred had succeeded Æthelred as king of Wessex in 871, and almost faced defeat against the Danish Vikings until his decisive victory at the Battle of Edington in 878. After the battle, the Vikings still ruled Northumbria, East Anglia and eastern Mercia, leaving only Wessex and western Mercia under Anglo-Saxon control. In the early 880s Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, the ruler of western Mercia, accepted Alfred's lordship and married his daughter Æthelflæd, and around 886 Alfred adopted the new title King of the Anglo-Saxons as the ruler of all Anglo-Saxons not subject to Danish rule.
     "In 910 a Mercian and West Saxon army inflicted a decisive defeat on an invading Northumbrian army, ending the threat from the northern Vikings. In the 910s, Edward conquered Viking-ruled southern England in partnership with his sister Æthelflæd, who had succeeded as Lady of the Mercians following the death of her husband in 911. Historians dispute how far Mercia was dominated by Wessex during this period, and after Æthelflæd's death in June 918, her daughter Ælfwynn, briefly became second Lady of the Mercians, but in December Edward took her into Wessex and imposed direct rule on Mercia. By the end of the 910s he ruled Wessex, Mercia and East Anglia, and only Northumbria remained under Viking rule. In 924 he faced a Mercian and Welsh revolt at Chester, and after putting it down he died at Farndon in Cheshire on 17 July 924. He was succeeded by his eldest son Æthelstan.
     "Edward was admired by medieval chroniclers, and in the view of William of Malmesbury, he was "much inferior to his father in the cultivation of letters" but "incomparably more glorious in the power of his rule". He was largely ignored by modern historians until the 1990s, and Nick Higham described him as "perhaps the most neglected of English kings", partly because few primary sources for his reign survive. His reputation rose in the late twentieth century and he is now seen as destroying the power of the Vikings in southern England while laying the foundations for a south-centred united English kingdom.
Background
     "Mercia was the dominant kingdom in southern England in the eighth century and maintained its position until it suffered a decisive defeat by Wessex at the Battle of Ellandun in 825. Thereafter the two kingdoms became allies, which was to be an important factor in English resistance to the Vikings.[1] In 865 the Danish Viking Great Heathen Army landed in East Anglia and used this as a starting point for an invasion. The East Anglians were forced to pay off the Vikings, who invaded Northumbria the following year. They appointed a puppet king in 867, and then moved on Mercia, where they spent the winter of 867–868. King Burgred of Mercia was joined by King Æthelred of Wessex and his brother, the future King Alfred, for a combined attack on the Vikings, who refused an engagement; in the end the Mercians bought peace with them. The following year, the Danes conquered East Anglia, and in 874 they expelled King Burgred and, with their support, Ceolwulf became the last King of Mercia. In 877 the Vikings partitioned Mercia, taking the eastern regions for themselves and allowing Ceolwulf to keep the western ones. In early 878 they invaded Wessex, and many West Saxons submitted to them. Alfred, who was now king, was reduced to a remote base in the Isle of Athelney in Somerset, but the situation was transformed when he won a decisive victory at the Battle of Edington. He was thus able to prevent the Vikings from taking Wessex and western Mercia, although they still occupied Northumbria, East Anglia and eastern Mercia.[2]
Childhood
     "Edward's parents, Alfred and Ealhswith, married in 868. Her father was Æthelred Mucel, Ealdorman of the Gaini, and her mother, Eadburh, was a member of the Mercian royal family. Alfred and Ealhswith had five children who survived childhood. The oldest was Æthelflæd, who married Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, and ruled as Lady of the Mercians after his death. Edward was next, and the second daughter, Æthelgifu, became abbess of Shaftesbury. The third daughter, Ælfthryth, married Baldwin, Count of Flanders, and the younger son, Æthelweard, was given a scholarly education, including learning Latin. This would usually suggest that he was intended for the church, but it is unlikely in Æthelweard's case as he later had sons. There were also an unknown number of children who died young. Neither part of Edward's name, which means 'protector of wealth', had been used previously by the West Saxon royal house, and Barbara Yorke suggests that he may have been named after his maternal grandmother Eadburh, reflecting the West Saxon policy of strengthening links with Mercia.[3]
     "Historians estimate that Edward was probably born in the mid-870s. His eldest sister, Æthelflæd, was probably born about a year after her parents' marriage, and Edward was brought up with his youngest sister, Ælfthryth; Yorke argues that he was therefore probably nearer in age to Ælfthryth than Æthelflæd. Edward led troops in battle in 893, and must have been of marriageable age in that year as his oldest son Æthelstan was born about 894.[4] According to Asser in his Life of King Alfred, Edward and Ælfthryth were educated at court by male and female tutors, and read ecclesiastical and secular works in English, such as the Psalms and Old English poems. They were taught the courtly qualities of gentleness and humility, and Asser wrote that they were obedient to their father and friendly to visitors. This is the only known case of an Anglo-Saxon prince and princess receiving the same upbringing.[5]
Ætheling
     "As a son of a king, Edward was an ætheling, a prince of the royal house who was eligible for kingship. Even though he had the advantage of being the eldest son of the reigning king, his accession was not assured as he had cousins who had a strong claim to the throne. Æthelhelm and Æthelwold were sons of Æthelred, Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king, but they had been passed over because they were infants when their father died. Asser gives more information about Edward's childhood and youth than is known about other Anglo-Saxon princes, providing details about the training of a prince in a period of Carolingian influence, and Yorke suggest that we may know so much due to Alfred's efforts to portray his son as the most throneworthy ætheling.[6]
     "Æthelhelm is only recorded in Alfred's will of the mid-880s, and probably died at some time in the next decade, but Æthelwold is listed above Edward in the only charter where he appears, probably indicating a higher status. Æthelwold may also have had an advantage because his mother Wulfthryth witnessed a charter as queen, whereas Edward's mother Ealhswith never had a higher status than king's wife.[7] However, Alfred was in a position to give his own son considerable advantages. In his will, he left only a handful of estates to his brother's sons, and the bulk of his property to Edward, including all his booklands (land vested in a charter which could be alienated by the holder, as opposed to folkland, which had to pass to heirs of the body) in Kent.[8] Alfred also advanced men who could be depended on to support his plans for his succession, such as his brother-in-law, a Mercian ealdorman called Æthelwulf, and his son-in-law Æthelred. Edward witnessed several of his father's charters, and often accompanied him on royal peregrinations.[9] In a Kentish charter of 898 Edward witnessed as rex Saxonum, suggesting that Alfred may have followed the strategy adopted by his grandfather Egbert of strengthening his son's claim to succeed to the West Saxon throne by making him sub-king of Kent.[10]
     "Once Edward grew up, Alfred was able to give him military commands and experience in royal administration.[11] The English defeated renewed Viking attacks in 893 to 896, and in Richard Abels' view, the glory belonged to Æthelred and Edward rather than Alfred himself. In 893 Edward defeated the Vikings in the Battle of Farnham, although he was unable to follow up his victory as his troops' period of service had expired and he had to release them. The situation was saved by the arrival of troops from London led by Æthelred.[12] Yorke argues that although Alfred packed the witan with members whose interests lay in the continuation of Alfred's line, that may not have been sufficient to ensure Edward's accession if he had not displayed his fitness for kingship.[13]
     "In about 893, Edward probably married Ecgwynn, who bore him two children, the future King Æthelstan and a daughter who married Sitric Cáech, a Viking King of York. The twelfth-century chronicler William of Malmesbury described Ecgwynn as an illustris femina (noble lady), and stated that Edward chose Æthelstan as his heir as king. She may have been related to St Dunstan, the aristocratic tenth-century Archbishop of Canterbury. But William also stated that Æthelstan's accession in 924 was opposed by a nobleman who claimed that his mother was a concubine of low birth.[14] The suggestion that Ecgwynn was Edward's mistress is accepted by some historians such as Simon Keynes and Richard Abels,[15] but Yorke and Æthelstan's biographer, Sarah Foot, disagree, arguing that the allegations should be seen in the context of the disputed succession in 924, and were not an issue in the 890s.[16] Ecgwynn probably died by 899, as around the time of Alfred's death Edward married Ælfflæd, the daughter of Ealdorman Æthelhelm, probably of Wiltshire.[17]
     "Janet Nelson suggests that there was conflict between Alfred and Edward in the 890s. She points out that the contemporary Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, produced under court auspices in the 890s, does not mention Edward's military successes. These are known only from the late tenth century chronicle of Æthelweard, such as his account of the Battle of Farnham, in which in Nelson's view "Edward's military prowess, and popularity with a following of young warriors, are highlighted". Towards the end of his life Alfred invested his young grandson Æthelstan in a ceremony which historians see as designation as eventual successor to the kingship. Nelson argues that while this may have been proposed by Edward to support the accession of his own son, on the other hand it may have been intended by Alfred as part of a scheme to divide the kingdom between his son and grandson. Æthelstan was sent to be brought up in Mercia by Æthelflæd and Æthelred, but it is not known whether this was Alfred's idea or Edward's. Alfred's wife Ealhswith was ignored in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in her husband's lifetime, but emerged from obscurity when her son acceded. This may be because she supported her son against her husband.[18]
Æthelwold's revolt
     "Alfred died on 26 October 899 and Edward succeeded to the throne, but Æthelwold disputed the succession.[19] He seized the royal estates of Wimborne, symbolically important as the place where his father was buried, and Christchurch, both in Dorset. Edward marched with his army to the nearby Iron Age hillfort at Badbury Rings. Æthelwold declared that he would live or die at Wimborne, but then left in the night and rode to Northumbria, where the Danes accepted him as king.[20] Edward was crowned on 8 June 900 at Kingston upon Thames. at an unknown age
     "In 901, Æthelwold came with a fleet to Essex, and the following year he persuaded the East Anglian Danes to invade English Mercia and northern Wessex, where his army looted and then returned home. Edward retaliated by ravaging East Anglia, but when he retreated the men of Kent disobeyed the order to retire, and were intercepted by the Danish army. The two sides met at the Battle of the Holme (perhaps Holme in Huntingdonshire) on 13 December 902. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Danes "kept the place of slaughter", meaning that they won the battle, but they suffered heavy losses, including Æthelwold and a King Eohric, possibly of the East Anglian Danes. Kentish losses included Sigehelm, ealdorman of Kent and father of Edward's third wife, Eadgifu. Æthelwold's death ended the threat to Edward's throne.[22]
King of the Anglo-Saxons
     "In London in 886 Alfred had received the formal submission of "all the English people that were not under subjection to the Danes", and thereafter he adopted the title Anglorum Saxonum rex (King of the Anglo-Saxons), which is used in his later charters and all but two of Edward's. This is seen by Keynes as "the invention of a wholly new and distinctive polity", covering both West Saxons and Mercians, which was inherited by Edward with the support of Mercians at the West Saxon court, of whom the most important was Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury. In 903 Edward issued several charters concerning land in Mercia. Three of them are witnessed by the Mercian leaders and their daughter Ælfwynn, and they all contain a statement that Æthelred and Æthelflæd "then held rulership and power over the race of the Mercians, under the aforesaid king". Other charters were issued by the Mercian leaders which did not contain any acknowledgment of Edward's authority, but they did not issue their own coinage.[23] This view of Edward's status is accepted by Martin Ryan, who states that Æthelred and Æthelflæd had "a considerable but ultimately subordinate share of royal authority" in English Mercia.[24]
     "Other historians disagree. Pauline Stafford describes Æthelflæd as "the last Mercian queen",[25] while in Charles Insley's view Mercia kept its independence until Æthelflæd's death in 918.[26] Michael Davidson contrasts the 903 charters with one of 901 in which the Mercian rulers were "by grace of God, holding, governing and defending the monarchy of the Mercians". Davidson comments that "the evidence for Mercian subordination is decidedly mixed. Ultimately, the ideology of the 'Kingdom of the Anglo-Saxons' may have been less successful in achieving the absorption of Mercia and more something which I would see as a murky political coup." The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was compiled at the West Saxon court from the 890s, and the entries for the late ninth and early tenth centuries are seen by historians as reflecting the West Saxon viewpoint; Davidson observes that "Alfred and Edward possessed skilled 'spin doctors'".[27] Some versions of the Chronicle incorporate part of a lost Mercian Register, which gives a Mercian perspective and details of Æthelflæd's campaign against the Vikings.[24]
     "In the late ninth and early tenth centuries, connection by marriage with the West Saxon royal house was seen as prestigious by continental rulers. In the mid-890s Alfred had married his daughter Ælfthryth to Baldwin II of Flanders, and in 919 Edward married his daughter Eadgifu to Charles the Simple, King of West Francia. In 925, after Edward's death, another daughter Eadgyth married Otto, the future King of Germany and (after Eadgyth's death) Holy Roman Emperor.[28]
Conquest of the southern Danelaw
     "No battles are recorded between the Anglo-Saxons and the Danish Vikings for several years after the Battle of the Holme, but in 906 Edward agreed peace with the East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes, suggesting that there had been conflict. According to one version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle he made peace "of necessity", which implies that he was forced to buy them off.[19] He encouraged Englishmen to purchase land in Danish territory, and two charters survive relating to estates in Bedfordshire and Derbyshire.[29] In 909 Edward sent a combined West Saxon and Mercian army which harassed the Northumbrian Danes, and seized the bones of the Northumbrian royal saint Oswald from Bardney Abbey in Lincolnshire. Oswald was translated to a new Mercian minster established by Æthelred and Æthelflæd in Gloucester and the Danes were compelled to accept peace on Edward's terms.[30] In the following year, the Northumbrian Danes retaliated by raiding Mercia, but on their way home they were met by a combined Mercian and West Saxon army at the Battle of Tettenhall, where the Vikings suffered a disastrous defeat. After that, the Northumbrian Danes never ventured south of the River Humber, and Edward and his Mercian allies were able to concentrate on conquering the southern Danelaw in East Anglia and the Five Boroughs of Viking east Mercia: Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham and Stamford.[19] In 911 Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, died, and Edward took control of the Mercian lands around London and Oxford. Æthelred was succeeded as ruler by his widow Æthelflæd as Lady of the Mercians, and she had probably been acting as ruler for several years as Æthelred seems to have been incapacitated in later life.[31]
     "Edward and Æthelflæd then began the construction of fortresses to guard against Viking attacks and protect territory captured from them. In November 911, he constructed a fort on the north bank of the River Lea at Hertford to guard against attack by the Danes of Bedford and Cambridge. In 912, he marched with his army to Maldon in Essex, and ordered the building of a fort at Witham and a second fort at Hertford, which protected London from attack and encouraged many English living under Danish rule in Essex to submit to him. In 913 there was a pause in his activities, although Æthelflæd continued her fortress building in Mercia.[32] In 914 a Viking army sailed from Brittany and ravaged the Severn estuary. It then attacked Ergyng in south-east Wales (now Archenfield in Herefordshire) and captured Bishop Cyfeilliog. Edward ransomed him for the large sum of forty pounds of silver. The Vikings were defeated by the armies of Hereford and Gloucester, and gave hostages and oaths to keep the peace. Edward kept an army on the south side of the estuary in case the Vikings broke their promises, and he twice had to repel attacks. In the autumn the Vikings moved on to Ireland. The episode suggests that south-east Wales fell within the West Saxon sphere of power, unlike Brycheiniog just to the north, where Mercia was dominant.[33] In late 914 Edward built two forts at Buckingham, and Earl Thurketil, the leader of the Danish army at Bedford submitted to him. The following year he occupied Bedford, and constructed another fortification on the south bank of the River Great Ouse against a Viking one on the north bank. In 916 Edward returned to Essex and built a fort at Maldon to bolster the defence of Witham. He also helped Earl Thurketil and his followers to leave England, reducing the number of Viking armies in the Midlands.[34]
     "The decisive year in the war was 917. In April Edward built a fort at Towcester as a defence against the Danes of Northampton, and another at an unidentified place called Wigingamere. The Danes launched unsuccessful attacks on Towcester, Bedford and Wigingamere, while Æthelflæd captured Derby, showing the value of the English defensive measures, which were aided by disunity and a lack of coordination among the Viking armies. The Danes had built their own fortress at Tempsford in Bedfordshire, but at the end of the summer the English stormed it and killed the last Danish king of East Anglia. The English then took Colchester, although they did not try to hold it. The Danes retaliated by sending a large army to lay siege to Maldon, but the garrison held out until it was relieved and the retreating army was heavily defeated. Edward then returned to Towcester and reinforced its fort with a stone wall, and the Danes of nearby Northampton submitted to him. The armies of Cambridge and East Anglia also submitted, and by the end of the year the only Danish armies still holding out were those of four of the Five Boroughs, Leicester, Stamford, Nottingham, and Lincoln.[35]
     "In early 918, Æthelflæd secured the submission of Leicester without a fight, and the Danes of Northumbrian York offered her their allegiance, probably for protection against Norse (Norwegian) Vikings who had invaded Northumbria from Ireland, but she died on 12 June before she could take up the proposal. The same offer is not known to have been made to Edward, and the Norse Vikings took York in 919. According to the main West Saxon version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, after Æthelflæd's death the Mercians submitted to Edward, but the Mercian version (the Mercian Register) states that in December 918 her daughter Ælfwynn "was deprived of all authority in Mercia and taken into Wessex". Mercia may have made a bid for continued semi-independence which was suppressed by Edward, and it then came under his direct rule. Stamford had surrendered to Edward before Æthelflæd's death, and Nottingham did the same shortly afterwards. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 918, "all the people who had settled in Mercia, both Danish and English, submitted to him". This would mean that he ruled all England south of the Humber, but it is not clear whether Lincoln was an exception, as coins of Viking York in the early 920s were probably minted at Lincoln.[36] Some Danish jarls were allowed to keep their estates, although Edward probably also rewarded his supporters with land, and some he kept in his own hands. Coin evidence suggests that his authority was stronger in the East Midlands than in East Anglia.[37] Three Welsh kings, Hywel Dda, Clydog and Idwal Foel, who had previously been subject to Æthelflæd, now gave their allegiance to Edward.[38]
Coinage
     "The principal currency in later Anglo-Saxon England was the silver penny, and some coins carried a stylised portrait of the king. Edward's coins had "EADVVEARD REX" on the obverse and the name of the moneyer on the reverse. The places of issue were not shown in his reign, but they were in that of his son Æthelstan, allowing the location of many moneyers of Edward's reign to be established. There were mints in Bath, Canterbury, Chester, Chichester, Derby, Exeter, Hereford, London, Oxford, Shaftesbury, Shrewsbury, Southampton, Stafford, Wallingford, Wareham, Winchester and probably other towns. No coins were struck in the name of Æthelred or Æthelflæd, but from around 910 mints in English Mercia produced coins with an unusual decorative design on the reverse. This ceased before 920, and probably represents Æthelflæd's way of distinguishing her coinage from that of her brother. There was also a minor issue of coins in the name of Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury. There was a dramatic increase in the number of moneyers over Edward's reign, fewer than 25 in the south in the first ten years rising to 67 in the last ten years, around five in English Mercia rising to 23, plus 27 in the conquered Danelaw.[39]
Church
     "In 908, Plegmund conveyed the alms of the English king and people to the Pope, the first visit to Rome by an Archbishop of Canterbury for almost a century, and the journey may have been to seek papal approval for a proposed re-organisation of the West Saxon sees.[40] When Edward came to the throne Wessex had two dioceses, Winchester, held by Denewulf, and Sherborne, held by Asser.[41] In 908 Denewulf died and was replaced the following year by Frithestan; soon afterwards Winchester was divided into two sees, with the creation of the diocese of Ramsbury covering Wiltshire and Berkshire, while Winchester was left with Hampshire and Surrey. Forged charters date the division to 909, but this may not be correct. Asser died in the same year, and at some date between 909 and 918 Sherborne was divided into three sees, Crediton covering Devon and Cornwall, and Wells covering Somerset, leaving Sherborne with Dorset.[42] The effect of the changes was to strengthen the status of Canterbury compared with Winchester and Sherborne, but the division may have been related to a change in the secular functions of West Saxon bishops, to become agents of royal government in shires rather than provinces, assisting in defence and taking part in shire courts.[43]
     "At the beginning of Edward's reign, his mother Ealhswith founded the abbey of St Mary for nuns, known as the Nunnaminster, in Winchester.[44] Edward's daughter Eadburh became a nun there, and she was venerated as a saint and the subject of a hagiography by Osbert of Clare in the twelfth century.[45] In 901, Edward started building a major religious community for men, possibly in accordance with his father's wishes. The monastery was next to Winchester Cathedral, which became known as the Old Minster while Edward's foundation was called the New Minster. It was much larger than the Old Minster, and was probably intended as a royal mausoleum.[46] It acquired relics of the Breton Saint Judoc, which probably arrived in England from Ponthieu in 901, and the body of one of Alfred's closest advisers, Grimbald, who died in the same year and who was soon venerated as a saint. Edward's mother died in 902, and he buried her and Alfred there, moving his father's body from the Old Minster. Burials in the early 920s included Edward himself, his brother Æthelweard, and his son Ælfweard. On the other hand, when Æthelstan became king in 924, he did not show any favour to his father's foundation, probably because Winchester sided against him when the throne was disputed after Edward's death. The only other king buried at the New Minster was Eadwig, in 959.[47]
     "Edward's decision not to expand the Old Minster, but rather to overshadow it with a much larger building, suggests animosity towards Bishop Denewulf, and this was compounded by forcing the Old Minster to cede both land for the new site, and an estate of 70 hides at Beddington to provide an income for the New Minster. Edward was remembered by the New Minster as a benefactor, but at the Old Minster as rex avidus (greedy king).[48] He may have built the new church because he did not think that the Old Minster was grand enough to be the royal mausoleum for kings of the Anglo-Saxons, not just the West Saxons like their predecessors.[49] Alan Thacker comments:
Edward's method of endowing New Minster was of a piece with his ecclesiastical policy in general. Like his father he gave little to the church — indeed, judging by the dearth of charters for much of his reign he seems to have given away little at all ... More than any other, Edward's kingship seems to epitomise the new hard-nosed monarchy of Wessex, determined to exploit all its resources, lay and ecclesiastical, for its own benefit.[50]

     "Patrick Wormald observes: "The thought occurs that neither Alfred nor Edward was greatly beloved at Winchester Cathedral; and one reason for Edward's moving his father's body into the new family shrine next door was that he was surer of sincere prayers there."[51]
Learning and culture
     "The standard of Anglo-Saxon learning declined severely in the ninth century, particularly in Wessex, and Mercian scholars such as Plegmund played a major part in the revival of learning initiated by Alfred. Mercians were prominent at the courts of Alfred and Edward, and the Mercian dialect and scholarship commanded West Saxon respect.[52] It is uncertain how far Alfred's programmes continued during his son's reign. English translations of works in Latin made during Alfred's reign continued to be copied, but few original works are known. The script known as Anglo-Saxon Square minuscule reached maturity in the 930s, and its earliest phases date to Edward's reign. The main scholarly and scriptorial centres were the cathedral centres of Canterbury, Winchester and Worcester; monasteries did not make a significant contribution until Æthelstan's reign.[53] Very little survives of the manuscript production of Edward's reign.[54]
     "The only surviving large scale embroideries which were certainly made in Anglo-Saxon England date to Edward's reign. They are a stole, a maniple and a possible girdle removed from the coffin of St Cuthbert in Durham Cathedral in the nineteenth century. They were donated to the shrine by Æthelstan in 934, but inscriptions on the embroideries show that they were commissioned by Edward's second wife, Ælfflæd, as a gift to Frithestan, Bishop of Winchester. They probably did not reach their intended destination because Æthelstan was on bad terms with Winchester.[55]
Law and administration
     "Almost all surviving charters from Edward's reign are later copies, and the only surviving original is not a charter of Edward himself, but a grant by Æthelred and Æthelflæd in 901.[56] In the same year a meeting at Southampton was attended by his brother and sons, his household thegns and nearly all bishops, but no ealdormen. It was on this occasion that the king acquired land from the Bishop of Winchester for the foundation of the New Minster, Winchester. No charters survive for the period from 910 to the king's death in 924, much to the puzzlement and distress of historians. Charters were usually issued when the king made grants of land, and it is possible that Edward followed a policy of retaining property which came into his hands to help finance his campaigns against the Vikings.[57] Charters rarely survive unless they concerned property which passed to the church and were preserved in their archives, and another possibility is that Edward was making grants of property only on terms which ensured that they returned to male members of the royal house; such charters would not be found in church archives.[58]
     "Clause 3 of the law code called I Edward provides that people convincingly charged with perjury shall not be allowed to clear themselves by oath, but only by ordeal. This is the start of the continuous history in England of trial by ordeal; it is probably mentioned in the laws of King Ine (688 to 726),[b] but not in later codes such as those of Alfred.[59] The administrative and legal system in Edward's reign may have depended extensively on written records, almost none of which survive.[60] Edward was one of the few Anglo-Saxon kings to issue laws about bookland. There was increasing confusion in the period as to what was really bookland; Edward urged prompt settlement in bookland and folkland disputes, and his legislation established that jurisdiction belonged to the king and his officers.[61]
Later life
     "According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, there was a general submission of rulers in Britain to Edward in 920:
Then [Edward] went from there into the Peak District to Bakewell and ordered a borough to be built in the neighbourhood and manned. And then the king of the Scots and all the people of the Scots, and Rægnald and the sons of Eadwulf[c] and all who live in Northumbria, both English and Danish, Norsemen and others, and also the king of the Strathclyde Welsh and all the Strathclyde Welsh, chose him as father and lord.[63]

     "This passage was regarded as a straightforward report by most historians until the late twentieth century,[64] and Frank Stenton observed that "each of the rulers named in this list had something definite to gain from an acknowledgement of Edward's overlordship".[65] Since the 1980s this submission has been viewed with increasing scepticism, particularly as the passage in the Chronicle is the only evidence for it, unlike other submissions such as that one in 927 to Æthelstan, for which there is independent support from literary sources and coins.[66] Alfred P. Smyth points out that Edward was not in a position to impose the same conditions on the Scots and the Northumbrians as he could on conquered Vikings, and argues that the Chronicle presented a treaty between kings as a submission to Wessex.[67] Stafford observes that the rulers had met at Bakewell on the border between Mercia and Northumbria, and that meetings on borders were generally considered to avoid any implication of submission by either side.[68] Davidson points out that the wording "chosen as father and lord" applied to conquered army groups and burhs, not relations with other kings. In his view:
The idea that this meeting represented a 'submission', while it must remain a possibility, does however seem unlikely. The textual context of the chronicler's passage makes his interpretation of the meeting suspect, and ultimately, Edward was in no position to force the subordination of, or dictate terms to, his fellow kings in Britain.[69]

     "Edward continued Æthelflæd's policy of founding burhs in the north-west, at Thelwall and Manchester in 919, and Cledematha (Rhuddlan) at the mouth of the River Clwyd in North Wales in 921.[70]
     "Nothing is known of his relations with the Mercians between 919 and the last year of his life, when he put down a Mercian and Welsh revolt at Chester. Mercia and the eastern Danelaw were organised into shires at an unknown date in the tenth century, ignoring traditional boundaries, and historians such as Sean Miller and David Griffiths suggest that Edward's imposition of direct control from 919 is a likely context for a change which ignored Mercian sensibilities. Resentment at the changes, at the imposition of rule by distant Wessex, and at fiscal demands by Edward's reeves, may have provoked the revolt at Chester. He died at the royal estate of Farndon, twelve miles south of Chester, on 24 July 924, shortly after putting down the revolt, and was buried in the New Minster, Winchester.[71] In 1109, the New Minster was moved outside the city walls to become Hyde Abbey, and the following year the remains of Edward and his parents were translated to the new church.[72]
Reputation
     "According to William of Malmesbury, Edward was "much inferior to his father in the cultivation of letters", but "incomparably more glorious in the power of his rule". Other medieval chroniclers expressed similar views, and he was generally seen as inferior in book learning, but superior in military success. John of Worcester described him as "the most invincible King Edward the Elder". However, even as war leader he was only one of a succession of successful kings; his achievements were overshadowed because he did not have a famous victory like Alfred's at Edington and Æthelstan's at Brunanburh, and William qualified his praise of Edward by saying that "the chief prize of victory, in my judgment, is due to his father". an unknown date Edward has also been overshadowed by chroniclers' admiration for his highly regarded sister, Æthelflæd.[73]
     "A principal reason for the neglect of Edward is that very few primary sources for his reign survive, whereas there are many for Alfred. He was largely ignored by historians until the late twentieth century, but he is now highly regarded. He is described by Keynes as "far more than the bellicose bit between Alfred and Æthelstan",[74] and according to Nick Higham: "Edward the Elder is perhaps the most neglected of English kings. He ruled an expanding realm for twenty-five years and arguably did as much as any other individual to construct a single, south-centred, Anglo-Saxon kingdom, yet posthumously his achievements have been all but forgotten." In 1999 a conference on his reign was held at the University of Manchester, and the papers given on this occasion were published as a book in 2001. Prior to this conference, no monographs had been published on Edward's reign, whereas his father has been the subject of numerous biographies and other studies.[75]
     "In the view of F. T. Wainwright: "Without detracting from the achievements of Alfred, it is well to remember that it was Edward who reconquered the Danish Midlands and gave England nearly a century of respite from serious Danish attacks."[76] Higham summarises Edward's legacy as follows:
Under Edward's leadership, the scale of alternative centres of power diminished markedly: the separate court of Mercia was dissolved; the Danish leaders were in large part brought to heel or expelled; the Welsh princes were constrained from aggression of the borders and even the West Saxon bishoprics divided. Late Anglo-Saxon England is often described as the most centralised polity in western Europe at the time, with its shires, its shire-reeves and its systems of regional courts and royal taxation. If so — and the matter remains debatable — much of that centrality derives from Edward's activities, and he has as good a claim as any other to be considered the architect of medieval England.[77]

     "Edward's cognomen 'the Elder' was first used in Wulfstan's Life of St Æthelwold at the end of the tenth century, to distinguish him from King Edward the Martyr.[19]
Marriages and children
     "Edward had about fourteen children from three marriages.[e]
     "He first married Ecgwynn around 893.[83] Their children were:
     ***"Æthelstan, King of England 924–939[19]
     ***"A daughter, perhaps called Edith, married Sihtric, Viking King of York in 926, who died in 927. Possibly Saint Edith of Polesworth[84]
     "In c. 900, Edward married Ælfflæd, daughter of Ealdorman Æthelhelm, probably of Wiltshire.[17] Their children were:
     ***"Ælfweard, died August 924, a month after his father; possibly King of Wessex for that month[85]
     ***"Edwin, drowned at sea 933[86]
     ***"Æthelhild, lay sister at Wilton Abbey[87]
     ***"Eadgifu (died in or after 951), married Charles the Simple, King of the West Franks, c. 918[88]
     ***"Eadflæd, nun at Wilton Abbey[87]
     ***"Eadhild, married Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks in 926[89]
     ***"Eadgyth (died 946), in 929/30 married Otto I, future King of the East Franks, and (after Eadgyth's death) Holy Roman Emperor[90]
     ***"Ælfgifu, married "a prince near the Alps", perhaps Louis, brother of King Rudolph II of Burgundy[91]
     "Edward married for a third time, about 919, Eadgifu, the daughter of Sigehelm, Ealdorman of Kent.[92] Their children were:
     ***"Edmund I, King of England 939–946[78]
     ***"Eadred, King of England 946–955[78]
     ***"Eadburh (died c. 952), Benedictine nun at Nunnaminster, Winchester, and saint[93]
     ***"Eadgifu, existence uncertain, possibly the same person as Ælfgifu[94]
Notes
a. The twelfth-century chronicler Ralph of Diceto stated that the coronation took place at Kingston, and this is accepted by Simon Keynes, although Sarah Foot says that "Edward might well have held the ceremony at Winchester".[21]
b. It is not certain that the references in Ine's laws are to trial by ordeal.[59]
c. Rægnald was the Norse Viking king of York in southern Northumbria, and Eadwulf was the Anglo-Saxon ruler of northern Northumbria, which was not conquered by the Vikings.[62]
d. All quotations in this paragraph are from Higham, 'Edward the Elder's Reputation: An Introduction', pp. 2-3
e. The order in which Edward's children are listed is based on the family tree in Foot's Æthelstan: the First King of England, which shows sons of each wife before daughters. The daughters are listed in their birth order according to William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum Anglorum.[78] The earliest primary sources do not distinguish whether Sihtric's wife was Æthelstan's full or half sister, and a tradition recorded at Bury in the early twelfth century makes her a daughter of Edward's second wife, Ælfflæd. She is described as the daughter of Edward and Ecgwynn in William of Malmesbury's twelfth century Deeds of the English Kings, and Michael Wood's argument that this is partly based on a lost early life of Æthelstan has been generally accepted.[79] Modern historians follow William of Malmesbury's testimony in showing her as Æthelstan's full sister."[80] William did not know her name, but some late sources name her as Edith or Eadgyth, an identification accepted by some historians.[81] She is also identified in late sources with saint Edith of Polesworth, a view accepted by Alan Thacker, but dismissed as "dubious" by Sarah Foot, who thinks that it is likely that she entered the cloister in widowhood.[82]
Citations
1. Keynes and Lapidge 1983, pp. 11–12.
2. Stenton 1971, pp. 245–57.
3. Yorke 2001, pp. 25–28.
4. Yorke 2001, pp. 25–26; Miller 2004.
5. Yorke 2001, pp. 27–28.
6. Yorke 2001, pp. 25, 29–30.
7. Æthelhelm & PASE; S 356 & Sawyer; Yorke 2001, p. 31.
8. Keynes and Lapidge 1983, pp. 175–76, 321–22; Yorke 2001, p. 30.
9. Yorke 2001, pp. 31–35.
10. Yorke 2001, p. 32.
11. Yorke 2001, pp. 31–32.
12. Abels 1998, pp. 294–304.
13. Yorke 2001, p. 37.
14. Yorke 2001, pp. 33–34; Bailey 2001, p. 114; Mynors, Thomson and Winterbottom 1998, p. 199.
15. Keynes 1999, p. 467; Abels 1998, p. 307.
16. Yorke 2001, p. 33; Foot 2011, p. 31.
17. Yorke 2001, p. 33.
18. Nelson 1996, pp. 53–54, 63–66.
19. Miller 2004.
20. Stenton 1971, p. 321; Lavelle 2009, pp. 53, 61.
21. Keynes 2001, p. 48; Foot 2011, p. 74, n. 46.
22. Stenton 1971, pp. 321–322; Hart 1992, pp. 512–15; Miller 2004.
23. Keynes 2001, pp. 44–58.
24. Ryan 2013, p. 298.
25. Stafford 2001, p. 45.
26. Insley 2009, p. 330.
27. Davidson 2001, pp. 203–05; Keynes 2001, p. 43.
28. Sharp 2001, pp. 81–86.
29. Abrams 2001, p. 136.
30. Stenton 1971, p. 323; Heighway 2001, p. 108.
31. Stenton 1971, p. 324, n. 1; Wainwright 1975, pp. 308–09; Bailey 2001, p. 113.
32. Miller 2004; Stenton 1971, pp. 324–25.
33. Charles-Edwards 2013, p. 506; Miller 2004.
34. Stenton 1971, pp. 325–26.
35. Miller 2004; Stenton 1971, pp. 327–29.
36. Miller 2004; Stenton 1971, pp. 329–31.
37. Abrams 2001, pp. 138–39; Lyon 2001, p. 74.
38. Charles-Edwards 2013, pp. 484, 498–500.
39. Lyon 2001, pp. 67–73, 77; Blackburn 2014.
40. Brooks 1984, pp. 210, 213.
41. Rumble 2001, pp. 230–31.
42. Yorke 2004b; Brooks 1984, pp. 212–13.
43. Rumble 2001, p. 243.
44. Rumble 2001, p. 231.
45. Thacker 2001, pp. 259–60.
46. Rumble 2001, pp. 231–34; Marafioti 2014, pp. 26–29.
17. Miller 2001, pp. xxv–xxix; Thacker 2001, pp. 253–54.
18. Rumble 2001, pp. 234–37, 244; Thacker 2001, p. 254.
49. Marafioti 2014, pp. 28–31.
50. Thacker 2001, p. 254.
51. Wormald 2001, pp. 274–75.
52. Gretsch 2001, p. 287.
53. Lapidge 1993, pp. 12–16.
54. Higham 2001a, p. 2.
55. Coatsworth 2001, pp. 292–96; Wilson 1984, p. 154.
56. Lapidge 1993, p. 13.
57. Keynes 2001, pp. 50–51, 55–56.
58. Wormald 2001, p. 275.
59. Campbell 2001, p. 14.
60. Campbell 2001, p. 23.
61. Wormald 2001, pp. 264, 276.
62. Davidson 2001, p. 205.
63. Davidson 2001, pp. 200–01.
64. Davidson 2001, p. 201.
65. Stenton 1971, p. 334.
66. Davidson 2001, pp. 206–07.
67. Smyth 1984, p. 199.
68. Stafford 1989, p. 33.
69. Davidson 2001, pp. 206, 209.
70. Griffiths 2001, p. 168.
71. Miller 2004; Griffiths 2001, pp. 167, 182–83.
72. Doubleday & Page 1903, pp. 116–22.
73. Higham 2001a, pp. 2–4; Keynes 2001, pp. 40–41.
74. Higham 2001a, pp. 3–9; Keynes 2001, p. 57.
75. Higham 2001a, pp. 1–4.
76. Wainwright 1975, p. 77.
77. Higham 2001b, p. 311.
78. Foot 2011, p. xv.
Thacker 2001, p. 257; Foot 2011, pp. 251–58.79.
80. Williams 1991, pp. xxix, 123; Foot 2011, p. xv; Miller 2004.
81. Miller 2004; Williams 1991, pp. xxix, 123.
82. Thacker 2001, pp. 257–58; Foot 2011, p. 48; Foot 2010, p. 243.
83. Foot 2011, p. 11.
84. Thacker 2001, pp. 257–58.
85. Foot 2011, p. 17.
86. Foot 2011, p. 21.
87. Foot 2011, p. 45.
88. Foot 2011, p. 46; Stafford 2011.
89. Foot 2011, p. 18.
90. Stafford 2011.
91. Foot 2011, p. 51.
92. Stafford 2004.
93. Yorke 2004a; Thacker 2001, pp. 259–60.
94. Foot 2011, pp. 50–51; Stafford 2004.
Bibliography
* Abels, Richard (1998). Alfred the Great: War, Kingship and Culture in Anglo-Saxon England. Harlow, UK: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-04047-2.
* Abrams, Lesley (2001). "Edward the Elder's Danelaw". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 128–43. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* "Æthelhelm 4 (Male)". Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England (PASE). Retrieved 31 December 2016.
* Bailey, Maggie (2001). "Ælfwynn, Second Lady of the Mercians". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 112–27. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Blackburn, M. A. S. (2014). "Coinage". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald (eds.) The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England (2nd ed.) Chichester, UK: Wiley– Blackwell. pp. 114–15. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.
* Brooks, Nicholas (1984). The Early History of the Church of Canterbury. Leicester, UK: Leicester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7185-1182-1.
* Campbell, James (2001). "What is not Known About the Reign of Edward the Elder". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 12–24. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Charles-Edwards, T. M. (2013). Wales and the Britons 350–1064. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821731-2.
* Coatsworth, Elizabeth (2001). "The Embroideries from the Tomb of St Cuthbert". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 292–306. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Davidson, Michael R. (2001). "The (Non)submission of the Northern Kings in 920". In Higham, N. J; Hill, D. H. (eds.) Edward the Elder, 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 200–11. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Doubleday, Arthur; Page, William, eds. (1903). "New Minster, or the Abbey of Hyde". A History of the County of Hampshire. Victoria County History. 2. London, UK: Constable. pp. 116–22. OCLC 832215096.
* Foot, Sarah (2010). "Dynastic Strategies: The West Saxon Royal Family in Europe". In Rollason, David; Leyser, Conrad; Williams, Hannah (eds.) England and the Continent in the Tenth Century: Studies in Honour of Wilhelm Levison (1876–1947). Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols. pp. 237–53. ISBN 978-2-503-53208-0.
* Foot, Sarah (2011). Æthelstan: the First King of England. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12535-1.
* Gretsch, Mechtild (2001). "The Junius Psalter Gloss: Tradition and Innovation". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder * 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 280–91. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Griffiths, David (2001). "The North-West Frontier". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 167–87. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Hart, Cyril (1992). The Danelaw. London, UK: The Hambledon Press. ISBN 978-1-85285-044-9.
* Heighway, Carolyn (2001). "Gloucester and the New Minster of St Oswald". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 102–11. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Higham, Nick (2001a). "Edward the Elder's Reputation: An Introduction". In Higham, N. J; Hill, D. H. (eds.) Edward the Elder, 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 1–11. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Higham, Nick (2001b). "Endpiece". In Higham, N. J; Hill, D. H. (eds.) Edward the Elder, 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 307–11. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Insley, Charles (2009). "Southumbria". In Stafford, Pauline (ed.) A Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland c.500- c.1100. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 322–40. ISBN 978-1-118-42513-8.
* Keynes, Simon (1999). "England, c.900–1016". In Reuter, Timothy (ed.) The New Cambridge Medieval History. III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 456–84. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
* Keynes, Simon (2001). "Edward, King of the Anglo-Saxons". In Higham, N. J; Hill, D. H. (eds.) Edward the Elder, 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 40–66. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Keynes, Simon; Lapidge, Michael, eds. (1983). Alfred the Great: Asser's Life of King Alfred & Other Contemporary Sources. London, UK: Penguin Classics. ISBN 978-0-14-044409-4.
* Lapidge, Michael (1993). Anglo-Latin Literature 900–1066. London, UK: The Hambledon Press. ISBN 978-1-85285-012-8.
* Lavelle, Ryan (2009). "The Politics of Rebellion: The Ætheling Æthelwold and the West Saxon Royal Succession, 899–902". In Skinner, Patricia (ed.) Challenging the Boundaries of Medieval History: The Legacy of Timothy Reuter. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols. pp. 51–80. ISBN 978-2-503-52359-0.
* Lyon, Stewart (2001). "The coinage of Edward the Elder". In Higham, N. J; Hill, D. H. (eds.) Edward the Elder, 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 67–78. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Marafioti, Nicole (2014). The King's Body: Burial and Succession in Late Anglo-Saxon England. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-4758-9.
* Miller, Sean (2001). "Introduction: The History of the New Minster, Winchester". In Miller, Sean (ed.) Charters of the New Minster, Winchester. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press for The British Academy. pp. xxv–xxxvi. ISBN 978-0-19-726223-8.
* Miller, Sean (2004). "Edward [called Edward the Elder] (870s?–924), king of the Anglo-Saxons". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8514. Retrieved 6 October 2016. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
* Mynors, R. A. B; Thomson, R.M; Winterbottom, M., eds. (1998). William of Malmesbury: The History of the English Kings. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820678-1.
* Nelson, Janet (1996). "Reconstructing a Royal Family: Reflections on Alfred from Asser, Chapter 2". In Wood, Ian; Lund, Niels (eds.) People and places in Northern Europe 500-1600 : Essays in Honour of Peter Hayes Sawyer. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press. pp. 48–66. ISBN 978-0-851-15547-0.
* Rumble, Alexander R. (2001). "Edward and the Churches of Winchester and Wessex". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 230–47. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Ryan, Martin J. (2013). "Conquest, Reform and the Making of England". In Higham, Nicholas J; Ryan, Martin J. (eds.) The Anglo-Saxon World. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. pp. 284–322. ISBN 978-0-300-12534-4.
* "S 356". The Electronic Sawyer: Online Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Charters. Retrieved 18 December 2017. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
* Sharp, Sheila (2001). "The West Saxon Tradition of Dynastic Marriage, with Special Reference to the Family of Edward the Elder". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 79–88. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Smyth, Alfred P (1984). Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000. London, UK: Edward Arnold. ISBN 978-0-7131-6305-6.
Stafford, Pauline (1989). Unification and Conquest: A Political and Social History of England in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. London, UK: Edward Arnold. ISBN 978-0-7131-6532-6.
* Stafford, Pauline (2001). "Political Women in Mercia, Eighth to Early Tenth Centuries". In Brown, Michelle P; Farr, Carol A. (eds.) Mercia: An Anglo-Saxon Kingdom in Europe. London, UK: Leicester University Press. pp. 35–49. ISBN 978-0-7185-0231-7.
* Stafford, Pauline (2004). "Eadgifu (b. in or before 904, d. in or after 966), Queen of the Anglo-Saxons". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/52307. Retrieved 4 January 2017. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
* Stafford, Pauline (2011). "Eadgyth (c.911–946), Queen of the East Franks". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/93072. ISBN 978-0-19-861411-1. Retrieved 3 January 2017. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
* Stenton, Frank (1971). Anglo-Saxon England (3rd ed.) Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5.
* Thacker, Alan (2001). "Dynastic Monasteries and Family Cults". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 248–63. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Wainwright, F. T. (1975). Scandinavian England: Collected Papers. Chichester, UK: Phillimore. ISBN 978-0-900592-65-2.
* Williams, Ann (1982). "Princeps Merciorum Gentis: the Family, Career and Connections of Ælfhere, Ealdorman of Mercia 956-983". Anglo-Saxon England. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 10: 143–72. doi:10.1017/s0263675100003240. ISBN 978-0-521-24177-9.
* Williams, Ann; Smyth, Alfred P; Kirby, D. P. (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England, Scotland, and Wales. London, UK: Seaby. ISBN 978-1-85264-047-7.
* Wilson, David (1984). Anglo-Saxon Art from the Seventh Century to the Norman Conquest. London, UK: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-23392-4.
* Wormald, Patrick (2001). "Kingship and Royal Property from Æthelwulf to Edward the Elder". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 264–79. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Yorke, Barbara (2001). "Edward as Ætheling". In Higham, Nick; Hill, David (eds.) Edward the Elder 899–924. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 25–39. ISBN 978-0-415-21497-1.
* Yorke, Barbara (2004a). "Eadburh [St Eadburh, Eadburga] (921x4–951x3), Benedictine nun". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 1. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/49419. Retrieved 4 January 2017. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
* Yorke, Barbara (2004b). "Frithestan (d. 932/3), bishop of Winchester". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/49428. Retrieved 1 March 2017. (subscription or UK public library membership required.)9"

Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. I 6
     2. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy, Oxford, 1988, Cannon, John and Griffiths, Ralph. 49 biography
     3. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef.1700, 7th Edition, 1992, Weis, Frederick Lewis. 2.7
GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-31. Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex was also known as Eadweard "the Elder" (?) King of England.3 He was King of the West Saxons See attached map (image from Wikipedia - Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1088946). between 899 and 924.3,9 He was King of England between October 899 and 924.10,13,5 He was King of the Mercians between 918 and 924.3

Family 2

Ecgwynn (?) d. bt 901 - 902
Children

Family 4

Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent b. c 903, d. 25 Aug 968
Children

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 74, ENGLAND 16. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Ealhswith: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/ealhs000.htm
  5. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), appendix. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  6. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Edward the Elder (874–17 Jul 924), Find A Grave Memorial no. 22392, citing Hyde Abbey, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England ; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/22392/edward_the_elder. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 45-16, p. 46. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  10. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 1-16, p. 2.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO
  12. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Eadgifu Of Kent (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 86894684, citing Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England ; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/86894684/eadgifu-of_kent
  13. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-15.
  14. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 473 (Chart 31). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  15. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Æthelred Mucil/Mucel: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/aethe003.htm
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331066&tree=LEO
  17. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#EadgythMSihtricYorkdied927. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  18. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998, Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066.
  19. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00185929&tree=LEO
  21. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, pp. 473 (Chart 31), 226.
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgyth of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020085&tree=LEO

Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent1,2,3

F, #4248, b. circa 903, d. 25 August 968
FatherSigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent2,4,3,5 d. c 13 Dec 902
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited5 Oct 2019
     Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent was born circa 903 at co. Kent, England.3,5 She married Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex, son of Alfred "the Great" (?) King of England and Ealhswith (?) of Mercia, in 919;
His 3rd wife.6,2,4,3,5,7
Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent died on 25 August 968; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1 page) says d. 25 Aug 968.6,2,3
Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent was buried at Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, co. Kent, England,

; Fom Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown, Kent, England.
     DEATH     unknown, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England
     Netherlands Genaologie Online Trees Index calls her Edgiva of Meopham with a birth of 896 in Kent, England and death of 25 Aug 968. Her father was Sigehelm of Meopham, Ealdorman of Kent. She also was the mother of Saint Edburga van Wessex.
     Family Members
     Spouse
      Edward the Elder 874–924
     Children
      Edburga Of Winchester
      Eadmund I the Elder 921–946
     BURIAL     Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England
     Created by: Brett Williams
     Added: 17 Mar 2012
     Find A Grave Memorial 86894684.2,5
     GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-30.

Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent
Per Genealogics:
     "
Eadgifu was born in or before 903, the daughter of Sigehelm, ealdorman of Kent, who died at the Battle of Holme in 902 or 904. She became the third wife of Edward I 'the Elder', king of England, son of Alfred 'the Great', king of England, and his wife Ealswith. Eadgifu and Edward had two sons, Edmund I and Edred, and two daughters, Eadburh and Edgifu, of whom Edmund I and Edred would become kings of England, though only Edmund I would marry and have progeny. Eadburh would be venerated as St. Eadburh of Wessex. Eadgifu survived Edward by many years, dying in the reign of her grandson Edgar.

Eadgifu disappeared from court during the reign of her step-son, King Aethelstan, but she was prominent and influential during the reign of her two sons. As queen dowager, her position seems to have been higher than that of her daughter-in-law Aelgifu of Shaftesbury; in a Kentish charter datable between 942 and 944, Aelgifu describes herself as the king's concubine _(concubina regis),_ with a place assigned to her between the bishops and ealdormen. By comparison, Eadgifu subscribes higher up in the witness list as _mater regis,_ after her sons Edmund and Edred but before the archbishops and bishops.

Following the death of her younger son Edred in 955, Eadgifu was deprived of her lands by her eldest grandson, King Edwy, perhaps because she took the side of his younger brother Edgar in the struggle between them. When Edgar succeeded on Edwy's death in 959 she recovered some lands and received generous gifts from her grandson, but she never returned to her prominent position at court. She is last recorded as a witness to a charter in 966, and died on 25 August 968.

She was known as a supporter of saintly churchmen and a benefactor of churches.3

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973 .
190.3
Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent was also known as Eadgifu.4

Family

Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
Children

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 473 (Chart 31). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  5. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Eadgifu Of Kent (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 86894684, citing Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England ; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/86894684/eadgifu-of_kent. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-16, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  8. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.

Sigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent1,2

M, #4249, d. circa 13 December 902
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited5 Oct 2019
     Sigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent died circa 13 December 902 at Battle of Holme, East Anglia, England; per The henry Project: "Sigehelm was killed at the battle at the Holme, with sources disagreeing about the year ["... & þær wearð Sigulf ealdormon ofslægen, & Sigelm ealdorman... & Sigebreht Sigulfes sunu..." ASC(A) s.a. 905 (orig. 904); "& þy ilcan gere wæs þ gefeoht æt þam Holme Cantwara & þara Deniscra." ASC(C) s.a. 902 (Mercian Register)]. Angus argued that the battle was fought between 24 September and 25 December 902, and perhaps on 12 December 902, but the argument is not conclusive [Angus (1938), 204-6]. A 961 deed of his daughter shows clearly that the Sigehelm who died at the Battle of Holme was the same person as Sigehelm, father of queen Eadgifu [Cart. Sax. 3: 284-7 (#1064-5); see the page of Eadgifu for more details]."

per Wikipedia: "The Battle of the Holme took place in East Anglia on 13 December 902 between the Anglo-Saxon men of Kent and the East Anglian Danes.[1] Its location is unknown but may have been Holme in Huntingdonshire (now part of Cambridgeshire).[2]
Following the death of Alfred the Great in 899, his son Edward the Elder became king, but his cousin Æthelwold, the son of Alfred's elder brother, King Æthelred, claimed the throne. His bid was unsuccessful, and he fled to the Northumbrian Danes, who, according to one version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, accepted him as king.[3] In 902 Æthelwold came with a fleet to Essex and the following year he persuaded the East Anglian Danes to attack Mercia and north Wessex. Edward retaliated by ravaging East Anglia and the Danish army was forced to return to defend its own territory. Edward then retreated, but the men of Kent disobeyed the order to retire, and they met the Danes at the battle of the Holme.
The course of the battle is unknown, but the Danes appear to have won as according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle they "kept the place of slaughter".[4] However, they suffered heavy losses including Æthelwold, Eohric, probably the Danish king of East Anglia, Brihtsige, son of the ætheling Beornoth, and two holds, Ysopa and Oscetel. The battle thus ended Æthelwold's Revolt.[3] Kentish losses included Sigehelm, father of Edward the Elder's third wife, Eadgifu of Kent.[5] The West Saxon chronicler who gave the fullest account of the battle was at pains to explain why Edward and the rest of the English were not present, as if this had been a subject of criticism.[2]
References[edit]

Jump up ^ Miller, Edward the Elder
^ Jump up to: a b Keynes, p. 461 n.7
^ Jump up to: a b Campbell, p. 21.
Jump up ^ Stenton, pp. 321-2.
Jump up ^ Stafford, Eadgifu
Sources[edit]

Campbell, James (2001). "What is not known about the reign of Edward the Elder". In Higham, N. J; Hill, D. H. eds. Edward the Elder 899-924. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21497-1.
Keynes, Simon (1999). "England, c.900-1016". In Reuter, Timothy. The New Cambridge Medieval History 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 36447 7.
Miller, Sean (2004). "Edward (called Edward the Elder) (870s?–924), king of the Anglo-Saxons". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8514. Retrieved 16 July 2012. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
Stafford, Pauline (2004). "Eadgifu (b. in or before 904, d. in or after 966), queen of the Anglo-Saxons, consort of Edward the Elder". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/52307. Retrieved 10 June 2012. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
Stenton, Frank M. (1971). Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5."2,3
     GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-32.

Sigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent
per The Henry Project: "Sigehelm appears as minister of the king in an 875 charter involving land in Kent ["Ego Sighelm . minister . regis" Cart. Sax. 2: 159 (#539)]. He appears as dux in an 889 charter also involving land in Kent ["Ego Sigehelm dux" ibid., 2: 202 (#562)]. In 898, king Ælfred granted him land in Fearnleag (Farleigh), co. Kent ["In nomine domine ego Ælfrædus gratia Dei Saxonum rex. meo fideli duce Sigilmo concedo in perpetuam possessionem terram juris mei uniusque manentis in loco qui dicitur Fearnleag ..." ibid., 2: 219 (#576)]. This land was later held by his daughter Eadgifu [Cart. Sax. 3: 285-7 (#1065); see the page of Eadgifu for more details]. While we have no direct proof that all of these records involve the same person, it is very likely that they do, because Sigehelm was not a very common name, and the records can all be localized in Kent. He may have been the Sigehelm who took the alms of Ælfred to Rome and "India" in 882 [ASC(E) s.a. 883]. Sigehelm was killed at the Battle of Holme in 902×4 [see below]."

Bibliography

Angus (1938) = W. S. Angus, "The Chronology of the Reign of Edward the Elder", English Historical Review 53 (1938): 194-210.

ASC = Charles Plummer, Two of the Saxon Chronicles parallel, based on the earlier edition by John Earle, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1892-9). ASC(A) indicates the "A" manuscript of the chronicle, and similarly for the other manuscripts.

Cart. Sax. = Walter de Gray Birch, ed., Cartularium Saxonicum, 4 vols. (1885-99).

Searle (1899) = William George Searle, Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Kings and Nobles (Cambridge, 1899).

Thorpe (1865) = Benjamin Thorpe, ed., Diplomatarium Anglicum Ævi Saxonici (London, 1865).2

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 473 (Chart 31). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Sigehelm: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/sigeh000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, Battle of the Holme: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Holme. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Eadgifu Of Kent (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 86894684, citing Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England ; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/86894684/eadgifu-of_kent. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.

Maelmuir (?)1,2

M, #4250, b. circa 1035
FatherDuncan I "the Gracious" (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (?) King of Scotland b. 1001, d. 14 Aug 1040; per Henry Project: "Possible additional son: MALE Máel Muire of Atholl. According to the Orkneyinga Saga, earl Madach (Maddad) of Atholl [see CP 1: 304] was the son of Máel Muire (Melmar), brother of Malcolm Canmore [OrkS 63 (p. 108)]. While the relationship is not impossible, the long chronology suggests caution. [See ESSH 2: 140, 182]"3,2,4,5
MotherSuthen (?) of Northumbria2,6 b. 1009, d. 1040
ReferenceGAV30 EDV27
Last Edited20 May 2020
     Maelmuir (?) was born circa 1035.2
     GAV-30 EDV-27.

Maelmuir (?)
ancestor of the Earls of Atholl and Jarls of Orkney.3 Maelmuir (?) was also known as Melmare.3

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 396. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  3. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  4. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/dunca001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Suthen (of Northumbria): https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022595&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland1,2,3,4

F, #4251, b. 1045, d. 16 November 1093
FatherEdward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling5,3,4,6 b. 1016, d. 1057
MotherAgatha (?) of Poland4,3,7 b. c 1014, d. c 1070
ReferenceGAV24 EDV24
Last Edited12 May 2020
     Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland was born in 1045 at Hungary.5,2,4,3 She married Malcolm III Canmore (?) King of Scots, son of Duncan I "the Gracious" (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (?) King of Scotland and Suthen (?) of Northumbria, between 1068 and 1069 at Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland.1,8,5,3,4,9
Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland died on 16 November 1093 at Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland.3,5,4
     GAV-24 EDV-24 GKJ-25.

Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland
(an unknown value) at Scotland.10

Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland
St. Margaret of Scotland - Born about 1045, died 16 Nov., 1092, was a daughter of Edward "Outremere", or "the Exile", by Agatha, kinswoman of Gisela, the wife of St. Stephen of Hungary. She was the granddaughter of Edmund Ironside. A constant tradition asserts that Margaret's father and his brother Edmund were sent to Hungary for safety during the reign of Canute, but no record of the fact has been found in that country. The date of Margaret's birth cannot be ascertained with accuracy, but it must have been between the years 1038, when St. Stephen died, and 1057, when her father returned to England. It appears that Margaret came with him on that occasion and, on his death and the conquest of England by the Normans, her mother Agatha decided to return to the Continent. A storm however drove their ship to Scotland, where Malcolm III received the party under his protection, subsequently taking Margaret to wife. This event had been delayed for a while by Margaret's desire to entire religion, but it took place some time between 1067 and 1070.

In her position as queen, all Margaret's great influence was thrown into the cause of religion and piety. A synod was held, and among the special reforms instituted the most important were the regulation of the Lenten fast, observance of the Easter communion, and the removal of certain abuses concerning marriage within the prohibited degrees. Her private life was given up to constant prayer and practices of piety. She founded several churches, including the Abbey of Dunfermline, built to enshrine her greatest treasure, a relic of the true Cross. Her book of the Gospels, richly adorned with jewels, which one day dropped into a river and was according to legend miraculously recovered, is now in the Bodleian library at Oxford. She foretold the day of her death, which took place at Edinburgh on 16 Nov., 1093, her body being buried before the high altar at Dunfermline.

In 1250 Margaret was canonized by Innocent IV, and her relics were translated on 19 June, 1259, to a new shrine, the base of which is still visible beyond the modern east wall of the restored church. At the Reformation her head passed into the possession of Mary Queen of Scots, and later was secured by the Jesuits at Douai, where it is believed to have perished during the French Revolution. According to George Conn, "De duplici statu religionis apud Scots" (Rome, 1628), the rest of the relics, together with those of Malcolm, were acquired by Philip II of Spain, and placed in two urns in the Escorial. When, however, Bishop Gillies of Edinburgh applied through Pius IX for their restoration to Scotland, they could not be found.

The chief authority for Margaret's life is the contemporary biography printed in "Acta SS.", II, June, 320. Its authorship has been ascribed to Turgot, the saint's confessor, a monk of Durham and later Archbishop of St. Andrews, and also to Theodoric, a somewhat obscure monk; but in spite of much controversy the point remains quite unsettled. The feast of St. Margaret is now observed by the whole Church on 10 June.

Acta SS., II, June, 320; CAPGRAVE, Nova Legenda Angliae (London, 1515), 225; WILLIAM OF MALMESBURY, Gesta Regum in P.L., CLXXIX, also in Rolls Series, ed. STUBBS (London, 1887-9); CHALLONER, Britannia Sancta, I (London, 1745), 358; BUTLER, Lives of the Saints, 10 June; STANTON, Menology of England and Wales (London, 1887), 544; FORBES-LEITH, Life of St. Margaret. . . (London, 1885); MADAN, The Evangelistarium of St. Margaret in Academy (1887); BELLESHEIM, History of the Catholic Church in Scotland, tr. Blair, III (Edinburgh, 1890), 241-63.

G. ROGER HUDDLESTON
Transcribed by Anita G. Gorman.2

Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland
Leo van de Pas cites: 1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 314
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to Amercia bef.1700 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, Reference: 2.4

Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland
Born in Hungary, she later came to England. However, after the Norman Conquest she fled with her mother, sister and brother from Northumberland to Scotland. Young, lovely, vivacious, learned and pious, she won the heart of the Scottish king, Malcolm Canmore, whom she married. She did much to civilize the nothern realm and still more to assimilate the old Celtic church to the rest of Christendom. She was canonized in 1251 by Pope Innocent IV.4

Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland
CP V 736,VI.

Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland
Margaret was born around 1045 in Hungary, the daughter of the exiled English Prince Edward "the Outlaw" Atheling of the English royal house of Wessex, and a German Princess named Agatha. Margaret was raised in the court of St. Stephen, King of Hungary. In 1057 when she was about 12, Margaret and her family returned to England, where the king was St. Edward the Confessor.

After the Norman conquest in 1066 and after her father's death in 1068, Agatha with her son and two daughters resolved to return to Hungary and embarked with that intent. Their ship was driven up the Firth of Forth to Dunfermline, where Malcolm III, king of Scotland, received them hospitably and granted them refuge. He very soon offered the whole family a permanent home with him and asked that the Princess Margaret should become his wife. Margaret, who was very devout and much impressed with the futility of earthly greatness, had very nearly determined to be a nun, but when Malcolm's request was made to Edgar, "the Childe said 'Yea,'" and Margaret was persuaded to marry the king as his second wife.

Malcolm III was born ca 1031 and founded the house of Canmore, which ruled Scotland for more than 200 years, and consolidated the power of the Scottish monarchy. He was the son of Duncan I, who was killed (1040) by Macbeth. Malcolm lived in exile until he defeated and killed (1057) Macbeth near Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. He succeeded to the throne in 1058, and married Margaret ca. 1068-1070.

Her holiness and wisdom had an impact on Malcolm, causing him to be a better ruler. Malcolm regarded his wife with holy reverence, and with most devoted love followed her advice, and guided by her he became not only more religious and conscientious but more civilized and kinglike. The king's devotion to her and her influence over him were almost unbounded. He never refused or grudged her anything, nor showed the least displeasure when she took money out of his treasury for her charities. Although he could not read, he loved her books for her sake, handling them with affectionate reverence and kissing them. Sometimes he would take away one of her favorite volumes and send for a goldsmith to ornament it with gold and gems. When this was done, he would restore it to the queen as a proof of his devotion.

In addition to her influence with her husband and her sons, who later succeeded their father in ruling Scotland, Margaret took a direct role in helping the people of Scotland. She devoted time and money to works of charity, assisting the poor, the aged, orphans, and the sick. She also prevented a schism between the Roman Church and the Celtic Church, which had been cut off from Rome. In addition, she introduced European culture to Scotland, and did so more successfully than the forceful introduction in England under the Normans.

She was as saintly and self-denying on the throne as she could have been in the cloister. She at once perceived it to be her duty to benefit and elevate the people among whom it was her destiny to live, and this she undertook with the greatest of diligence and the most earnest piety. There existed so much barbarism in the customs of the people, so many abuses in the Church, so much on all hands to reform, that she called together the native clergy and the priests who had come with her, her husband acting as interpreter, and she spoke so well and so earnestly that all were charmed with her gracious demeanor and wise counsel and adopted her suggestions.

Margaret is credited with the introduction of English (Roman) usages into the Scottish church. Among other improvements, Margaret introduced the observance of Sunday by abstaining from servile work, "that if anything has been done amiss during the six days it may be expiated by our prayers on the day of the Resurrection." She influenced her people to observe the forty days' fast of Lent, and to receive the Holy Sacrament on Easter day, from which they had abstained for fear of increasing their own damnation because they were sinners. On this point she said that if the Savior had intended that no sinner should receive the Holy Sacrament, He would not have given a command which, in that case, no one could obey. "We," said she, "who many days beforehand have confessed and done penance and fasted and been washed from our sins with tears and alms and absorption, approach the table of the Lord in faith on the day of His Resurrection, not to our damnation but to the remission of our sins and in salutary preparation for eternal blessedness."

Margaret re-founded the monastery on the Island of Iona (originally founded by Saint Columba, an Irish missionary who found the monastery in 563 in an attempt to convert the Picts). One of her first acts as queen was to build a church at Dunfermline, where she had been married. She dedicated it to the Holy Trinity. She gave it all the ornaments that a church requires, amongst them golden cups, a handsome crucifix of gold and silver enriched with gems, and vestments for the priests. Her room was never without some of these beautiful things in preparation to be offered to the Church. It was like a workshop for heavenly artisans; capes for the singers, sacerdotal vestments, stoles, altar clothes were to be seen there; some made and some in progress. The embroideries were executed by noble young ladies who were in attendance on her.

No man was admitted to the room, unless she allowed him to come with her. She suffered no levity, no petulance, no frivolity, no flirtation. She was so dignified in her pleasantry, so cheerful in her strictness that every one both loved and feared her. No one dared to utter a rude or profane word in her presence.

She did much for the secular as well as for the religious improvement of her country. She caused traders from all lands to bring their goods, and thus introduced many useful and beautiful articles, until then unknown in Scotland. She induced the natives to buy and wear garments and stuffs of various colors. She is said to have introduced the tartans that afterwards became distinctive of Scottish costume. She instituted the custom that wherever the king rode or walked he should be accompanied by an escort, but the members of this band were strictly forbidden to take anything by force from any one, or oppress any poor person. She beautified the king's house with furniture and hangings, and introduced cups and dishes of gold and silver for the royal table. All this she did, not that she was fond of worldly show, but that the Court should be more decent and less barbarous than heretofore.

Numbers of captives were taken in the wars in raids between England and Scotland, and many English prisoners were living as slaves in Malcolm's lands. They were of somewhat better education and superior culture to the Scots and gradually advanced the civilization of their captors. Many of these were set free by the queen.

When she met poor persons, she gave them liberal alms, and if she had nothing of her own to left to give, she asked her attendants for something that she might not let Christ's poor go away empty-handed. the ladies, gentlemen, and servants who accompanied her took a pride and pleasure in offering her all they had, feeling sure that a double blessing would reward their alms when given through the saintly queen.

She provided ships at a place on the Firth of Forth, still called "The Queen's Ferry," that all persons coming from distant parts on pilgrimage to St. Andrews might be brought across the water free of charge. She also gave houses and servants on either shore for their accommodation, that they might find everything necessary for their repose and refreshment and might pay their devotions in peace and safety. Besides this, she built homes of rest and shelter for poor strangers in various places. From childhood she had diligently studied the Holy Writ and having a keen intelligence and an excellent memory, she knew and understood the Scriptures wonderfully well. She delighted to consult learned and holy men concerning the sacred writings, and as she had a great gift for expressing herself clearly, they often found themselves far wiser after a conversation with her. Her love for the holy books made her spend much time in reading and studying such of them as she had. She longed to possess more portions of the Word of God, and she sometimes begged Turgot and other learned clergymen to procure them for her. Margaret brought up her eight children very strictly and piously, instructing them in the Holy Scriptures and the duties of their station and associating them in her works of charity. She made a great point of their treating their elders with becoming respect. The fruit of her good training appeared in their lives for long years after her time.

There were many holy anchorites living in cells or caves in different parts of Scotland. These the queen occasionally visited, conversing with them and commending herself to their prayers. It was not uncommon in the ancient Celtic Church for devout secular persons to withdraw for a time from association with the rest of the world; they devoted themselves entirely to prayer and meditation for a long or short season, and then returned to the ordinary duties of life. A cave is still shown, not far from Dunfermline where tradition says this holy queen used to resort for solitude and prayer.

Her abstinence was so great and her care for her own needs or gratification so small that her feast days were like the fast days of others. She fasted so strictly that she suffered acutely all her life from pain in her stomach, but she did not lose her strength. She observed two Lenten seasons in each year - the forty days before Easter and the forty days before Christmas. During these periods of self-denial, her biographer says that after sleeping for a short time at the beginning of the night, she went into the church and said alone three sets of Matins, then the Offices of the Dead, then the whole Psalter, which lasted until the priests had said Matins and Lauds. She then returned to her room and there, assisted by the king, she washed the feet of six poor persons who were brought there by the chamberlain. After this, she "permitted her body to take a littel slepe or nodde". When it was morning she began her works of mercy again; while the psalms were being read to her, nine little destitute orphans were brought, and she took each on her lap and fed it with her own spoon. While she was feeding the babies, three hundred poor persons were brought into the hall and seated all round it. As soon as Margaret and the king came in, the doors were shut, only the chaplains and a few attendants being present while the king and queen waited upon Christ in the person of His poor, serving them with food and drink. After this meal, the queen used to go into the church and there, with tears and signs and many prayers, she offered herself a sacrifice to God. In addition to the "Hours", on the great festivals, she used to repeat the Psalter two or three times, and before the public Mass she had five or six private Masses sung in her presence. It was then time for her own dinner, but before she touched it she waited on the twenty-four poor people who were her daily care at all seasons; wherever she happened to be, they had to be lodged near the royal residence.

She had a Gospel Book which she particularly prized and often read. It had beautiful illuminated pictures, all the capital letters shining with gold. One of her people, when passing through a stream let it fall into the water, but was not aware of his loss and went on. By-and-by the book was missing and was looked for everywhere, and eventually found at the bottom of the stream; the pieces of silk that were between the leaves to prevent the letters rubbing against each other were washed away; the leaves were shaken to and fro by the movement of the water, but not a letter was obliterated. She gave thanks for its restoration and prized it more than ever. This book, with the water stain on the last leaf, is now in the Bodleian Library.

For more than six months before her death, Margaret could not ride on horseback and was often confined to bed. Malcolm invaded England many times after 1068. supporting the claim of his brother-in-law Edgar Atheling to the English throne. In 1072, however, he was forced to pay homage to William I, and in 1091, to William II. Shortly before Margaret's death, the king, against her advice, made a raid into Northumberland where he and her eldest son, Edward were slain by Norman forces at Alnwick. Malcolm died at Alnwick Castle on November 13, 1093. The queen, who had a presentiment of it, and said to those that were with her, "Perhaps this day a greater evil has happened to Scotland than any that has befallen it for a long time."

Three days after this, she felt a little better and went into her oratory to hear Mass and receive the Holy Communion. She then returned to bed, and growing rapidly worse, begged Turgot and the others who were present to keep commending her soul to Christ with psalms. She asked them to bring her the black rood, which she had brought from Hungary and always regarded with great veneration. It was of gold set with large diamonds and said to contain a piece of the actual cross of Christ. She devoutly kissed and contemplated it, and when she was cold with the chill of death, she still held it in both hands and kept praying and saying the fifty-first psalm.

Her son Edgar, who had gone with the king to Northumberland, came into her room to tell her of the death of his father and brother. Seeing his mother was dying, he was afraid to tell her the sad news; but she said, "I know, I know, I conjure you to tell me the truth," and having heard it, she praised God and died, just three days after her husband, on November 16, 1093 at Edinburgh Castle. The Annals of Ulster for 1093 say, "Maelcolaim Mac Donnacha sovereign of Alban and Echbarda his son, slain by the Franks. His queen, viz. Margarita, died through grief before the end of (three) days."

While her body still lay in Edinburgh Castle, Malcolm's brother, Donald Bane, assisted by the King of Norway, attacked the castle, but he only watched the gate, thinking the other parts of the fortification inaccessible. Margaret's family and her faithful attendants escaped by a postern called the West Yhet, taking with them the revered corpse. A thick mist hid them from the enemy. They crossed the sea and arrived without hindrance at Dunfermline, where they buried her according to her own wish. Malcolm was succeeded briefly by his brother Donald Bane. Margaret's brother, Edgar the Atheling took Margaret's children to England, and for fear of the Normans, gave them privately to friends and relations to be brought up. He afterwards helped to restore them to their country.

Margaret's sons continued her work, which contributed greatly to a golden age in Scotland for two hundred years after her death. First to the throne was son, Duncan II. Three other sons also succeeded to the throne: Edgar (r. 1097-1107), Alexander I (r. 1107-24), and David I (r. 1124-53). Margaret and Malcolm's daughter, Edith, also known as Matilda, became the wife of England's King Henry I, the fourth son of William the Conqueror.

Margaret was worshipped without authority until 1250 or 1251 when she was canonized by Innocent IV who ordered her sacred body to be translated from its first tomb. On July 19, 1297, all the arrangements being made the men who were appointed to raise the body, found it impossible to do so; stronger men were ordered to lift it and tried in vain; still more men were brought, but all their strength was unavailing. Evidently the saint objected to what was being done. The clergy and all present prayed earnestly that the mysterious opposition might cease and the sacred rite be completed. After some time an inspiration was granted to a devout member of the congregation; namely, that the saint did not wish to be separated from her husband. As soon as they began to take up his coffin, that of his dutiful wife became quite light and easy to move, and both were laid on one bier and translated with ease to the honorable place prepared for them under the high altar.

In 1693 Innocent XII transferred Margaret's festival from the day of her death to June 10, though November 16 is still the day celebrated in Scotland. The bodies are said to have been acquired by Philip II, king of Spain, who placed them in the church of St. Lawrence in his new palace of the Escorial in two urns. The head of St. Margaret, after being in the possession of her descendant, Queen Mary Stuart, was secreted for many years be a Benedictine monk in Fife; thence it passed to Antwerp, and about 1627 it was translated to the Scotch college at Douai and there exposed to public veneration. It was still to be seen there in 1785; it was well preserved and had very fine fair hair. Neither the heads, the bodies nor the black rood can now be found, but the grave of Margaret may still be seen outside the present church of Dunfermline. Her oratory in Edinburgh castle is a small church with sturdy short pillars and a simple but beautiful ornamental pattern at the edge of its low rounded arches. It was falling to ruin when, in 1853, Queen Victoria had it repaired and furnished with colored glass windows.

Sources:

#A Dictionary of Saintly Women in Two Volumes, Vol. II, Agnes B. C. Dunbar, George Bell & Sons, London, England, 1905

#Life of St. Margaret Queen of Scotland, R. M. Turgot, trans. by Forbes Leith

#The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England, edited by Antonia Fraser, University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA by arrangement with Weidenfeld & Nicholson Ltd., London, England, 1975. She was Canonized in 1250.11

Family

Malcolm III Canmore (?) King of Scots b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
Children

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Margaret of Scotland at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09655c.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Agatha of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020120&tree=LEO
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-22, pp. 2-3. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco002.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  10. [S599] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 28 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 14, Ed. 1, family # 1829 (n.p.: Release date: October 20, 1997, unknown publish date).
  11. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-21.
  12. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:vii.
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e
  14. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  15. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:iv.
  16. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Boulogne.pdf, p. 4. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.

Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld1,2,3,4

M, #4252, b. 970, d. 1045
FatherDuncan (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Lay Abbot of Dunkeld4 b. c 954, d. 1010
Mother(?) (?) of the Isles
ReferenceGAV26 EDV26
Last Edited30 May 2020
     Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld was born in 970 at Athol, Scotland; Boyer says b. ca 978; Genealogics says b. ca 970.2,4 He married Bethóc (Beatrix) (?) of Scotland, daughter of Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm) II (?) King Of Scotland and unknown (?), circa 1000.5,6,7,8,9,10,4,11
Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld died in 1045 at Tayside, England; killed in battle against MACBETH.2,5,6,4,11
     Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld
Per Genealogics:
     "Crinán, 'of the kin of Saint Columba', was the direct ancestor of the founder of Clan Donnachaidh. He inherited the abbey-lands of Dunkeld and Dull in Atholl, and seems to have had some authority in the isles around Iona, perhaps as _herenach_ or abbey-steward. His wife Bethóc was daughter and heiress of the Scoto-Pictish king Malcolm II. Through her, Crinán's son Duncan inherited the throne in 1034.
     "Crinán's second son, Maldred of Allerdale, held the title of Lord of Cumbria and was regent of Strathclyde. It is said that from him, the earls of Dunbar descend in unbroken male line.
     "While the title of Hereditary Lay Abbot was a feudal position that was often exercised in name only. Crinán does seem to have acted as abbot in charge of the monastery in his time. He was thus a man of high position in both clerical and secular society.
     "Crinán was killed in battle in 1045 at Dunkeld."4

Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld
Per Burke's: "CRINAN; Lay Abbot Dunkeld; m c 1000 Bethoc, er dau of MALCOLM II, and was k 1045 in battle against MACBETH (the historic figure who murdered CRINAN's er s DUNCAN I, and subsequently is portrayed as having usurped the Scottish throne, most famously by Shakespeare), leaving, with an er s (DUNCAN I 'The Gracious', King of Scots 1034-40; ancestor of the Sovereigns of England and later England, Ireland, Scotland, Great Britain etc; see 1967 edn ROYAL LINEAGE.)5"

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 313.4


Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld
Plase Note: It seems unlikely that Crinán was actually the son of Duncan. In the words of The Henry Project:
"Since the abbacy of Dunkeld may have been hereditary in Crínán's family (his grandson Æthelred held the title), it has sometimes been suggested that Crínán was possibly the son of this earlier abbot of Dunkeld whose death is known from both the Irish and Scottish sources [e.g., AU; ESSH 1: 471, 473, 577; KKES 252]. While the relationship is not impossible, the chronology is very long (if true, Crinán would be eighty at his death in battle even if born in the year of his father's death), and there is no known evidence to support it. The alleged relationship cannot be accepted without further evidence."

I have elected to retain the relationship reflected by older sources such as Burke's, but realize that is quite possibly not true. GA Vaut.12,13

Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld
This is the same person as Crínán (or Crónán) at The Henry Project and as Crínán of Dunkeld at Wikipedia.14,12
He was Governor of the Scots Islands.1 He was Lay Abbot of Dunkeld.15 GAV-26 EDV-26 GKJ-27.

Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld and Bethóc (Beatrix) (?) of Scotland
Per Med Lands:
     "CRINAN "the Thane", son of --- (-killed in battle 1045). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Abthane of Dule. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. Steward of the Western Isles. Mormaer of Atholl. He was killed fighting King Macbeth. The Annals of Ulster record that "Crónán abbot of Dún Caillen" was killed in 1045 in "a battle between the Scots themselves"[259]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Crínan abbot of Dunkeld” was killed in 1045 in “a battle between the men of Scotland on one road”[260].
     "m ([1000]) BETHOC, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---. The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[261]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[262]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[263]."
Med Lands cites:
[259] Annals of Ulster, 1045.6, p. 484.
[260] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 277.
[261] Skene (1867), XXI, Genealogy of King William the Lyon, p. 144.
[262] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152.11


Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld and Bethóc (Beatrix) (?) of Scotland
Per Med Lands:
     "BETHOC . The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[174]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[175]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[176]. Lady of Atholl.
     "m ([1000]) CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl, son of --- (-killed in battle 1045)."
Med Lands cites:
[174] Skene (1867), XXI, Genealogy of King William the Lyon, p. 144.
[175] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152.
[176] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXVIII, p. 173.10


Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld and Bethóc (Beatrix) (?) of Scotland
Per Genealogy.EU (MacAlpine): "H1. Bethoc, Lady of Atholl and heiress to Scotland, +after 1018; m.ca 1000 Crinan "the Thane", Lay Abbot of Dunkeld (*ca 975, +1045)"


Per Genealogy.EU (Dunkeld): "Crinan "the Thane", Mormaer of Atholl, Abthane of Dule, Steward of the Western Isles & Lay Abbot of Dunkeld, *ca 975, +k.a.Tayside by Macbeth 1045; m.ca 1000 Bethoc, Lady of Atholl (*ca 984, +after 1018.)16,17"

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 187, NURTHUMBERLAND 1. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 21.
  3. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 381. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Crinán: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022602&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Dunbar of Mochrum Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  7. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  8. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/betho000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bethóc ingen Mail Coluim meic Cináeda: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022603&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#BethocMCrinanMormaerdied1045. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#Crinandied1045
  12. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/crina000.htm
  13. [S1549] "Author's comment", various, Gregory A. Vaut (e-mail address), to unknown recipient (unknown recipient address), 30 May 2020; unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as "GA Vaut Comment."
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cr%C3%ADn%C3%A1n_of_Dunkeld. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  15. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 172-19, p. 149. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  16. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The House of MacAlpine: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/macalpine.html
  17. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The House of Dunkeld: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  18. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Swinton Family Page.
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Maldred, Lord of Allerdale, Regent of Strathclyde: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00108330&tree=LEO

Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm) II (?) King Of Scotland1,2,3

M, #4253, b. circa 954, d. 25 November 1034
FatherCináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots4,2,5 b. c 925, d. 995
Mother(?) (?) of Leinster6,2
ReferenceGAV27 EDV27
Last Edited30 May 2020
     Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm) II (?) King Of Scotland married unknown (?) Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm) II (?) King Of Scotland was born circa 954.7
Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm) II (?) King Of Scotland was buried in 1034 at Iona, Scotland.8


Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm) II (?) King Of Scotland died on 25 November 1034 at Glammis Castle, Scotland; The Henry Project (Stewart Ba [ESSG 1: 572, citing the Chronicle of Marianus Scottus (gives exact date); AU (gives year only)].1,8,9
     GAV-27 EDV-27 GKJ-28.

Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm) II (?) King Of Scotland
per Henry Project: "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm II) succeeded to the kingship of Scotland on the death of his kinsman Cináed mac Duib (Kenneth III) in 1005 according to the official lists of kings [ESSH 1: 573; KKES 254ff.], but he appears to have ruled only part of Scotland during most of his reign, in opposition to leaders from Moray such as Findláech mac Ruadrí (d. 1020, father of the famous "Macbeth"), and Máel Coluim mac Máel Brigte (d. 1029), both of whom are also called kings of Alba (i.e., Scotland) in the Irish annals."
Bibliography

AT = Whitley Stokes, ed. & trans., ‘The Annals of Tigernach’, Revue Celtique16 (1895), 374-419; 17 (1896), 6-33, 116-263, 337-420; 18 (1897), 9-59, 150-303, 374-91.

AU = Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983).

Duncan = Archibald A. M. Duncan, Scotland - The Making of a Kingdom (Edinburgh, 1975).

ESSH = Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records]

Hudson = Benjamin T. Hudson, Kings of Celtic Scotland (Westport, CT, 1994).

KKES = Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973).

OrkS = Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards, ed. & trans., Orkneyinga Saga (London, 1978). Citation is by chapter, with the page number in parentheses.10 Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm) II (?) King Of Scotland was also known as Malcolm II (Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda) (?) King of the Scots.3 He was King of Scotland: MALCOLM II MAC KENNETH Sub-king of Cumbria and Strathclyde, 990-5,997-1005; king of Scotland, 1005-34. Born: c954. Died: 25 November 1034, aged 80, at Glamis Castle. Buried: Iona. Married: c980 (date and spouse's name unknown): 2 or 3 daughters. Malcolm's father, KENNETH II, was keen to secure a patrilineal right of succession to the Scottish throne to avoid the inter-dynastic squabbles that threatened to weaken the kingdom. He was not especially successful in this, but in 990 he sought to establish his son as his heir by proclaiming him king of Strathclyde and Cumbria. Since MALCOLM MAC DONALD was still king of Strathclyde (unless records that suggest he died in 990 are correct) the kingdom was clearly divided, and Malcolm mac Kenneth probably ruled Cumbria. When Kenneth was killed in 995, Malcolm was also deposed from Strathclyde, by the rival faction of CONSTANTINE In, but upon his death in 997, Malcolm regained Strathclyde. This was an unhealthy situation, as the new king of the Scots, KENNETH III, was evidently seeking to establish right of succession for his own son GIRIC II, who was made either co-ruler or a sub-king, possibly also in Strathclyde. The two rulers tolerated each other for eight years then, in 1005, Malcolm defeated and slew Kenneth and Giric at the battle of Monzievaird. Malcolm was not only a strong and ambitious ruler, he was a strategist and an opportunist. His long reign allowed him to expand and consolidate his kingdom, though some of his actions, not least the slaying of Kenneth and Giric, sowed seeds of discontent that would result in the killing of his grandson DUNCAN by MACBETH thirty years later. Malcolm first endeavoured to establish his rulership over Bernicia, extending his lands beyond the Tweed. He was severely defeated by Uhtred of Northumbria in the siege of Durham in 1006 and it was twelve years before Malcolm again tested the lands to the south. He did, however, ensure an ally in the kingdom of Strathclyde. This kingdom was traditionally ruled by the heir to the throne. Malcolm had only daughters and his grandson, Duncan, was too young to rule, so Malcolm appointed OWEN as ruler of Strathclyde. Owen was almost certainly older than Malcolm, and as the youngest son of DONALD of Strathclyde had probably never entertained aspirations to kingship, so this elevation made him a strong friend and ally to Malcolm and helped strengthen the lands to the south.
In the meantime Malcolm sought to make an alliance with the Norse earls of Orkney and, in 1008, he married his daughter to SIGURD II. The main reason was to have the Norsemen as allies against the men of Moray, who for the last fifty years had worked against the main Scottish royal line, and Malcolm granted Sigurd lands as far south as Moray. Malcolm seemed to be seeking Sigurd's recognition of Malcolm as his overlord, even though the earls of Orkney were subjects of the kings of Norway. In Malcolm's eyes, though, this gave him authority over Moray, Caithness and Sutherland. The arrangement soon worked in Malcolm's favour for, in 1014, Sigurd was killed at the battle of Clontarf in Ireland and while his sons by an earlier marriage squabbled over the succession, Malcolm proclaimed his young grandson, THORFINN, as earl of Caithness, even though he was only five. The young boy seemed to be much loved by the nobility of Orkney and by the king of Norway, so that he soon obtained claims on parts of Orkney until he became sole earl in 1030. With this support in the north Malcolm believed he had stifled the problems in Moray (even if only temporarily).
In 1018, following the annexation of Lothian two years earlier, Malcolm turned his attention to Bernicia and, with Owen of Strathclyde's help, he defeated Earl Eadulf at Carham on Tweed. Immediately afterward Malcolm bestowed much bounty on the church at Durham and claimed overlordship of southern Bernicia. In that same year he installed his grandson, Duncan, as king of Strathclyde. Malcolm was now in his early sixties, and the first king to rule the territory of Scotland as we know it today. He might have sought to rest upon his achievements. However, he needed to be ever vigilant. The rulers of Moray continued to fight for control and began a series of raids and skirmishes from the north; one of these, in 1027, resulted in the burning of Dunkeld. At the same time, CANUTE had established himself in
England and was intent upon ensuring he had no opposition from the north. In 1031 records suggest that Canute "invaded" Scotland, although there is some doubt as to whether he led an army, or simply made a royal visit. The latter seems more likely because, had Canute succeeded in marching north with an army and defeating Malcolm, he would almost certainly have continued with a campaign to conquer Scotland, of which he was capable. In all likelihood Canute's main aim was to secure a friendly alliance with Malcolm who, now in his mid-seventies, could in any case offer little resistance. However, either now, or soon after, Canute did reclaim Bernicia and Cumbria, with the result that the borders of Scotland as we know them today were finally established.
In his old age Malcolm did what he could to secure the throne for Duncan. In 1032 he endeavoured to slaughter the family of Kenneth III's grand-daughter Gruoch by surprising them in their fortress at Atholl and burning it to the ground. GILLECOMGAIN was killed but Gruoch, his wife, and their son LULACH escaped. A few months later he arranged the murder of Kenneth III's great-grandson Malcolm, who was still only an infant. The next year Malcolm died, probably in his eightieth year. Later historians claimed he was murdered as part of the continuing interdynastic struggle, and this is just possible, though unlikely. He was the last male heir of KENNETH MACALPIN. Malcolm had lived long enough for Duncan to inherit the throne, although his future was far from certain. between 1005 and 1034.11,8

Family 1

Child

Family 2

unknown (?)
Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 20. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malclom II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/betho000.htm
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/kenne000.htm
  5. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  6. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, NN of Leinster: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/nn000000.htm
  7. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  8. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 390-392. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  9. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malclom II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco001.htm. Cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:572; Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983).
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malclom II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco001.htm. Cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:573; Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp. 254 ff.
  11. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 170-18, p. 147. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  12. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 20:iii.
  13. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 20:ii.
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bethóc ingen Mail Coluim meic Cináeda: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022603&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  15. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#BethocMCrinanMormaerdied1045. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.

Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots1,2,3,4

M, #4254, b. circa 925, d. 995
FatherMael-Coluim (Malcolm) I (?) King of the Scots3,5,6 b. c 857, d. c 954
Motherunknown (?)6
ReferenceGAV28 EDV28
Last Edited20 Aug 2019
     Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots married (?) (?) of Leinster; per The Henry Project: "According to Berchan's Prophesy, a cryptical Scottish king list posing as verse prophesy, the mother of Malcolm II was a women from Leinster, a statement not supported elsewhere, but which there is no good reason to doubt [ESSH 1: 573-4]. She was presumably a member of one of the local dynasties ruling in Leinster at the time, but no known evidence would tell us to which of these dynsties she belonged (if any)."7 Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots was born circa 925 at Scotland.8
Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots died in 995 at Fettercairn, Scotland; killed by his own men.1,4,8
     GAV-28 EDV-28 GKJ-29.

Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots

Per T$he Henry Project: "According to the Scottish king-lists, Kenneth succeeded his kinsman Cuilén mac Illuilb as king in 971, but he does not appear to have established himself as sole king until he killed Cuilén's brother Amlaíb mac Illuilb in 977 [AU, AT which call Amlaíb "rí Alban" (as a marginal addition in AU)]. Kenneth is said to have been killed by his own men at Fettercairn, through the treachery of Finella, daughter of Cunthar/Cuncar, earl of Angus."

Per Genealogics:
     "Cináed mac Mail Coluim, anglicised as Kenneth II, was the son of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, Malcolm I, King of Scots. He succeeded King Cuilé mac Iduilb on the latter's death at the hands of Amdarch of Strathclyde in 971.
     "The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled in Kenneth's reign, but many of the place names mentioned are entirely corrupt, if not fictitious. Whatever the reality, the Chronicle states that'(h)e immediately plundered (Strathclyde) in part. Kenneth's infantry were slain with very great slaughter in Moin Uacoruar.' The Chronicle further states that Kenneth plundered Northumbria three times, first as far as Stainmore, then to Cluiam and lastly to the River Dee by Chester. These raids may belong to around 980, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records attacks on Cheshire.
     "In 973 the Chronicle of Melrose reports that Kenneth, with Máel Coluim I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill), the king of Strathclyde, 'Maccus, king of very many islands' (i.e. Magnus Haraldsson (Maccus mac Arailt), king of Mann and the Isles) and other kings, Welsh and Norse, came to Chester to acknowledge the overlordship of the English king Edgar 'the Peaceful'. It may be that Edgar here regulated the frontier between the southern lands of the kingdom of Alba and the northern lands of his English kingdom. Cumbria was English, the western frontier lay on the Solway. In the east, the frontier lay somewhere in later Lothian, south of Edinburgh.
     "The Annals of Tigernach, in an aside, name three of the Mormaers of Alba in Kenneth's reign in entry in 976: Cellach mac Findgaine, Cellach mac Baireda and Donnchad mac Morgaind. The third of these, if not an error for Domnall mac Morgaind, is very likely a brother of Domnall, and thus the Mormaer of Moray. The Mormaerdoms or kingdoms ruled by the two Cellachs cannot be identified.
     "The feud which had persisted since the death of King Indulf (Idulb mac Causantin) between his descendants and Kenneth's family persisted. In 977 the Annals of Ulster report that 'Amlaib mac Iduilb (Amlaib, son of Indulf), king of Scotland, was killed by Cináed mac Domnaill.' The Annals of Tigernach give the correct name of Amlaib's killer: Cináed mac Mail Coluin, or Kenneth II. Thus, even if only for a short time, Kenneth had been overthrown by the brother of a previous king.
     "Adam of Bremen tells that Svend II 'Forkbeard' found exile in Scotland at this time, but whether this was with Kenneth, or one of the other kings in Scotland, is unknown. Also at this time, Njal's Saga, the Orkneyinga Saga and other sources recount wars between 'the Scots' and the Northmen, but these are more probably wars between Sigurd II Lodvisonn 'Digri', jarl of Orkney, earl of Caithness, and the Mormaers, or kings, of Moray.
     "The Chronicle says that Kenneth founded a great monastery at Brechin.
     "Kenneth was killed in 995, the Annals of Ulster say 'by deceit' and the Annals of Tigernach say 'by his subjects'. Some later sources, such as the Chronicle of Melrose, John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun provide more details, accurately or not. The simplest account is that he was killed by his own men in Fettercairn, through the treachery of Finnguala (also called Fimberhele), daughter of Cuncar, Mormaer of Angus, in revenge for the killing of her only son.
     "The Prophecy of Berchán adds little to our knowledge, except that it names Kenneth 'the kinslayer', and stated he died in Strathmore.
     "Kenneth's son Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) was later king of Alba. Kenneth is believed to have had a second son, probably named Dúngal. Sources differ as to whether Boite mac Cináeda should be counted a son of Kenneth II or of Kenneth III (Cináed mac Duib)."5,8

Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots

Per The Henry Project:
     "Possible additional children: Because Kenneth II had a nephew of the same name (i.e., Kenneth III) who also ruled at about the same time, it is difficult to place certain individuals having patronymics ("mac Cináeda") which show them to be a son of some man named Cináed (Kenneth), but do not tell us unambiguously which Kenneth is intended.
     "MALE Suibne mac Cináeda, presumably king of Galloway, d. 1034 [AU]. AU calls him ri Gallgaidhel, usually translated as king of the Galwegians. The title has sometimes been (mis)interpreted as king of Man and the Isles, in an imaginative theory in which Suibne is falsely turned into a Norseman named "Svennir, Svenn, Sweiyn, Suibhne Kennethson" [sic] who was supposedly a grandson of the Gofraid mac Arailt who died as king of the Isles in 989 [See, e.g., Morrison 450-2, for a recent version of this very dubious theory]. There is no good reason to believe that Suibne was Norse (Suibne being a perfectly good Irish name which is in no way related to the Old Norse name Sveinn). The assignment of Suibne as a son of Kenneth II (or. less likely, Kenneth III) is plausible enough, but there is no evidence for it beyond Suibne's patronymic.
     "MALE Dúngal mac Cináeda [dubious], d. 999 [AFM, s.a. 998] See the comments on Gilla Cóemgin.
     "MALE Gilla Cóemgin mac Cináeda [dubious], living 999 [AFM, s.a. 998] The Annals of the Four Masters for the year 998 [recte 999] state that Dúngal was killed by Gilla Cóemgin. No location is stated, so that it is not even certain that these individuals were members of the Scottish dynasty, but they have sometimes been assigned as sons of either Kenneth II or Kenneth III [e.g., the genealogical table in ESSH 1: 580, which assigns Dúngal to Kenneth II and Gilla Cóemgin to Kenneth III, both with question marks attached].
     "MALE Boete mac Cináeda [unlikely] (father of Gruoch, the "Lady Macbeth" of Shakespeare), more likely to have been a son of Kenneth III than Kenneth II [See AU 1033, where a grandson of his was killed by Malcolm III of Scotland].
     "FEMALE NN (mother of Mac Bethad, i.e., "Macbeth") [very unlikely]. The Chronicle of Huntingdon (late thirteenth century), under the year 1054, states that Macbeth was the nepos (ordinarily nephew or grandson) of Malcolm [ESSH 1: 593, note 3]. If nepos is interpreted as meaning nephew, and Malcolm is assumed to be Malcolm II, then that would apparently make Macbeth a maternal grandson of Kenneth II (since Macbeth's paternal ancestry is well documented for a couple of generations). However, since the Chronicle of Huntingdon is not a contemporary source, and the Malcolm in question appears from context to be Malcolm III (not a chronologically suitable uncle or grandfather for Macbeth) rather than Malcom II, it is likely that the statement of the chronicle is an error.
Bibliography
AT = Whitley Stokes, ed. & trans., ‘The Annals of Tigernach’, Revue Celtique16 (1895), 374-419; 17 (1896), 6-33, 116-263, 337-420; 18 (1897), 9-59, 150-303, 374-91.
AU = Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983).
ESSH = Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records]
KKES = Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973).
Morrison = Alick Morrison, 'The Kingdon of Man and the Isles: 839-1266', Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness 58 (1993-4): 425-481.
Compiled by Stewart Baldwin.4 Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots was also known as Cináed (Kenneth II) mac Máel Coluim King of Scotland.3 Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots was also known as Kenneth II (Cináed) (?) King of the Scots.3 He was King of Scots between 971 and 995 at Scotland.8 He was King of Scotland: KENNETH II Scotland, 97 1-95. The son of MALCOLM I, Kenneth came to the throne during a period of inter-dynastic rivalry over the succession. There were at least three other factions at work: the rulers of Moray, who continued to cause trouble in the north though they had, as yet, made no serious claims on the Scottish throne; the rulers of Strathclyde, who were normally seen as heirs to the throne of Scotland and whose own heir, Rhydderch, had killed Kenneth's predecessor, CUILEAN; and finally the descendants of AED, whose family alternated in the kingship. At the same time as Kenneth's succession, his distant cousin, OLAF, brother of Cuilean, claimed the throne. Olaf's claim did not seem to be recognized by the English. It was Kenneth who attended the convention at Chester in 973, on the succession of EDGAR, along with other Celtic princes, and promised their fealty to the English. At this meeting Edgar confirmed Kenneth's right to the lands of Lothian, which had been captured by INDULF twenty years earlier and which now became accepted as part of the Scottish realm. It was a crucial meeting in the development of defining the state of Scotland.
Kenneth was keen to preserve Scotland as a united kingdom, and endeavoured to rid the succession of dynastic rivalry by agreeing with the Scottish magnates that the succession should become patrilinear, passing from father to son, rather than alternating between dynasties. This seems to have been only partly accepted, for it would take at least a generation before the dispossessed princes passed away and the process became accepted as the norm. For six years the rivalry continued between Kenneth and Olaf before Olaf was slain in 977. However the rivalry over succession only passed on to the next generation with Olaf's nephew, CONSTANTINE, and Kenneth's great-nephew, GIRIC, eventually conspiring against Kenneth to cause his downfall and murder. He died in rather mysterious circumstances at Finella's Castle near Fettercairn. Nevertheless it was Kenneth's descendants who subsequently regained and retained the Scottish throne.
Little else is recorded of Kenneth's reign, other than that he also got involved in a dynastic dispute between the earl of Orkney, LIOT, and his brother Skuli, whom Kenneth seems to have made earl of Caithness. This was an interesting development because it suggested that the earls of Orkney recognized that Kenneth had authority over all the mainland territory of Scotland, whereas otherwise they owed their allegiance to the king of Norway. This, and the fact that he retained the throne for over twenty years amidst such opposition says much for his strength of character and abilities. He remained friendly with the kings of Strathclyde, whom he could so easily have overthrown in favour of his own son, should he have so wished. This suggests a king who was strong-willed but tolerant, qualities that were passed on to his son, MALCOLM II. between 971 and 995.2,4

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Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 19. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 389-390. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/kenne000.htm
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records], 1:511-6; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp, 252 ff.
  6. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  7. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/kenne000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:573-4.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cináed mac Mail Coluim, Kenneth II, King of Scots 971-995: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022620&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  9. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 381.
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malclom II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco001.htm

Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I (?) King of the Scots1

M, #4255, b. circa 857, d. circa 954
FatherDomnall (Donald) II (?) King of the Scots and Picts2,3 b. c 862, d. 900
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited19 Sep 2014
     Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I (?) King of the Scots married unknown (?) Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I (?) King of the Scots was born circa 857.4
Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I (?) King of the Scots died circa 954; said by conflicting sourcers to have been killed by the men of Mearns at Fetteresso, or by the men of Moray at Ulum.1,5
     GAV-29 EDV-29 GKJ-30.

Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I (?) King of the Scots
Máel Coluim (Malcolm), a very obscure king, succeeded to the throne on the abdication of his cousin Causantín mac Áeda (d. 952) in about 943.3 Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I (?) King of the Scots was also known as Máel Coluim (Malcolm I) mac Domnaill King of Scotland (Alba).6 Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I (?) King of the Scots was also known as Malcolm I (Mael-Coluim) (?) King of the Scots. He was King of Scotland: MALCOLM (I) Scotland, 943-54. He was the son of DONALD II and inherited the Scottish throne on the abdication of CONSTANTINE II. It is possible he may have been nominated as king of Strathclyde on the death of OWEN in 937, but records are uncertain on this, though there seems to have been some inter-dynastic strife in Strathclyde during this period (see under DONALD MAC DONALD). At this time OLAF SITRICS0N, the Norse king of York, whom Malcolm supported, had been driven out of York by EDMUND of Wessex in 943 and had sought refuge in Strathclyde as leader of the exiled Vikings of Dublin. Malcolm gave him shelter, but Edmund continued to pursue the Norse and in 945 he invaded Cumbria and Strathclyde, driving out Olaf and deposing the sons of Donald. Edmund gave Malcolm Cumbria on the basis that he would support Edmund in defending northern Britain against the Vikings. This greatly enlarged the Scottish realm, of which Strathclyde was a part, and though Malcolm handed the kingship of Strathclyde to his heir, INDULF, he still retained overlordship and this extended his authority down through what is now Lancashire, almost as far as the Mersey. The kingdom of York remained a problem, for in 947 ERIK BLOODAXE established himself as king in York. His rule was no more favoured by Malcolm than by EADRED of Wessex, so in 948 Malcolm led an army into York, in support not so much of Eadred but of Olaf Sitricson, who was able to use the banishment of Erik as his opportunity to regain the kingdom of York, which he held for three years.
Malcolm experienced problems at both ends of his kingdom. The expulsion of Erik Bloodaxe, whose family found its way back to Orkney, caused further disquiet in the north. The earls of Orkney also ruled over land in Sutherland and Caithness which brought them into conflict with the mórmaers (or earls) of Moray. These (the Cenél Loarn) were descended from the brother of FERGUS mac Erc, the first king of Dál Riata, and their forefathers had, for a period, ruled Dál Riata (see under FERCHAR FOTA). Their descendents therefore believed they had equal claim to the high kingship of Scotland and the rulers of Moray were often designated as kings of Alba (they eventually claimed the throne with MACBETH). The friction caused by the earls of Orkney began to unsettle the men of Moray and this drew Malcolm into battle against them. At the battle of Fetteresso, near Dunnottar, in 954, Malcolm was slain. He was probably nearly sixty at the time of his death. He was buried on Iona, and was succeeded by his second cousin, Indulf. between 943 and 954.7

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Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 18. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/donal000.htm. The Henry Project cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:451-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973), p. 251 ff.. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records], 1:541-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp, 251 ff.
  4. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983).
  6. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm
  7. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 387-388. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  8. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix IV: The Scottish Royal Dynasties. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  9. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records], 1:511-6; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp, 252 ff.
  10. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.

Domnall (Donald) II (?) King of the Scots and Picts1

M, #4256, b. circa 862, d. 900
FatherConstantine I (Causantin ) (?) King of Scotland2 b. 836, d. 877
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited19 Sep 2014
     Domnall (Donald) II (?) King of the Scots and Picts was born circa 862.3
Domnall (Donald) II (?) King of the Scots and Picts died in 900 at Forres, Morayshire, Scotland.1,4
     Domnall (Donald) II (?) King of the Scots and Picts
Domnall (Donald), a very obscure king, was referred to as "ri Alban" (king of Alba, i.e., Scotland) in his obituary in the Annals of Ulster [AU], the first of his family so styled in the Irish annals, whereas his father, uncle, grandfather, etc., had been styled "rex Pictorum" (king of the Picts) in the same annals. The period leading up to Donald's reign is extremely obscure, and it is not clear what significance (if any) the change in terminology has. Donald is called Donald II in the numbering of kings that starts with the Donald's famous grandfather Cináed mac Ailpín (Kenneth I), but that numbering leaves out two or three kings of that name who ruled over Scottish Dál Riata, the small kingdom that eventually evolved into the kingdom of Scotland.5 GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-31. Domnall (Donald) II (?) King of the Scots and Picts was also known as Domnall (Donald II) mac Causantín King of the Scots and Picts.5 Domnall (Donald) II (?) King of the Scots and Picts was also known as Donald II (?) King of the Scots and Picts.5 He was King of Scotland: DONALD II Scotland, 889-900. The son of CONSTANTINE I he usurped power by deposing his cousins GIRIC and EOCHAID and took over a kingdom that extended from the farthest north of Britain down to Bernicia and Strathclyde, borders roughly equal to the modern-day Scotland. He was the first ruler to be termed RI Alban, or king of Scotland. However during his reign he lost some territory to the Norse who, having already established themselves amongst the Western Isles, now sought to dominate the north. The earldom of Orkney was created at around this time, and THORSTEIN THE RED laid waste to Caithness and Sunderland establishing his own kingdom in the north. Donald placed his emphasis on integrating the former British kingdom of Strathclyde into Scotland. Having deposed Eochaid, its last king, he also expelled the nobility. In all likelihood many left of their own accord, not wishing to live under Gaelic rule, and they moved south to live with their closer relatives in north Wales. Either Donald, or more likely his successor, CONSTANTINE, established Strathclyde as a sub-kingdom ruled by the heir to the throne. This at least sustained its identity for another century before its final merger into Scotland. Donald died in battle at Forres and was buried on Iona. between 889 and 900.6

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 17. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/donal000.htm. The Henry Project cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:451-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973), p. 250 ff.. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/donal000.htm. The Henry Project cites: Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983); Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:396; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973), p. 267.
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/donal000.htm
  6. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 386. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  7. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/donal000.htm. The Henry Project cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:451-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973), p. 251 ff.
  8. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records], 1:541-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp, 251 ff.

Constantine I (Causantin ) (?) King of Scotland1

M, #4257, b. 836, d. 877
FatherCinead (Kenneth) I mac Alpin King of the Picts and Scots b. 810, d. Feb 858
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited1 May 2005
     Constantine I (Causantin ) (?) King of Scotland was born in 836 at Scotland.2,3
Constantine I (Causantin ) (?) King of Scotland was buried in 877 at Iona, Scotland.1


Constantine I (Causantin ) (?) King of Scotland died in 877 at Inverdovat, Forgan, Fife, Scotland; slain by the Norse.3,4,5
Constantine I (Causantin ) (?) King of Scotland died in 877 at Inverness, Scotland.2
     GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-32.

Constantine I (Causantin ) (?) King of Scotland
(an unknown value.)3 He was King of the Picts and Scots: CONSTANTINE (I) Picts and Scots, 863-77. Son of KENNETH MACALPIN and successor of DONALD I. His reign was dominated by battles against or connivances with the Vikings who had settled in Ireland and who constantly harried the western coast of Scotland. In 866 a major Viking raid, under their king OLAF, reached as far as Forteviot and resulted in the taking of hostages and considerable plunder. Olaf seems to have remained in Pictland and it has been suggested that he even demanded homage from Constantine, so that Olaf may have considered himself ruler of the Picts. By 870 Constantine was evidently in league with Olaf, who had married Constantine's sister. The two of them conspired, along with the other Viking leader, IVARR THE BONELESS, to attack Dumbarton, resulting in the fall of the British kingdom of Strathclyde. Two years later Constantine betrayed the exiled king of Strathclyde, ARTGAL, who was defeated and killed by the Vikings. Constantine's treachery did not benefit him in the same way it had his father. In 875 he was defeated by a Viking army led by Ivarr's brother, HALFDAN. This same army killed Constantine two years later in battle at Crail, when it was returning from York to Dublin. Constantine was buried on Iona. He was succeeded by his brother AED. between 863 and 877.1

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 384. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S647] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. 19, Ed. 1 (n.p.: Release date: March 13, 1998, unknown publish date).
  3. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  4. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 170-14, p. 147: "...slain in battle by the Norse". Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  5. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 16. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  6. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/donal000.htm. The Henry Project cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:451-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973), p. 250 ff.. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.

Thored (Torin) (?) Ealdorman of Northumbria1

M, #4258
ReferenceGAV28 EDV28
Last Edited19 Nov 2003
     GAV-28 EDV-28 GKJ-29.

Thored (Torin) (?) Ealdorman of Northumbria
(an unknown value.)2,3,1

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-18.
  2. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  3. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) comte de Flandres, comte de Hainaut1,2,3,4

M, #4259, b. between 1029 and 1030, d. 17 July 1070
FatherBaudouin V "le Debonnaire" de Lille (?) Count of Flanders b. c 1012, d. 1 Sep 1067
MotherAdele (Aelis) (?) de France, Cts de Coutance b. 1009, d. 8 Jan 1079
ReferenceGAV27 EDV27
Last Edited26 Dec 2013
     Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) comte de Flandres, comte de Hainaut was born between 1029 and 1030 at Flanders, Belgium (now).2,3 He married Richilde (?) de Mons, comtesse de Hainaut, daughter of Rénier V (?) comte de Hainaut, in 1055; her 2nd husband.2,5,6,3
Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) comte de Flandres, comte de Hainaut died on 17 July 1070 at Hanson Abbey.2,3
     Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) comte de Flandres, comte de Hainaut
Ct Baldwin VI "de Mons" of Flanders (1067-70) and Hainault (1051-70) as Baldwin I, Margrave of Antwerp, *ca 1029, +Hanson Abbey 10.7.1070; m.ca 1055 Richilde, heiress of Hainault (*Mons ca 1031, +15.3.1086), dau.of Reginar V of Hainault.2 GAV-27 EDV-27 GKJ-28. Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) comte de Flandres, comte de Hainaut was also known as Baldwin VI "de Mons" (?) Count of Hainault and Flanders.2 He was Count of Hainault between 1051 and 1070 at Hainaut, France.2 He was 8th Count of Flanders between 1067 and 1070.2,3

Citations

  1. [S752] Marcellus Donald Alexander R. von Redlich, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941 (1988 reprint)), p. 277. Hereinafter cited as Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Flanders 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/flanders/flanders1.html
  3. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 4. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  4. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 5.
  5. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Milford Haven Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Richilde: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120771&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Agnes of Flanders: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120773&tree=LEO
  8. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Brabant.pdf, p. 5.

Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc.1,2

M, #4260, b. 13 June 823, d. 6 October 877
FatherLouis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West2,1,3 b. 16 Aug 778, d. 20 Jun 840
MotherJudith (?) von Altdorf1,2,4,3 b. bt 800 - 805, d. 19 Apr 843
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited14 Jan 2020
     Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc. was born on 13 June 823 at Frankfurt am Main, Germany (now); Weis (AR7, line 148-15) says b. 13 Jun 0828. Wikipedia says b. 13 June 823.5,2,1,6 He married ErmentrudeErmengardeHermintrudis (?) of Orleans, daughter of Eudes (?) Comte d'Orléans and Ingeltrude (?) of Paris, on 14 December 842 at Crecy/Queercy-sur-Oise, France (now); his 1st wife.5,1,2,7 Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc. married Richilde (Richaut) (?) d'Ardennes, Queen of the West Franks, daughter of Buvinus (?) comte de Metz, abbe laique de Gorze and Richilde (?) d'Arles, on 22 January 870 at Aachen (Aix La Chapelle), Stadtkreis Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (now).2,1,8,9
Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc. died on 6 October 877 at Mt. Cenis, near Avrieux, France (now), at age 54.1,2
Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc. died on 6 October 877 at Modano at age 54.10
     GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-31.

Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc.
Per Enc. of World History:
     "Charles the Bald (emperor, 875-77). His kingdom under the Treaty of Verdun was roughly equivalent to modern France, with additions in the north and south and a restricted frontier on the east. Charles was effective master of Laon, but his sway over Neustria was nominal, his control sporadically maintained by war and intrigue. Charles granted three great fiefs as a buffer for his frontiers: the county of Flanders to his son-in-law, Baldwin Iron-Arm (862); Neustria to Robert the Strong as “duke between Seine and Loire” the French duchy of Burgundy to Richard, count of Autun. Brittany (Amorica) was semi-independent under its own dukes and counts in the 9th century and continued so virtually to the end of the Middle Ages. Aquitaine, joined to Neustria for Charles (838), soon emerged as a duchy and was consistently hostile. The duchy of Gascony was joined to Aquitaine in 1052. From Neustria were carved the counties of Anjou (870) and Champagne. Septimania remained refractory.
     "On the death of Louis the Pious, the three heirs contained their struggle, and after the indecisive battle of Fontenay (841), Carolingian prestige sank to a new depth. Charles the Bald and Louis the German formed an alliance against Lothair (who was supported by the clergy in the interests of unity) in the bilingual (Teutonic and Romance) Oaths of Strassburg (842), sworn by the rulers and their armies, each in their own vernacular. They then forced a family compact on Lothair at Verdun.
     "The Treaty of Verdun divided the administration and control of the Carolingian Empire as follows: (1) Lothair kept the (empty) title of emperor and was king of Italy and of an amorphous territory (the “middle kingdom”) which was bounded roughly by the Scheldt, the upper Meuse, the Saône, and the Rhône on the west, and by the Rhine and Frisia on the east (i.e., the territory of Provence, Burgundy, and what was later called Lotharingia); (2) Louis the German, as king of the (East) Franks, ruled a realm essentially Teutonic in blood, speech, and geography, extending from the Rhine (except Frisia) to the eastern frontier of the empire; (3) Charles the Bald, as king of the (West) Franks, received a realm (loosely called Carolingia for a time) made up of West Francia and Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimania, etc; mainly Romance in speech; approximating medieval France in general outline."11

Reference: Genealogics cites: Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 82.2


Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc.
Per Wikipedia:
     "Charles ?? the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the king of West Francia (843–877), king of Italy (875–877) and emperor of the Carolingian Empire (875–877). After a series of civil wars during the reign of his father, Louis the Pious, Charles succeeded, by the Treaty of Verdun (843), in acquiring the western third of the Carolingian Empire. He was a grandson of Charlemagne and the youngest son of Louis the Pious by his second wife, Judith.
Struggle against his brothers
     "He was born on 13 June 823 in Frankfurt,[1] when his elder brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis the Pious to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (in 832, after the rising of Pepin I of Aquitaine) were unsuccessful. The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious Lothair and Pepin, as well as their brother Louis the German, King of Bavaria, made Charles's share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul. At a diet in Aachen in 837, Louis the Pious bade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir.[2] Pepin of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles at last received that kingdom,[2] which angered Pepin's heirs and the Aquitainian nobles.[3]
     "The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Louis the German to resist the pretensions of the new Emperor Lothair I, and the two allies defeated Lothair at the Battle of Fontenoy-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841.[4] In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg. The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles the Bald the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up until then governing and which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Saône, and the Rhône, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro. Louis received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire, known then as East Francia and later as Germany. Lothair retained the imperial title and the Kingdom of Italy. He also received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia.
Reign as emperor
     "In 875, after the death of the Emperor Louis II (son of his half-brother Lothair), Charles the Bald, supported by Pope John VIII, traveled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on 29 December. Louis the German, also a candidate for the succession of Louis II, revenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to West Francia. After the death of Louis the German (28 August 876), Charles in his turn attempted to seize Louis's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at the Battle of Andernach on 8 October 876.
     "In the meantime, John VIII, menaced by the Saracens, was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles, and even by his regent in Lombardy, Boso, and they refused to join his army. At the same time Carloman, son of Louis the German, entered northern Italy. Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bains, on 6 October 877.[6]
     "According to the Annals of St-Bertin, Charles was hastily buried at the abbey of Nantua, Burgundy because the bearers were unable to withstand the stench of his decaying body. He was to have been buried in the Basilique Saint-Denis and may have been transferred there later. It was recorded that there was a memorial brass there that was melted down at the Revolution.
     "Charles was succeeded by his son, Louis. Charles was a prince of education and letters, a friend of the church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens, who betrayed him, and of Hincmar of Reims.
Baldness
     "It has been suggested that Charles' nickname was used ironically and not descriptively; i.e. that he was not in fact bald, but rather that he was extremely hairy.[7] An alternative or additional interpretation is based on Charles' initial lack of a regnum. "Bald" would in this case be a tongue-in-cheek reference to his landlessness, at an age where his brothers already had been sub-kings for some years.[8]
     "Contemporary depictions of his person, e.g., in his Bible of 845, on his seal of 847 (as king) as well as on his seal of 875 (as emperor) show him with a full head of hair, as does the equestrian statuette (c. 870) thought to depict him.
     "The Genealogy of Frankish Kings, a text from Fontanelle dating from possibly as early as 869, and a text without a trace of irony, names him as Karolus Calvus ("Charles the Bald"). Certainly, by the end of the 10th century, Richier of Reims and Adhemar of Chabannes refer to him in all seriousness as "Charles the Bald".[9]
Marriages and children
     "Charles married Ermentrude, daughter of Odo I, Count of Orléans, in 842. She died in 869. In 870, Charles married Richilde of Provence, who was descended from a noble family of Lorraine.
With Ermentrude:
* Judith (c.843–after 866), married first King Ethelwulf of Wessex, second his son King Ethelbald, and third Baldwin I, Margrave of Flanders
* Louis the Stammerer (846–879)
* Charles the Child (847–866)
* Lothair the Lame (848–866), monk in 861, became Abbot of Saint-Germain
* Carloman (849–876)
* Rotrude (852–912), a nun, Abbess of Saint-Radegunde
* Ermentrud (854–877), a nun, Abbess of Hasnon
* Hildegarde (born 856, died young)
* Gisela (857–874)
* Godehilde (864–907)
With Richilde:
* Rothilde (871–929), married firstly to Hugues, Count of Bourges and secondly to Roger, Count of Maine.[10]
* Drogo (872–873)
* Pippin (873–874)
* a son (born and died 875)
* Charles (876–877)
Notes
1. Riche 1983, p. 150.
2. Riche 1983, p. 157.
3. Riche 1983, p. 158.
4. Bradbury 2007, p. 14.
5. Nelson 1992, p. 17–18.
6. Riche 1983, p. 204.
7. Nelson 1992, p. 13.
8. Lebe 2003.
9. Dutton 2008.
10. Riche 1983, p. 237.
References
* Bradbury, Jim (2007). The Capetians: Kings of France 987–1328. Hambledon Continuum.
* Dutton, Paul E. (2008). Charlemagne's Mustache. Palgrave Macmillan.
* Lebe, Reinhard (2003). War Karl der Kahle wirklich kahl? Historische Beinamen und was dahintersteckt. Dt. Taschenbuch-Verlag.
* Nelson, Janet (1992). Charles the Bald. Essex.
* Riche, Pierre (1983). The Carolingians:The Family who forged Europe. University of Pennsylvania Press."6

Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc.
Per Genealogy.EU: Charles II "the Bald", King of Aquitaine 838, King of West Franks (843-877), King of (East) Lotharingia (869-870), King of Italy (875-876), Emperor (875-877), *Frankfurt a.M. 15.5./13.6.823, +Avrieux=Bries-les-Bains 6.10.877, bur St.Denis, Paris; 1m: Crecy 14.12.842 *[4381] Ermentrude (*Orleans ca 825/27.9.830, +6.10.869, St.Denis, Aude), a dau.of Ct Eudes I "of Orleans" and Ingeltrude de Paris; 2m: Aachen 22.1.870 *[6483] Richildis of Metz (+910/914), dau.of Buwin of Metz.1 Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc. was also known as Charles II (?) of the Franks.9 He was King of Aquitaine. (See attached map of the Carolingian Empire in 880 By Niconaike - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39615802.) in 838.1 He was King of the West Franks. See attached map (from Wkipedia: By Trasamundo - Own work[1]: 876 Death of Louis the German: east Francia divided between his sons (Karlmann of Bavaria, Louis the Younger of Franconia/Saxony, Charles the Fat of Alemannia and Alsace)[2] Upon the death of Louis the German (876), east Francia was partitioned into three kingdoms: Bavaria went to Carlomann, the nothern sector plus Lotharingia went to Louis the Younger, and the southwestern portion, namely Alsace and Alemannia, was apportioned to Charles the Fat.[3] King Louis, surnamed the German, had died in August of the year 876, leaving three sons. In the division of the kingdom, the southern and eastern privinces, collectively known by the name of Bavaria, were alloted to Carlmann, the elder of the princes; Charles, afterwards surnamed "the Fat", obtained Swabia, Alsace, and Transjurane Burgundy; and Louis, youngest, shared Eastern Franconia, Saony and a part of Lorraine.[4] Charles appears to have received Alsace and the northern Burgundian pagi., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9729998) between 843 and 877.5,1,6 He was King of East Lotharingia between 869 and 870.1 He was King of Italy between 875 and 876.1 He was Holy Roman Emperor between 25 December 875 and 877.5,12,1,2

Family 2

Richilde (Richaut) (?) d'Ardennes, Queen of the West Franks b. c 845, d. 2 Jun 910
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles 'the Bald': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120041&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Judith: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020394&tree=LEO
  5. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 148-15, p. 129. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  6. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_the_Bald. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ermentrudis of Orléans: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120074&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Richeut/Richardis: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120075&tree=LEO
  9. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  10. [S616] Inc. Br²derbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 26 Dec 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1, Family #18-0770 (n.p.: Release date: March 27, 1998, unknown publish date).
  11. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 173-6. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  12. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 175.
  13. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/judit002.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  14. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis II 'the Stammerer': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020060&tree=LEO
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Lothar: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00148493&tree=LEO
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049996&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rotrud: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I0014847&tree=LEO
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gisela: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I0014846&tree=LEO
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rothilde de France: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00148499&tree=LEO
  21. [S1702] The Henry Project, online http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/henry.htm, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/roger000.htm
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049999&tree=LEO
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Drogo: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00148498&tree=LEO
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00149998&tree=LEO