Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West1,2,3,4,5

M, #4261, b. 16 August 778, d. 20 June 840
FatherCharlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West3,4 b. 2 Apr 747, d. 28 Jan 814
MotherHildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau3,4,6 b. bt 2 May 757 - 30 Apr 761, d. 30 Apr 783
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited23 Mar 2020
     Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West was born on 16 August 778 at Casseeuil-sur-Garonne, Departement du Lot-et-Garonne, Aquitaine, France (now).7,3,4,8 He married Ermengarde (?) of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingram (Ingeramne) (?) Count of Hesbaye and Rotrude (?), in 794; his 1st wife.7,9,3,4,10 Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West married Judith (?) von Altdorf, daughter of Welf I (?) Graf in Swabia and Heilwig/Hedwig/Eigilwich (?) of Saxony, in February 819 at Aachen (Aix La Chapelle), Stadtkreis Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (now);
His 2nd wife.11,12,4,7,13,14,10
Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West died on 20 June 840 at Mainz (Frankfurt am Main), Stadtkreis Mainz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany (now), at age 61; Genealogy.EU (Carolin 1 page) says d. in Ingelheim.15,3,4,8
Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West was buried after 20 June 840 at Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     Aug 778, Devillac, Departement du Lot-et-Garonne, Aquitaine, France
     DEATH     20 Jun 840 (aged 61), Mainz, Stadtkreis Mainz, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
     Louis I (Holy Roman Empire), called The Pious (778-840), Holy Roman emperor (814-840), king of France (814-840), king of Germany (814-840), and king of Aquitaine (781-840). He was the son and sole successor of Charlemagne. In 817 Louis made plans for an orderly succession among his sons: Lothair I, Louis II (Louis the German), and Pepin of Aquitaine. Later he wanted to include in the succession Charles II (Charles the Bald), his son by a second marriage. Dissatisfied, his older sons rebelled (830, 833) against him and fought among themselves for supremacy as well. Pepin died in 838, and in 843 the empire was divided among the three surviving brothers.
     Family Members
     Parents
      Charlemagne 742–814
      Hildegarde de Vintzgau Herstal 757–783
     Spouses
      Ermengarde of Hesbaye unknown–818
      Judith of Bavaria 805–843
     Siblings
      Pepin Carolingian of Italy 773–810
     Half Siblings
      Drogo of Metz
      Adeltrude du Maine 774–852
      Hugh l'Abbe de St Quentin 802–844
     Children
      Princess Adelaide Tours
      Princess Carolingian d'Auvergne
      Gisela De France Of Neustria
      Arnulf de Sens 794–841
      Alpaïs de Paris 795 – unknown
      Lothair Carolingian 795–855
      Rotrude de Aquitania d'Auvergne 802–860
      Ludwig II of East Francia 804–876
      Charles II Emperor of the Holy Empire 823–877
     BURIAL     Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France
     Maintained by: Find A Grave
     Originally Created by: Jerry Ferren
     Added: 26 Jan 2012
     Find A Grave Memorial 84022206
     SPONSORED BY Billie Jasper.4,8
     Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West
His father's only surviving son, he was crowned emperor by his father in 813 without assistance from the clergy. However, in 816 he was anointed by the Pope, implying that the honour depended upon the Pope. In 817 he issued the 'Ordinatio Imperii' which effectively divided the Empire between his three sons. However, this was not the only reason for the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire. High offices had become hereditary and so less subject to the Emperor's favour. As well, the Vikings began raiding the Empire more frequently.

Just as Charlemagne had been a Frankish warrior, Louis saw himself as a servant of the Church. As a result, where the papal elections had previously required imperial approval, this was no longer the case under the rule of Louis the Pious.

In 817 he brutally suppressed his nephew, Bernard of Italy; however, feeling guilty about the brutality, in 821 he pardoned those involved in the uprising, only to have this public confession about his guilt interpreted by the Frankish nobles in 822 as a sign of weakness.

By now he had lost control over both church and nobility and, as well, as a widower he had married again and a fourth son was born. Now he was also to be plagued by dynastic problems. His second wife, Judith, wanting the largest part of the empire for her son, joined forces with Louis's sons, Ludwig the German and Pippin, against Lothar, the eldest son. The results were that two factions developed in the Empire, one wanting to keep the Empire united and the other to continue the Frankish custom of dividing lands between all sons.

In 829 Judith persuaded Louis the Pious to set aside his settlement of 817 and include Judith's son, Charles, in the partition of the Empire. However, Ludwig the German and Pippin, jealous of Charles's portion, joined forces with Lothar, their eldest brother and, in 830, rebelled against their father.

The eldest three sons, supported by Pope Gregory IV, defeated their father in 833. Lothar was restored as Emperor designate and Louis the Pious was forced to perform a humiliating penance. However, Ludwig the German and Pippin were still dissatisfied and again took up arms. In 838 Pippin died followed, in 840, by Louis the Pious; but it took until 843 when, at Verdun, the Frankish tradition triumphed and the Empire was divided between the three surviving sons.3 GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-32.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 68.
2. The Holy Roman Empire, A Dictionary Handbook , Zophy, Reference: biography.3



Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West
Per Med Lands:
     "LOUIS [Hludowic], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul[189]). He is named, and his parentage recorded, in the Gesta Mettensium, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with his brother Hlothar[190]. Crowned King of the Aquitainians in Rome 15 Apr 781 by Pope Hadrian I. His armies occupied Girona, Urgel and Cerdanya in 785 and besieged Barcelona in 802, establishing the "March of Spain"[191]. At the partition of territories agreed at Thionville in 806, he was designated sovereign of Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimania, Provence and southern Burgundy. His father named him as his successor at Aix-la-Chapelle, crowning him as joint emperor 11 Sep 813[192]. On his father's death, he adopted the title Emperor LOUIS I “der Fromme/le Pieux” 2 Feb 814, and was crowned at Reims [Jul/Aug] 816 by Pope Stephen IV. He did not use the titles king of the Franks or king of Italy so as to emphasise the unity of the empire[193]. He promulgated the Ordinatio Imperii at Worms in 817, which established his eldest son as his heir, his younger sons having a subordinate status, a decision which was eventually to lead to civil war between his sons. His nephew Bernard King of Italy, ignored in the Ordinatio Imperii, rebelled against his uncle, but was defeated and killed. After his death, Italy was placed under the direct rule of the emperor. Emperor Louis crowned his son Lothaire as joint emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle in Jul 817, his primary status over his brothers being confirmed once more at the assembly of Nijmegen 1 May 821. In Nov 824, Emperor Louis placed Pope Eugene II under his protection, effectively subordinating the papal role to that of the emperor. The birth of his son Charles by his second marriage in 823 worsened relations with his sons by his first marriage, the tension being further increased when Emperor Louis invested Charles with Alemannia, Rhætia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest son Lothaire to Italy. His older sons revolted in Mar 830 and captured their father at Compiègne, forcing him to revert to the 817 constitutional arrangements. However, Emperor Louis reasserted his authority at the assemblies of Nijmegen in Oct 830 and Aix-la-Chapelle in Feb 831, depriving Lothaire of the imperial title and relegating him once more to Italy. A further revolt of the brothers followed. Emperor Louis was defeated and deposed by his sons at Compiègne 1 Oct 833. He was exiled to the monastery of Saint-Médard de Soissons. His eldest son Lothaire declared himself sole emperor but was soon overthrown by his brothers Pépin and Louis, who freed their father. Emperor Louis was crowned once more at Metz 28 Feb 835. He proposed yet another partition of territories in favour of his son Charles at the assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, implemented at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839 when he installed his sons Lothaire and Charles jointly, setting aside the claims of his sons Pépin and Louis. This naturally led to revolts by Pépin in Aquitaine and Louis in Germany, which their father was in the process of suppressing when he died[194]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "in insulam quondam Rheni fluminis prope Ingilenheim XII Kal Iul 840" of Emperor Louis and his burial "Mettis civitatem…in basilica sancti Arnulfi"[195]. The necrology of Prüm records the death "840 12 Kal Iul" of "Ludvicus imperator"[196]. The necrology of St Gall records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Hludowicus imperator in insula Rheni quiæ est sita iuxta palatium Ingelheim"[197]. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[198]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XII Kal Jul" of "Ludovicus imperator"[199]. The necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death 840 “XII Kal Jul” of “Hludovuici imperatoris”[200].
     "m firstly ([794]) ERMENGARD, daughter of ENGUERRAND Comte [de Hesbaye] & his wife --- ([775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818[201], bur Angers). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names the wife of Emperor Ludwig "filiam nobilissimi ducis Ingorammi…Irmingarda"[202]. The Gesta Francorum records the death "818 V Non Oct" of "Irmingardis regina"[203]. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the death "V Non Oct" of "Hirmingardis regina" three days after falling ill[204].
     "m secondly (Aix-la-Chapelle Feb 819) JUDITH, daughter of WELF [I] Graf [von Altdorf] & his wife Heilwig --- ([805]-Tours 19 Apr 843, bur Tours Saint-Martin). The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in Feb 819 of "Ludewicus imperator" and "Iudith"[205]. Thegan names "filiam Hwelfi ducis sui, qui erat de nobolissima progenie Bawariorum…Iudith…ex parte matris…Eigilwi nobilissimi generic Saxonici" as second wife of Emperor Ludwig, specifying that she was "enim pulchra valde"[206]. Einhard's Annales record that Emperor Louis chose "Huelpi comitis filiam…Judith" as his wife in 819 after "inspectis plerisque nobelium filiabus"[207]. Judith was influential with her husband, which increased the tensions with the emperor's sons by his first marriage. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[208]. Judith was exiled to the monastery of Sainte-Croix de Poitiers during the first rebellion of her stepsons in 830, was released in 831, but exiled again to Tortona in Italy in 833 from where she was brought back in Apr 834[209]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIII Kal Mai" of "Judith regina"[210]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 843 of "Iudhit imperatrix mater Karoli" at Tours[211]. The necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death 843 “XIII Kal Mai” of “Judidh imperatricis”[212].
     "Mistress (1): ---. The name of Emperor Lothar's mistress or mistresses is not known. "
Med Lands Cites:
[189] Nithard I.8, p. 140.
[190] Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, MGH SS II, p. 265.
[191] Settipani, C. and Kerrebrouck, P. van (1993) La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987, 1ère partie, Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens (Villeneuve d'Ascq), p. 250.
[192] RFA 813, p. 95.
[193] Settipani (1993), p. 252.
[194] Settipani (1993), pp. 252-3.
[195] Annales Fuldensium Pars Secunda, auctore Euodolfo 840, MGH SS I, p. 362.
[196] Annales Necrologici Prumienses, MGH SS XIII, p. 219.
[197] Libri Anniversariorum et Necrologium Monasterii Sancti Galli, Konstanz Necrologies, p. 462.
[198] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 227.
[199] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 320.
[200] Longnon ‘Obituaire de l’abbaye de Saint-Germain des Prés’, p. 23.
[201] RFA 818, p. 104.
[202] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 4, MGH SS II, p. 591.
[203] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 818, MGH SS I, p. 356.
[204] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 31, MGH SS II, p. 623.
[205] Annales Xantenses 819, MGH SS II, p. 224.
[206] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 26, MGH SS II, p. 596.
[207] Einhardi Annales 819, MGH SS I, p. 206.
[208] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597.
[209] Settipani (1993), pp. 254-5.
[210] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 315.
[211] Annales Xantenses 843, MGH SS II, p. 227.
[212] Longnon ‘Obituaire de l’abbaye de Saint-Germain des Prés’, p. 23.10


Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West
Louis I "the Fair", *Casseuil-sur-Garonne VIII.778, +Ingelheim 20.6.840, bur.St.Arnold (Ger), King of Aquitania (781-814), King of Franks and Italy (814-833)+(834-840), Holy Roman Emperor (814/16-840); 1m: 798 Empress Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingeramme of Hesbaye (*Hesbaye, Liege ca 778, +Angers 3.10.818); 2m: Aken II.819 Judith von Altdorf (*800 +Tours 19.4.843.)4

Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West
Louis the Pious (emperor), educated at the Palace School, crowned in his father's lifetime. Sincerely religious, a reformer of his court, the Frankish Church, and the monasteries, he allowed himself to be crowned again by the pope (816). The influence of his ecclesiastical adviser Benedict of Aniane on an ideology of political Augustinianismto the detriment of traditional Frankish principlesincreased tension with the aristocracy. Louis was ineffectual as a soldier and ruler. He and his heirs concentrated on a long struggle (leading to civil war) over territorial questions, to the neglect of government, foreign policy, and defensea program that hastened the breakup of the empire.

A significant series of partitions involved Louis's sons: Lothair (d. 855), Louis the German (d. 876), Pepin (d. 838), and their half-brother, Charles the Bald (d. 877).

The division of 817: Aquitaine and parts of Septimania and Burgundy went to Pepin, as subking; Bavaria and the marches to the east were assigned to Louis the German as subking, undivided; Francia, German and Gallic, and most of Burgundy were retained by Louis and his eldest son, Lothair. Italy went to a third subking.

Lothair I (emperor). On the death of Louis the Pious, the three heirs contained their struggle, and after the indecisive battle of Fontenay (841), Carolingian prestige sank to a new depth. Charles the Bald and Louis the German formed an alliance against Lothair (who was supported by the clergy in the interests of unity) in the bilingual (Teutonic and Romance) Oaths of Strassburg (842), sworn by the rulers and their armies, each in their own vernacular. They then forced a family compact on Lothair at Verdun.16

Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West
(an unknown value.)17,18,19,7 He was King of Aquitaine between 781 and 814.4,3 He was King of the Franks and Italy between 814 and 840.4 He was Holy Roman Emperor; Stone (2000) chart 30-2: "...he was the only surviving son when his father died." between 814 and 840.20,15,5

Family 1

Theodelinde (?) de Sens
Children

Family 2

Ermengarde (?) of Hesbaye b. c 778, d. 3 Oct 818
Children

Family 3

Judith (?) von Altdorf b. bt 800 - 805, d. 19 Apr 843
Children

Citations

  1. [S752] Marcellus Donald Alexander R. von Redlich, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941 (1988 reprint)), p. 63. Hereinafter cited as Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I.
  2. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 175. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis I "the Pious": http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020040&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hildegardis: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020006&tree=LEO
  7. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 140-14, p. 122. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  8. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 11 October 2019), memorial page for Louis I “the Pious” of the Franks (Aug 778–20 Jun 840), Find A Grave Memorial no. 84022206, citing Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France ; Maintained by Find A Grave (contributor 8), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/84022206/louis_i-of_the_franks. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  9. [S752] Marcellus Donald Alexander R. von Redlich, Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I, p. 124.
  10. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Judith: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020394&tree=LEO
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Welf 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf1.html
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Judith: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020394&tree=LEO
  14. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WURTTEMBERG.htm#Judithdied843
  15. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 148-14, p. 129.
  16. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 174-6.
  17. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  18. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  19. [S636] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 6 Oct 2000 from World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0043 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  20. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 30-2.
  21. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 11 October 2019), memorial page for Arnulf de Sens (794–Apr 841), Find A Grave Memorial no. 197460896, citing Abbey de Sainte Colombe de Sens, Sens, Departement de l'Yonne, Bourgogne, France ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/197460896/arnulf-de_sens
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alpais de France: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00036200&tree=LEO
  23. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 11 October 2019), memorial page for Alpaïs de Paris (795–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 147243444, citing Abbey of Ste Pierre, Reims, Departement de la Marne, Champagne-Ardenne, France ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/147243444/alpa_s-de_paris
  24. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#AlpaisMBeggoComteParis
  25. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Lothar I: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020431&tree=LEO
  26. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin I: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00036217&tree=LEO
  27. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rotrud or Hildegard de France: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00036221&tree=LEO
  28. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ludwig II 'the German': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020400&tree=LEO
  29. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gisla de France: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020512&tree=LEO
  30. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles 'the Bald': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120041&tree=LEO

Judith (?) von Altdorf1,2

F, #4262, b. between 800 and 805, d. 19 April 843
FatherWelf I (?) Graf in Swabia2,3,4,5,6 b. c 775, d. bt 824 - 825
MotherHeilwig/Hedwig/Eigilwich (?) of Saxony7,2,5,6 b. bt 778 - 780, d. 19 Apr 843
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited14 Jan 2020
     Judith (?) von Altdorf was born between 800 and 805 at Altdorf, Landkreis Eichstätt, Bavaria (Bayern), Germany (now).2,8,6,9,10 She married Louis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West, son of Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West and Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau, in February 819 at Aachen (Aix La Chapelle), Stadtkreis Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (now);
His 2nd wife.1,11,8,12,6,9,13
Judith (?) von Altdorf died on 19 April 843 at Tours, Departement d'Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France (now).1,2,8,14,6,9
Judith (?) von Altdorf was buried after 19 April 843 at Abbey of St. Martin (Defunct), Tours, Departement d'Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     805, Altdorf, Landkreis Eichstätt, Bavaria (Bayern), Germany
     DEATH     19 Apr 843 (aged 37–38), Tours, Departement d'Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France
     Judith ensured that her son Charles received a share of the kingdom, just like his three half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. This contributed to the ensuing civil war among Louis and his sons. Rebels temporarily imprisoned Judith in the convent of Poitiers on allegations of adultery during 830. From 833 to 834, she was exiled in Tortona.
     Judith was the first member of the Elder House of Welf to have a leading role in the Frankish kingdom. Whether by coincidence or through Judith's influence, in the years following her marriage to Louis her mother and both of her brothers gained important offices in the kingdom. Her sister Hemma married Louis the German, a son of Louis the Pious from his first marriage, in 827. Judith was buried at the basilica of St. Martin in Tours.
     Family Members
     Parents
          Welf I of Bavaria
          Hedwig (Heilwig) von Sachsen 775–843
     Spouse
          Louis I of the Franks 778–840
     Siblings
          Emma of Bavaria of Altdorf
          Conrad de Bourgogne 800–862
     Children
          Gisela De France Of Neustria
          Charles II Emperor of the Holy Empire 823–877
     BURIAL     Abbey of St. Martin (Defunct), Tours, Departement d'Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France
     Maintained by: Blaine Barham
     Originally Created by: Jerry Ferren
     Added: 26 Jan 2012
     Find A Grave Memorial 84022876
     SPONSORED BY Blaine Barham.9,10
     Judith (?) von Altdorf
Per Genealogics:
     "Judith was born about 800, the daughter of Welf, Graf in Bayern und Schwaben, Graf von Altdorf, and his wife, a Saxon noblewoman named Eigilwich/Heilwig. In Aachen in 819 she became the second wife of Emperor Louis 'the Pious', son of Emperor Charlemagne and his wife Hildegardis. Of their two children their son Charles would have progeny.
     "Judith ensured that Charles received a share of the kingdom, like his three half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. This contributed to the ensuing civil war between Louis and his sons. Rebels temporarily imprisoned Judith in the convent of Poitiers on allegations of adultery in 830. From 833 to 834 she was exiled in Tortona, Piedmont.
     "Judith was the first member of the Elder House of Welf to have a leading role in the Frankish kingdom. Whether by coincidence or through Judith's influence, in the years following her marriage to Louis her mother and both her brothers gained important offices in the kingdom. In 827 her sister Emma/Hemma married Ludwig II 'the German', king of the East-Franks, a son of Louis from his first marriage. Judith died at Tours on 19 April 843. She was buried at the Basilica of St. Martin in Tours."6

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: I 11,
2. Gens Nostra Amsterdam , Reference: 1968.6



Judith (?) von Altdorf
Per Med Lands:
     "JUDITH ([805]-Tours 19 Apr 843, bur Tours Saint-Martin). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names "filiam Hwelfi ducis sui, qui erat de nobilissima progenie Bawariorum…Iudith…ex parte matris…Eigilwi nobilissimi generic Saxonici" as second wife of Emperor Louis, specifying that she was "enim pulchra valde"[1790]. The Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records the marriage of "Iudith filiam Welponis…comitis" and Emperor Louis I[1791]. The Annales Xantenses record the marriage in Feb 819 of "Ludewicus imperator" and "Iudith"[1792]. Judith was influential with her husband, which increased the tensions with his sons by his first marriage. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris records that "quondam duce Bernhardo, qui erat de stirpe regali" was accused of violating "Iudith reginam" but comments that this was all lies[1793]. Judith was exiled to the monastery of Sainte-Croix de Poitiers during the first rebellion of her stepsons in 830, was released in 831, but exiled again to Tortona in Italy in 833 from where she was brought back in Apr 834[1794]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XIII Kal Mai" of "Judith regina"[1795]. The Annales Xantenses record the death in 843 of "Iudhit imperatrix mater Karoli" at Tours[1796].
     "m (Aix-la-Chapelle Feb 819) as his second wife, Emperor LOUIS I, son of Emperor CHARLES I "Charlemagne" King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegardis (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou [16 Apr/Sep] 778-island in the Rhine near Ingelheim 20 Jun 840, bur bur Metz, église abbatiale de Saint-Arnoul)."
Med Lands Cites:
[1790] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 26, MGH SS II, p. 596.
[1791] Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 32, MGH SS II, p. 624.
[1792] Annales Xantenses 819, MGH SS II, p. 224.
[1793] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 36, MGH SS II, p. 597.
[1794] Settipani (1993), pp. 254-5.
[1795] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 315.
[1796] Annales Xantenses 843, MGH SS II, p. 227.9


Judith (?) von Altdorf
Per Wikipedia:
     "Queen Judith (797– 19 April 843), also known as Judith of Bavaria, was the daughter of Count Welf of Bavaria and Saxon noblewoman, Hedwig. She was the second wife of Louis the Pious, Carolingian emperor and king of the Franks, which brought her the titles of queen and empress. Marriage to Louis marked the beginning of her rise as an influential figure in the Carolingian court. She had two children with Louis, a daughter Gisela and a son, Charles the Bald. The birth of her son led to a major dispute over the imperial succession, and tensions between her and Charles' half-brothers from Louis' first marriage. She would eventually fall from grace when Charles' wife, the new empress Ermentrude of Orléans, rose to power. She was buried in 846 in Tours.
Early life
Date and place of birth
     "No surviving sources provide a record of Judith’s exact date and year of birth. Judith was probably born around 797[1] Most girls in the Carolingian world were married in adolescence, with twelve years as the minimum age, though her marriage to the 41 year old King Louis occurred in 819, when she was around 22 years old.
Kin group/ancestry
     "Judith was the daughter of the noble Saxon Heilwig and Count Welf I, and belonged to the ancestor of the kin-group known to historians as the Welfs. Though the Welf clan was noble, they were not part of the '"Imperial Aristocracy'" (Reichsaristokratie) that dominated high office throughout the Carolingian empire. The Welf clan's leaders, having lost influence in their home region of Alemannia (present-day southwestern Germany and northern Switzerland) eventually rose to power though cementing familial ties with the Carolingian Imperial Aristocracy in the 770s.[1] Nonetheless, they remained a part of the upper aristocracy (Hochadel) of their region, given the numerous appearances of the noble titles of ducal (duke) and comital (counts) in primary sources. This noble status made Judith a suitable marriage prospect for the imperial family,[1] and the Welf clan as a whole saw its prestige and power increase after Judith’s marriage to the Carolingian emperor Louis the Pious in 819.
Marriage and queenship
Courtship by Louis

     "After the death on 3 October 818 of Louis' first wife Queen Ermengard, mother of his sons Louis the German, Peppin and Lothar, Louis was urged by his counselors to remarry.[2] Shortly after Christmas in 819 he married Judith in Aachen (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany).[3] Like many of the royal marriages of the time Judith was selected, prior to the marriage through a bridal show. It is at the bride show that, at the age of forty one, Louis chose the young, twenty two year old Judith "after inspecting noble maidens who were brought to his court from all districts".[4] In Frankish society, only women of the nobility were eligible to compete; this specific trait is highlighted in the Regesta Imperii[clarification needed], where Judith is referred to as stemming from a noble lineage (Edlen Geschlecht). Contemporary witnesses such as Ermoldus Nigellus, Walahfrid Strabo, and Louis' biographer Thegan attributed Judith's selection to her extraordinary beauty,[5] intelligence, and musical ability.[1] It is just as likely, however, that Louis was attracted to the geographical and political advantages offered by Judith's family. While scholars differ as to whether the Welfs were of Frankish or Alemannian descent, it is clear that they controlled significant territories to the east of the Rhine, and were predominant political actors in both Bavaria and Alemannia.[1] This fact would have made them desirable allies for Louis, since any military campaign in the empire's eastern frontiers would require the emperor to travel through this region. By marrying Judith, in other words, the emperor would effectively gain friends and allies, an important military and political stronghold, and the support of the nobility in that region.[1]
Marriage
     "Judith married Louis in 819 in Aachen. It was not uncommon that brides were given some form of dowry upon marrying into royalty. Judith's marriage was no exception to this practice and she received, according to sources,[which?] the monastery San Salvatore, which was located in Brescia (in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy). The monastery of San Salvatore and all the assets that fall under its jurisdiction, would fall under the protection with the protection of the King.[6] Although, according to modern sources, the dowry was indicative that the marriage was in fact a "Vollehe" (full marriage), it did not mean that the dowry was static, insofar as it would remain solely within the possession of the Queen in perpetuity; rather it could be taken from her depending on the political climate, as would later be the case in Judith's life, after her fall from power and influence.[1]
Coronation
     "In later Carolingian societies the act of coronation was closely tied with the marriage. It was only upon the completion of the marriage that queenhood and thus legitimacy was bestowed. When Louis married his first wife Ermengard in 794, she was crowned and called "Augusta", a title that harkens back to the Roman "Augustus". This bestowed on Ermengard the title of empress as it would Judith when she married Louis and was "crowned as empress and acclaimed Augusta by all".[2]
Role in the Palace
     "Historical sources show a gap in information available on Judith in the four years between her marriage in 819 and the birth of Charles in 823. The most likely cause of this gap is that Judith would only rise to historical prominence when she became involved in her son's, Charles The Bald, life as an advocate for his career as successor to the throne. However, various sources like the Capitulare de villis and the De ordine palatii of Hincmar of Reims can be drawn upon to provide information on roles and responsibilities that Judith would have most likely played in court. Specifically, the Capitulare de villis and the De ordine palatii define the role and consequently the realm of influence of the empress to that of the court. If these documents are indicative of the empress's role in the court and palace in general, then it may be reasonably inferred what roles Judith would have acted in. Sources tell us that Judith's and the steward of the court's (Kämmerer)[1] duties included, among others: caring that she, her servants and the King himself, particularly his jewelry, looked presentable and of appropriate appearance, overseeing the transfer of the yearly tribute (Abgabe der Vasallen)[1] and ensuring that the emperor was free to focus on ruling the kingdom, without distraction of minor details like the court's appearance.[1] It is not to be inferred from this brief sketch, however, that her role was in any sense superfluous and relegated to the realm of aesthetics. She had a working relationship with the Kämmerer of the court,[1] (the top administrator for the incomes, goods and running of the household), which means that she was in an influential position when it came to the functioning and the running of the court.[1]
     "It is not unlikely that, in order to complete these tasks, Judith would have had her own court personnel. This was not an uncommon phenomenon, it having existed according to sources since the time of the Merovingians.[1] Having her own administration was not only instrumentally important in ensuring a smooth running of the court and the daily affairs of the palace, but also a political necessity. The King and Queen were technically seen as a single entity,[1] as is the case in the Capitulare de villis. Her command was therefore no less significant or important than that of the King. However, in time of separation, be it war, sickness or pregnancy, this single ruling couple/entity would be divided. Consequently, when Louis endeavoured on his campaign in 824 against the Bretons or a similar campaign in the same region in 830,[1] Judith would not only have to take care of the running of the courtly society, but also step in as a representative of the King. In this capacity she would come to be involved in the politics of the realm. But she also had other avenues to influence the politics of the realm and the court. It is not unreasonable to consider that she had some influence acting as a counsel woman for her husband. Judith's very position and proximity to the emperor as his wife meant she was in immediate proximity to him and consequently had the ability and opportunity to influence the decisions of her husband. Judith’s role and prominence in court would see a dramatic rise after the birth of her son, as she sought to establish a political and courtly base for Charles, against the threat that Lothar posed for his succession.
Children
     "Judith had two children with Louis. Her first child was a daughter named Gisela, born in 820. Gisela would eventually be married off by Judith to Eberhard of Friuli, a significant supporter of Lothar. Gisela was the mother of Berengar I.[7]
     "After having spent most of her second pregnancy in Frankfurt, she had another child named Charles, who was born on 13 June 823. More commonly known as "Charles the Bald", he would eventually become emperor, following in the footsteps of his father Louis. The birth of Charles had a significant effect on Judith's life, because Charles was the only male heir of Louis' second marriage. His birth put the ordinatio imperii and its designations for successor under question. The ordinatio imperii outlined that only a full heir could rule, but since there were several viable candidates that met the requirements, (mainly Lothar, Peppin and Louis the German from the marriage to Ermengard and Charles from the marriage to Judith) an eventual strain on rightful succession was inevitable. Consequently, it became of the utmost importance for Judith to secure the throne for her son and protect him from the attacks and threats that his paternal brothers posed. Lothar, being the most prominent and the oldest of Ermengard children, presented the greatest threat to Judith and Charles. Yet, realizing this, Judith selected Lothar as Charles' godfather. This strategic move meant Charles would have a political tie in the eventual disputes succession that would inevitably follow Louis' death.
The Civil War
Imperial succession and partition: Charles's role
     "On 9 April 817 a timber roof collapsed on Louis and his men in Aachen. The event shocked Louis and led the emperor to reconsider the distribution of his power and succession for his heirs. The ordinatio Imperii was a reconfiguration and re-imagining of in the division of Charlemagne’s inheritance, which he had always envisioned but never fully implemented. The ordinatio imperii stated that Louis oldest son Lothar would become co-emperor upon the death of Charlemagne, and would receive the whole of Frankia. It also stated that Lothar's younger brothers, Pippin, aged 19, and Louis the German, aged 10, would inherit Aquitaine and Bavaria respectively (the regna).
     "A major sticking point that concerned Lothar was Louis’ nineteen-year-old nephew Bernard of Italy getting in the way of his eventual rise to power. Bernard had been ruling Italy since 810. Yet, the ordinatio imperii did not specify Bernard as the immediate successor and continued ruler of Italy. Consequently, Bernard, alarmed by the fact that his future inheritance was at stake, rose up against Louis. The rebellion was swiftly quelled by Louis’ forces. Bernard was blinded and would eventually die on 17 April 818[8]
     "The birth of Charles as well as Lothar’s marriage in 821 meant that two imperial households were now vying for control.[8] The strain over how to interpret the ordinatio imperii coupled with the fact that Judith would most likely outlive her husband, meant that it became imperative for Judith to establish a political base of her own, not only for her own safety and the continuation of her queenship, but also for the safety of her son.
     "In a letter written by Agobard of Lyons to Louis, Agobard articulates the way in which Louis strove to establish an orderly settlement between his four sons. Here we see that Ermengarde's son Lothar is granted more power than Louis' other sons, jeopardising the future of both Judith and Charles:
And thus you carried out everything that should have been done in such a situation, with such faith, with such hope, that no one would doubt that this was infused and inspired in you by God. You assigned parts of your kingdom to the rest of your sons but – that the kingdom might be one and not three – you set [the son] whom you made the sharer in your title, over the others. And then you ordered these actions to be written down and, once written, to be signed and corroborated. Then, you sent [the son, Lothar] who had been made consort in your title to Rome, your deeds to be approved and confirmed by the highest pontiff. Then you ordered all to swear that they would all follow and preserve such an election and division. No one considered this oath irrelevant or worthy of scorn but rather timely and legitimate, since it seemed to pertain to peace and concord. And over the course of time, whenever and wherever imperial letters were sent, they contained the names of both emperors. —?Agobard of Lyons

Judith as advocate for Charles
     "Most information on Judith surrounds the activities for her son and her attempts to ensure his succession to the throne. Their political futures depended on each other; if Judith were widowed, her future as an empress could potentially be threatened by stepsons that no longer had familial or political concerns for her wellbeing.[9] Outlined in a letter to Pope Nicholas I Judith, upon Charles’s birth, sent a ring to Ebbo, the archbishop of Rheims, asking him to pray for the health of Charles, but also promising that if he ever sent the ring back to her in times of trouble she would help him.[1] Politically this move is significant given that Ebbo was one of the most powerful people in the land and a "milkbrother" and friend of Louis.[1] This marks a distinct effort on the part of Judith to bolster her influence and secure the political future of her son.
     "The poem by a court poet Ermoldus Nigellus, Poem in Honor of Louis, provides insight into Judith’s influence over her son Charles. The scene describes Judith and Charles interacting while Louis goes on a hunt:
Judith, who has with her the young Charles; in a twinkling she passes by, placing her faith in her feet-- if flight does not give her aid, surely she will perish. Seeing this, the young Charles begs for a horse, for he desires to do as his father does; earnestly he pleads for weapons, for a quiver and quick-striking arrows, and wishes to go in pursuit, as his father so often does. He pours prayers upon prayers, but his beautiful mother prevents him from leaving, and refuses his wishes. If his teacher and his mother do not restrain the impetuous youth (as youths are wont to do), he shall chase after on foot.[10] —?Ermoldus Nigellus, Agobard of Lyons

     "Not only does this highlight Judith’s role as an influential force in Charles’ life, but it also establishes an ambitious young Charles as a son that follows in the footsteps of his father Louis.
     "Other poetry by Ermoldus from 826 describes Judith following her son in procession, flanked on either side by the magnates Hugh, count of Tours, and Lothar's father-in-law, and Matfrid, count of Orleans. Given that both magnates had extremely close ties with Lothar, this suggests Judith was already attempting to cultivate Lothar's sympathies and place herself and her son in a politically favourable position.[1]
     "The three sons of Louis the Pious revolted against their father in order to control the ordering of the Carolingian succession. It was Judith's dominance and control of the court, thereby being able to dictate who saw Louis and influence him, that was the focus of their revolt. In order to seize control of the king and consequently the Carolingian succession they had to replace the current court, controlled by Judith, with their own. Judith was accused of having an incestuous relationship with Louis the Pious’s godson, Bernard of Septimania (who was the lynchpin of her court). This led to her capture and exile to Italy at the nunnery of Saint Radegund in 830. After the crisis she returned to Aachen and continued her effort to see that Charles would take control.[2]
     "Given Judith's role in court and her rise in power, especially in the waning year of Louis's life, the political ties that Judith had built in court became the political ties of Charles. These included, amongst others, Walahfrid, Lupus of Ferrières, the palace clerics Prudentius, Wenilo and Berno, and the seneschal Adalard.[8]
     "Several marriages in 839 sought to solidify a future for Charles and an entente with Lothar. The first was the marriage of Gisele, the daughter of Louis and Judith, to Eberhard, the duke of Friuli, who was a leading supporter of Lothar. A second such marriage was that between Judith’s brother Conrad with Adelaide, Lothar's sister in law.[8]
     "Judith also collaborated with the magnates that worked on the will of Louis in order to promote Charles. Fearing that Louis would die before the matter was settled, Judith advised that Louis take to his aid one of his three sons (Pippin, Lothar or Louis) in order to unite Charles and one of the brothers in mutual interest should a revolt happen after Louis's death.[8]
     "After Louis's death Judith helped and assisted Charles in his campaigns against Lothar. She sent troops to assist Charles in his endeavour to secure Aquitaine and the majority of Francia in order to reduce the number of competitors.[8] She also exercised influence over him. When archbishop George was taken prisoner after a battle in which 40,000 men fell on the side of Lothar and Pippin, Judith counselled Charles to be merciful towards the archbishop, which Andreas Agnellus of Ravenna recalled as For my part I’ll let you go—as my mother tells me to.[8]
Scandals: Contemporary criticisms of Judith's role and behavior
     "However, the rise of Judith’s power, influence and activity in the court sparked resentment towards her. Agobard of Lyons, a supporter of Lothar, wrote two tracts Two Books in Favor of the Sons and against Judith the Wife of Louis in 833. These tracts were meant as propaganda against Judith from the court of Lothar in order to undermine her court and influence. The tracts themselves attack her character, claiming her to be of a cunning and underhanded nature and of corrupting her husband. These attacks were predominantly anti-feminist in nature. When Louis still did not sever marital ties with Judith, Agobard claimed that Judith’s extramarital affairs were carried out "first secretly and later impudently".[4] Paschasius Radbertus accused Judith by associating her with the engagement in debauchery and witchcraft. of filling the palace with "soothsayers... seers and mutes as well as dream interpreters and those who consult entrail, indeed all those skilled in malign craft".
     "Characterized as a Jezebel and a Justina[clarification needed], Judith was accused by one of her enemies, Paschasius Radbertus, of engaging in debauchery and witchcraft with her purported lover, Count Bernard of Septimania, Louis' chamberlain and trusted adviser. This portrayal and image stands in contrast to poems about Judith.[2] The poems depict her as "a second biblical Judith, a Mary sister of Aaron in her musical abilities, a Saphho, a prophetess, cultivated, chaste, intelligent, pious, strong in spirit, and sweet in conversation".[2]
     "However, Judith also garnered devotion and respect. Hrabanus Maurus wrote a dedicatory letter to Judith, exalting her "praiseworthy intellect"[11] and for her "good works".[11] The letter commends her in the turbulent times amidst battles, wishing that she may see victory amidst the struggles she is facing. It also implores her "to follow through with a good deed once you have begun it"[11] and "to improve yourself at all times". Most strikingly the letter wishes Judith to look to the biblical Queen Esther, the wife of Xerxes I as inspiration and as a role model:
Likewise, O queen, forever keep your eyes of your heart fixed upon Queen Esther as a model of dutiful and holy behaviour so that by equalling her holiness you might be able to climb from this earthly kingdom to the heights of the heavenly kingdom —?Hrabanus Maurus

Disgrace and exile
     "Judith was left alone in 830 in Aachen, as Louis decided to undertake a campaign into Brittany. The campaign itself, however, was greatly opposed, because of its difficulties. Some of the magnates attempted to alter the attitudes of the people and turn them against Louis. The plot was to dispose Louis the Pious, "to destroy their stepmother and kill Bernard".[12]
     "Prior to Easter Week in 830 (17–24 April) Pippin, with Lothar's consent, and with a large proportion of the people "took away from the Emperor his royal power, and also his wife". Judith was veiled ("the female equivalent of tonsuring rival claimants to the throne"[12] and sent to the convent of St Radegund at Poitiers in the same year.
     "At an assembly held on 1 October at Nijmegen, between the Emperor, the Saxons and East Franks, it was adjudged, by "all the bishops, abbots, counts and other Franks" that Judith, even though she was taken unjustly, should be brought back and made to either stand trial for any crime she may have committed to "undergo the judgment of the Franks".[12]
     "In 831, around 1 February Judith stood trial at the assembly arranged by the Lord Emperor. At the assembly she "declared her willingness to purge herself on all the charges levelled against her". No one was found in the general assembly who wanted to charge her for any crime. She purged herself, by the customs of the Franks, of all the things that she had been accused of.[12]
Later life
Louis' restoration to the throne and Judith's return
     "In 833 Louis heard news of his sons, Pippin, Lothar and Louis the German, allying in order to orchestrate a revolt against him. Louis failed to prevent the revolt and was overthrown, resulting in Lothar seizing power.[7] For Judith the coup resulted in her exile in Italy at the civitas of Tortona.[12] Louis spent the next year in Aachen as a captive of Lothar. Pippin and Louis the German, however, condemned the treatment of their father by Lothar and in 834 summoned armies from Aquitaine, Bavarians, Austrasians, Saxons, Alemans and the Franks to rise up against Lothar. Hearing of the vast armies approaching him Lothar fled, leaving his father behind. Louis thus regained control and offered to forgive Lothar for his actions. Lothar, however, scorned the offer. It was during this turbulent political to-and-fro that followers of Louis the Pious who were in Italy, Bishop Ratold, Count Boniface and Pippin among them, heard of a plot to kill Judith. With their help Judith escaped and returned to Aachen in the same year.[12]
Death of Louis and Judith's career as widow
     "Louis died in 840 at his palace in Ingelheim, leaving Judith a widow. She, however, continued to support her son Charles in his military campaigns and endeavours, gathering troops from Aquentine in 841. In April of that same year Charles received his crown and all of his royal attire, which contemporaries of the time herald as a divine act.[3] Most likely, however, Judith was well aware of Charles's location and had sent the royal artifacts to meet up with her son.
Death
     "Charles married Ermentrude in 842 and fathered a daughter, Judith of Flanders, in 844, named after his mother. This marriage, however, proved futile for Judith's career, power and influence. With the introduction of a new queen Judith became of ex officio importance, resulting in her forced retirement as well as withdrawal of the lands and wealth under her control. Her health began to fail in 842, and she died on 19 April 843 in Tours, outliving her husband by three years, after more than a year of ill health, including coughing and dizziness. It is believed that she was around 46 years of age when she died, her husband had been closer to 62.[2] She was buried at the Basilica of Saint Martin, Tours.[1]
References
1. Koch, Armin. Kaiserin Judith: Eine Politische Biographie. Husum: Matthiesen, 2005. Print.
2. Stafford, Pauline. Queens, Concubines and Dowagers: The King's Wife in the Early Middle Ages. London, Leicester UP, 1998. Print.
3. Rogers, Barbara, Bernhard W. Scholz, and Nithardus. Carolingian Chronicles, Royal Frankish Annals Nithard's Histories. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan, 1972. Print.
4. Wemple, Suzanne Fonay. Women in Frankish Society: Marriage and the Cloister, 500 to 900. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1981. Print.
5. "RI I n. 683a, Ludwig der Fromme, 819 febr. 00.... : Regesta Imperii" (in German). Retrieved 15 May 2014.
6. "RI I n. 802, Ludwig der Fromme, 819-825.... : Regesta Imperii" (in German). Retrieved 15 May 2014.
7. "RI I n. 925d, Ludwig der Fromme, 833 iuni 30, Rotfelth : Regesta Imperii" (in German). Retrieved 15 May 2014.
8. Nelson, Janet L. Charles the Bald. London: Longman, 1992. Print.
9. Elizabeth Ward: Caesar's Wife. The Career of the Empress Judith 819–829. In: Peter Goodman, Roger Collins. Print.
10. Ermoldus Nigellus, Poem in Honor of Louis, Sean Gilsdorf.
11. Hrabanus Maurus (856), Dedicatory letter to the Expositio in librum Judith (in Migne, Patrologia latina, vol. 109; transl. Sean Gilsdorf.
12. Nelson, Janet (1991). The Annals of St-Bertin. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Sources
** Hrabanus Maurus (856), Dedicatory letter to the Expositio in librum Judith (in Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol. 109; transl. Sean Gilsdorf
** Agobard of Lyons: On the Division of the Empire (to Louis the Pious) c. 830
** Nelson, Janet L. The Annals of St-Bertin. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1991. Print. p. 21-24 (830-831), 27 (833), 29-30 (834)
** Koch, Armin. Kaiserin Judith: Eine Politische Biographie. Husum: Matthiesen, 2005. Print. p. 26, 27, 28, 35, 37, 39, 44, 77, 130
** Rogers, Barbara, Bernhard W. Scholz, and Nithardus. Carolingian Chronicles, Royal Frankish Annals Nithard’s Histories. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan, 1972. Print. p. 105 (819), 149 (841)
** Stafford, Pauline. Queens, Concubines and Dowagers: The King's Wife in the Early Middle Ages. London, Leicester UP, 1998. Print. p. 18, 19, 20, 93, 94 130, 145, 166, 180
** Depreux, Philippe. Prosopographie De L'entourage De Louis Le Pieux (781-840). Sigmaringen: Thorbecke, 1997. Print.
** Elizabeth Ward: Caesar's Wife. The Career of the Empress Judith 819–829. In: Peter Goodman, Roger Collins p. 214
** Wemple, Suzanne Fonay. Women in Frankish Society: Marriage and the Cloister, 500 to 900. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1981. Print. p. 80, 90
** Nelson, Janet L. Charles the Bald. London: Longman, 1992. Print.p. 74-75 (818), 93, 98, 100, 116, 119
** Lupus, and Graydon W. Regenos. The Letters of Lupus of Ferrières. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1966. Print.
** Regesta Imperii: http://www.regesta-imperii.de
** Ermoldus Nigellus, Poem in Honor of Louis, Sean Gilsdorf
** Geneviève Bührer-Thierry, The Adulterous Queen, Translated by Sean Gilsdorf from Geneviève Bührer-Thierry, La reine adultère, Cahiers de civilisation médiévale 35 (1992): 299-312. Translations of original texts follow those made by Bührer-Thierry
External links
** Medieval Lands Project on Judith of Welf: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWABIAN%20NOBILITY.htm#Judithdied843
** The Regesta Imperii: http://www.regesta-imperii.de/startseite.html."15 GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-32.

Judith (?) von Altdorf
Judith, *800, +Tours 19.4.843; m.819 Emperor Louis I (*778 +840.)2 She was Carolingian empress of the Franks between 819 and 840.15

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Judith: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020394&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Welf 1 page - The House of Welfen: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Welf, Graf in Bayern und Schwaben, Graf von Altdorf: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020392&tree=LEO
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welf_(father_of_Judith). Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WURTTEMBERG.htm#WelfIdied824B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Judith: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020394&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eigilwich/Heilwig: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020393&tree=LEO
  8. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/WURTTEMBERG.htm#Judithdied843
  10. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 14 January 2020), memorial page for Judith of Bavaria (805–19 Apr 843), Find A Grave Memorial no. 84022876, citing Abbey of St. Martin (Defunct), Tours, Departement d'Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France ; Maintained by Blaine Barham (contributor 48979655), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/84022876/judith-of_bavaria. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Welf 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/welf/welf1.html
  12. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 140-14, p. 122. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB
  14. [S752] Marcellus Donald Alexander R. von Redlich, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941 (1988 reprint)), p. 63. Hereinafter cited as Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I.
  15. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_of_Bavaria_(died_843).
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles 'the Bald': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120041&tree=LEO

Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West1

M, #4263, b. 2 April 747, d. 28 January 814
FatherPepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks2,3 b. 714, d. 24 Sep 768
MotherBertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon4,3 b. 720, d. 12 Jul 783
ReferenceGAV31 EDV32
Last Edited29 May 2020
     Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West was born on 2 April 747 at Aachen (Aix La Chapelle), Stadtkreis Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (now); leovdpas@bigpond.com ("Leo van de Pas") wrote in message news:<000301c3605a$aa0540e0$b1e9fea9@old>...

>> Someone pointed out I may have the wrong date of birth for Charlemagne.
>> Hereby the sources I have. Can anyone tell what it should be?
>> Many thanks
>> Leo van de Pas
>>
>> Erich Brandenburg, "Die Nackommen Karls des Grossen"
>> published in 1935 and republished in 1995
>> page 1 Charlemagne is born 2 April 742
>>
>> Siegfried Roesch, "Caroli Magni Progenies"
>> published in 1977
>> page 56 Charlemagne born 742 (?) 2 April (?) (in Ingelheim?)
>>
>> Prince W. K. von Isenburg
>> Europaische Stammtafeln, Volume I
>> published1936, republished 1975 by Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven
>> Tafel 2 Charlemagne born 2 April 747 (!!!! different year!!)
>>
>> Editor Detlev Schwennicke, "Europaische Stammtafeln"
>> Neue Folge Band I.1 published 1998
>> Tafel 4 Charlemagne born (2 April 747)
>>
>> It seems 2 April is accepted but not the year.


Leo is right about the acceptance, but I think this is the wrong way round and the year should be fixed on rather than the alleged date.

The year traditionally given until the mid-20th century was 842, supposedly before his parents' marriage, since the emperor was reputed to be in his seventy-second year at his death in January 814 (Thegan in _Vita Hludowici_ wrote: "in senectute bona plenus dierum perrexit in pace...anno aetatis suae 72").

As to 2 April for the date, KF Werner ['La date de naissance de Charlemagne', _Bulletin de la Société nationale des antiquaires, 1972_ (Paris, 1975) p. 116] quoted a document from Lorsch abbey, supposedly written in the first half of the ninth century, catalogued as ms Phillips 1869 in Staatsbibliothek, Berlin: "IIII Non. Apr. Nativitas domni et gloriosissimi Karoli imperatoris et semper Augusti".

However, it appears that the date and even the year of his birth were not remembered accurately in Charlemagne's lifetime within his own entourage: Einhard reported that the emperor at his death in 814 was in his seventy-second year, placing his birth before 28 Jan 743. This is not plausible for several reasons, mainly from the extant records of his parents' marriage (variously in 744 and 749) along with the reasonable deduction - from papal blessing of his associate kingship in childhood - that he had been born in recognised wedlock; and from records of his own and his siblings' births (ranging from 747 to 758/9) along with the simultaneous gift of countships to Charlemagne and his younger brother Carloman in 763, after they first accompanied their father on campaign in 762, indicating that they were close enough in age for common treatment in these respects (see Werner (1975) p. 119 note 2 for references).

Given this, the date of 2 April may well have been a polite fiction, invented later as a mark of honour to the emperor due to the fact that Easter Sunday had fallen on this date in 747. Christian Settipani [_La préhistoire des Capétiens 481–987_ (Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993) p. 191 note 3] suggested that the silence of contemporaries about a coincidence between the emperor's birth and the most joyful day of the religious year actually excluded the possibility of his having been born in 747 - relying on the putative exact date rather than the whole calendar year. The safer conclusion appears to me that Charlemagne was indeed born in 747, as reported by a good source, and _perhaps_ after 15 August in that year when his uncle Carloman evidently attested a charter before leaving to take monastic orders in Rome, since his departure was related ahead of the birth. (However, the order of reporting in medieval annals is not always a trustworthy guide to the actual order of events).

The precise date of 2 April 748 was determined by Matthias Becher ['Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Grossen', _Francia_ 19/1 (1992) - a minor reservation on this is given by Janet Nelson ['La cour impériale de Charlemagne', _La royauté et les élites dans l'Europe carolingienne (du début du IXe aux environs de 920_, edited by Régine le Jan (Lille, 1998) p. 182 note 25]. Christian Settipani (op cit p. 191) agreed with Becher.

For the year, _Annales Laubacenses_ in MGH SS vol. I p. 10 under 747 records "Nativitas regis magni Caroli". NB this entry was dependant on the following and both seem to have been written before Charlemagne became emperor: _Annales Petaviani_, MGH SS I p. 11 (747) "Et ipso anno fuit natus Karolus rex". Werner (1975) pp. 135-6 suggested that this entry and other notes about the Pippinid family were written before the death of Carloman in December 771, because no annalist after that time would have bothered to record the birth of the latter's son Pippin in 770. Charlemagne's birth in 747 is recorded here following mention of his uncle Carloman's departure for Italy, which possibly did not take place until after 15 August in that year (Settipani p. 191 note 3, citing _Recueil des chartes de l'abbaye de Stavelot-Malmédy_ (Brussels, 1909) pp. 51 et seq no 18). However, Carloman's tonsuring at Monte Cassino took place in 746 according to _Annales Xantenses_ and _Annales regni Francorum_, at variance with some other sources but possibly reliable - the Stavelot-Malmédy charter may have been misdated, or the precise order of the two events may not have been known when the entries were made in _Annanles Petaviani_.

I think it's reasonable on the evidence to accept that Charlemagne was born in 747, possibly on 2 April or after 15 August but with little chance now of recovering any certainty about the date.

Peter Stewart.5,6,7 He married unknown (?) in 769; his 1st wife.1 Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West married Desiderata (?), daughter of Didier (?) King of Lombards, in 770.8 Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West and Desiderata (?) were divorced in 771; repudiated.8 Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West and unknown (?) were divorced in 771.1 Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West married Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau, daughter of Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau and Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania, on 30 April 771; his 2nd wife.9,10,11 Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West married Fastrada (?), daughter of Rodolfo III (?) Ct. of Franconia, in October 783; his 3rd wife.12 Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West married Luitgard (?) in 794.13
Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West died on 28 January 814 at Aachen (Aix La Chapelle), Stadtkreis Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, at age 66.6,1
     GAV-31 EDV-32.

Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West
See attached diagram of Charlemagne's ancestry, by Settipani [2000]. Original paper is at http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~medieval/addcharlENG.pdf.14

Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West
Per Enc. of Worlsd History:
     "Charles the Great (Charlemagne), a reign of the first magnitude in European history. Charles was well over six feet tall, a superb swimmer, with an athletic frame, large expressive eyes, and a merrydisposition. He understood Greek, spoke Latin, but did not learn to write. He preferred the Frankish dress. In general he continued the Frankish policies: (1) expansion of Frankish rule to include all the Germans was completed (omitting only Scandinavia and Britain); (2) a close understanding with the papacy; (3) support of Church reform (which settled the foundations of medieval Christian unity).
     "Charlemagne conquered Lombard Italy and became king of the Lombards, whose kingdom was absorbed into the Frankish Empire. Charlemagne also established his rule in Venetia, Istria, Dalmatia, and Corsica.
     "At Roncesvalles near Pamplona, on a pass in the western Pyrenees, the Basques destroyed the rear guard of Charlemagne's army as it was returning to France. The battle inspired the late 11th-century poem The Song of Roland, the most famous of the chansons de geste, or medieval epics. The poem celebrates Roland as the perfect chivalric knight and Charlemagne as the ideal Christian king. The poem was popular in French, Spanish, and Italian literature of the later Middle Ages; the values expressed are those of the 11th, not the 8th century.
     "Reform of the Church along Roman lines had, for Charlemagne, three purposes: (1) the establishment of peace throughout the empire by means of a uniform Roman ritual (replacing the Gallican) that would win divine favor; (2) development of an educated clergy capable of effective pastoral and missionary work; (3) the creation of a body of literate clerics who could serve as instruments of his administration. The Capitulary (a royal-administrative order divided into capitula, or articles) of Herstal (779) advanced these goals by providing secular assistance to local clergy and assisting in the expansion of a parish system with regular services into rural areas throughout the empire. Charlemagne presided at synods, settled dogmatic questions, established schools for the education of the clergy, made ecclesiastical appointments, and, above all, insisted that all clericsbishops, abbots, parish priestsproperly discharge their religious duties; thus, he subordinated the institutional Church to the king as the divinely appointed head of Christendom. The Church was strengthened and tied closely to the monarchy.
     "The political and religious turmoil in the Byzantine Empire, especially during the iconoclastic controversy [>]; Charlemagne's behavior as leader of the West in his relations with the Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad [>] and with the patriarch of Jerusalem; the removal of the Byzantine emperor's name from papal documents during the reign of Pope Adrian (771-95); and the difficulties Pope Leo III (795-816) experienced with both the emperor at Constantinople and the Roman nobility, leading to the pope's increasing dependence on Charlesthese developments form the background to the imperial coronation.
     "According to Charlemagne's biographer, Einhard, on Christmas Day 800, at the beginning of Mass, the pope crowned Charles emperor, the Romans acclaimed him as emperor, and the pope performed the (Byzantine) proskynesis (obeisance) due an emperor. Eventually the Frankish chancery adopted the description “the most serene, august, pacific great emperor crowned by God governing the Roman Empire, who is, by the mercy of God, King of the Franks and the Lombards” as an integral part of Charles's title. For Alcuin and the political theorists at Charles's court, the image implied a return to the model of the biblical King David and to the images of Theodoric and Constantine, not to the image of the Byzantine emperor. While the imperial style conferred dignity and some political advantage in Italy, and the imperial motto Renovatio romani imperii (Renewal of the Roman Empire) suggested a revival of the Roman Empire in the West, still, for the aristocratic families in the rest of the Carolingian world, the title was meaninglesshis Frankish supporters considered him a Frankish king. The Greeks regarded Charlemagne as a usurper and the papal coronation as an act of rebellion; that event marked a decisive break between Rome and Constantinople.
     "GOVERNMENT. (1) In the Frankish kingdom: centralization continued; taxation in the Roman sense (which survived only under local and private auspices) was replaced by services in return for land grants (the economic basis of Carolingian society). Such services included labor on public works among the lower ranks, the provision of food for the court and public officials on duty, and judicial and military obligations (primarily among the upper ranks). Charlemagne's continuous campaigns reduced the small farmers, accentuating the tendency to serfdom. Charlemagne tried to offset this tendency by allowing groups of poorer farmers to cooperate in sending a single soldier, and by excusing the poorest from ordinary field service. Systematization of the army and of military service was also begun. Commendation and immunity continued, and the basis of later feudal development was firmly established.
     "Education and learning. To advance his religious and educational reforms, Charlemagne drew scholars from across Europe: Alcuin of York (England); Peter of Pisa, and Paul the Deacon of Aquileia (Italy); Theodulf of Orleans and Einhard of Fulda to his court at Aachen, where Alcuin set up the Palace School, which became a center for the study of liberal arts and the copying of manuscripts. (Other scriptoria were at the monasteries of Corbie, St. Denis, St. Wandrille, St. Martin of Tours, Metz, Verona, Lucca.) Scholars at these centers expanded literacy, developed the Carolingian minuscule script (so called because it has lowercase letters; the Romans had only capitals), and copied and preserved classical, patristic, and early medieval texts. Using minuscule meant that a sheet of vellum (lambskin or calfskin) could contain more letters, which illustrates how a small technological change had broad cultural consequences. Though the scriptoria showed little creativity, many manuscripts were preserved and the foundation was laid for later study.
     "The disintegration of the Carolingian Empire. Such efficiency as the Carolingian government possessed under Charlemagne derived from his personality rather than from permanent institutions. The empire's vast size, the poor communication among the parts, the great ethnic diversity, and the lack of adequate administrative machinery (bureaucracy) sped disintegration. Local administration was carried on by unpaid officials whose compensation was a share of the revenue. Local offices tended to become hereditary. The tentative partitions of the empire in Charlemagne's lifetime followed Frankish tradition. Only one son, Louis the Pious, survived, and the empire was passed on to him undivided. The decisive stage in the partition of the empire came under Louis and his heirs.
     "Political and social consequences. The pressures of Muslim, Magyar, and Viking invasions, combined with the civil wars among Charlemagne's descendants who could do little to halt those invasions, accelerated the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire and hastened the development of what modern students call feudalism and manorialism. As regional aristocracies assumed responsibility for defense and the protection of the weak, aristocratic authority accordingly increased. Strong men governed virtually independent territories in which weak and distant kings could not interfere. “Political power became a private, heritable property for great lord and counts,” in the apt words of Joseph R. Strayer. Feudalism concerned the rights, powers, and lifestyle of the military elite; manorialism involved the services and obligations of the peasant classes. Since the economic power of the military elite rested on estates worked by peasants, feudalism and manorialism were inextricably linked. During the great invasions, peasants needed protection, and lords demanded something in return for their protection. Thus, free peasants surrendered themselves and their land to the lords' jurisdiction. The land was given back to them, but the peasants were then tied to the land by various kinds of payments and services. Local custom determined what those services were, but everywhere in the old Carolingian world peasants became part of the lord's permanent labor force and were obliged to turn over to him a portion of their annual harvestusually in produce, sometimes in cash. In entering a relationship with a feudal lord, free farmers lost status and became servile, or serfs. They were subject to the lord's jurisdiction and were bound to the land and could not leave it without his permission. The unstable conditions created by the Viking assaults on Europe led to a great loss of personal freedom."15

Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West
King of the Franks 768-814. Crowned Holy Roman Emperor 25 Dec. 800.9,16
Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West was a witness to the See Settipani's discussion of the ancestors of Charlemagne, including the question of Rotrude's parentage (copy attached). with Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia.14 Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West was King of the Franks
See attached map of Charlemagne's Empire between 768 and 814.10,17 He was King of Lombards between 774 and 814.8 He was Holy Roman Emperor between 25 December 800 and 814.10,5,17

Family 2

unknown (?)

Family 3

Himiltrude (?) b. c 742, d. c 780
Child

Family 4

Desiderata (?)

Family 5

Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau b. bt 2 May 757 - 30 Apr 761, d. 30 Apr 783
Children

Family 7

Fastrada (?) d. 10 Aug 795
Children

Family 8

Child

Family 9

Luitgard (?)

Family 10

Regina (?) b. 770, d. 7 Jun 844
Children

Family 11

Adallind (?)
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charlemagne: http://www.genealogics.org/getextras.php?personID=I00000001&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin 'the Short': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020000&tree=LEO
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertrada 'au grand pied': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020001&tree=LEO
  5. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 30-1.
  6. [S752] Marcellus Donald Alexander R. von Redlich, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941 (1988 reprint)), p. 120. Hereinafter cited as Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I.
  7. [S1479] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email "Re: Birthdate for Charlemagne"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 11 August 2003. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 11 August 2003."
  8. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  9. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  10. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 50-13, p. 51. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charlemagne: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00000001&tree=LEO
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Fastrada: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020009&tree=LEO
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Luitgard: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020010&tree=LEO
  14. [S4745] "The Ancestors of Charlemagne: Addendum to Addenda", The Ancestors of Charlemagne: Addendum to Addenda, online http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~medieval/addcharlENG.pdf, printout dated 2000. Previously published in hard copy (n.p.: n.pub., 2000). Hereinafter cited as "Settipani [2000] Ancestors of Charlemagne."
  15. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 173-4. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  16. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  17. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 172.
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ruothild: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020021&tree=LEO
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin "der Bucklige": http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020003&tree=LEO
  20. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 175.
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles "the Youger": http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020016&tree=LEO
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin I (Karlmann): http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020039&tree=LEO
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rotrud (Hruothraud): http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020028&tree=LEO
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Lothar: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020018&tree=LEO
  25. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis I "the Pious": http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020040&tree=LEO
  26. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Famille & Seigneurs de BOUBERS (1), p. 2: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Boubers1.pdf. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  27. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertha: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020032&tree=LEO
  28. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#Bertradadied823. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  29. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gisela: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020019&tree=LEO
  30. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hildegard: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020026&tree=LEO
  31. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Adalthrud: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020022&tree=LEO
  32. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theodrada: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020027&tree=LEO
  33. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hiltrud: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020036&tree=LEO
  34. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hruodhaid: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020025&tree=LEO
  35. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Drogo: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020023&tree=LEO
  36. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hugo: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020024&tree=LEO
  37. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dietrich: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020020&tree=LEO

Pepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks1,2

M, #4264, b. 714, d. 24 September 768
FatherCharles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks2,1,3 b. 23 Aug 688, d. 22 Oct 741
MotherChrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia4,1,2 b. 690, d. 22 Oct 724
ReferenceGAV32 EDV33
Last Edited1 Nov 2019
     Pepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks was born in 714 at Jupille (near Liège), Arrondissement de Liège, Wallonia, Belgium (now).2,1,5 He married Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon, daughter of Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon and Bertrada (?) of Prüm, in 740.2,1,6
Pepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks died on 24 September 768 at Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France (now).1,2,7
Pepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks was buried after 24 September 768 at Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France (now),

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     714
     DEATH     24 Sep 768 (aged 53–54), Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
     Frankish King. The son of Charles Martel, he reigned as King of the Franks from 751 to 768.
     Family Members
     Parents
      Charles of the Franks 676–741
      Chrotrudis de Treves 690–724
     Spouse
      Berthe de Laon 726–783
     Siblings
      Carloman Unknown
      Aude (Aldana) d'Austrasia d'Autun 720–804
      Bernard duc de St Quentin d'Herstal 724–784
     Children
      Bertbelle Martel de Vere
      Chrothias Carolingian
      Adelais Carolingian
      Charlemagne 742–814
      Carloman I 751–771
     BURIAL     Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
     Maintained by: Find A Grave
     Added: 2 Apr 2001
     Find A Grave Memorial 21102.7
     GAV-32 EDV-33 GKJ-34.

Pepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks
Pepin was elected king by the Frankish magnates. Both the house of Pepin and the papacy (in the process of securing independence from the emperor at Constantinople) needed each other's support. The immediate need of the popes was for protection against the expanding Lombard monarchy. Aistulf, king of the Lombards, had taken Ravenna (751), the seat of the exarch, besieged Rome, and exacted tribute.

Pope Stephen II arrived in Gaul, anointed Pepin, and by conferring the title Patricius Romanorum (which could legally come only from Constantinople), designated him in a sense regent and protector of Italy. The result was to give some authority to Pepin's new title as king of the Franks.

Pepin marched into Italy, defeated the Lombards, and required them to hand over the exarchate and Pentapolis to the pope. The Lombards failed to do so. Pepin returned and, after defeating the Lombards again, made his famous Donation. The Donation of Pepin established the Franks, a distant, non-Italian power, as the allies and defenders of the papacy.

Pepin conquered Septimania, disciplined Aquitaine, and so brought effective Frankish rule to the Pyrenees. On his death his lands were given to his sons, Charles receiving Austrasia, Neustria, and northern Aquitaine; Carloman, southern Aquitaine, Burgundy, Provence, Septimania. The brothers ruled together, 768-71; Charles alone, 771-814.

Administration. Modern scholarship stresses that Carolingian political power and effective administration rested on the cooperation of the Frankish aristocracy, the dominant social class. The great comital landlords held real power at the local level. Their loyalty to the monarchy was acquired and maintained by grants of land and war booty. Aristocratic families gradually improved their economic position, and countships often became hereditary in one family, “though not usually in patrilinear succession.” With the help of the aristocracy, Pepin III and Charlemagne were able to wage wars of expansion and to suppress rebellion. To limit local abuses, the missi dominici (usually a bishop and count) were introduced (802) as officers on circuit in a given district. The missi held their own courts, had power to remove a count for cause, and were charged with the supervision of financial, judicial, and clerical administration. They formed an essential link between the local and central governments. Under the counts were viscounts and vicars (centenarii). Margraves (Mark Grafen) were set over the marks, with extended powers to meet the needs of their position. Local administration of justice was reformed by the introduction of scabini, local landowners appointed by the counts to sit as permanent judiciary officers.8

Pepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks
Having inherited the joint right to rule the kingdom of The Franks together with his brother Carloman, he became sole ruler in 747 when Carloman retired into the monastery of Monte Casino. In 751 he asked Pope Zacharias to end the nominal rule of the Merovingians and have sole power, together with the title 'King of The Franks'. The Pope agreed and King Childeric III was placed in a monastery.

Saint Boniface anointed Pippin as King of The Franks at Soissons. Two years later---having saved the next Pope, Stephen II, from the Lombards---Pippin was again anointed at the Abbey of St. Denis, together with his two young sons, Charles and Carloman, by the Pope himself. Pippin was a much more able king than the Merovingian 'Rois faineants' (do nothing kings). The Franks went to Italy to support the Pope and defeated Astolfo, King of the Lombards. Pippin was rewarded and made a senator of Rome even though he could neither read nor write.

After the pope was attacked again, he again defeated Astolfo and made a gift to the Pope of Lombard lands near Rome. This bequest was the beginning of the Pope's status as a temporal souvereign. Pippin died at the Abbey of St. Denis in 768. His sons Charles and Carloman forthwith divided the Frank domains. However, Carloman soon died, leaving Charles, as the sole ruler of the kingdom of The Franks, to become the most important ruler ever to have 'the Great' added to his name. Charles The Great, or Carolus Magnus, became better known as Charlemagne.1

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 53.
2. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.1

He was Mayor of the Neustria, deposed the last of the Merovingian Kings and became the first Kind of the Franks of the second race between 741 and 751.9,10,2 He was King of the Franks between 751 and 768.11,2

Family 1

Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin 'the Short': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020000&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles Martel: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020918&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Chrodtrud: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020919&tree=LEO
  5. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 50-12, p. 51. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertrada 'au grand pied': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020001&tree=LEO
  7. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 08 October 2019), memorial page for Pepin The Short (714–24 Sep 768), Find A Grave Memorial no. 21102, citing Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France ; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/21102/pepin_the_short. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  8. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 173. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  9. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. cvi. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  10. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 172.
  11. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), Chart 50-12.
  12. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 298, 313-316. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  13. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II, p. 1.

Rachel Wills1

F, #4265
FatherJesse Wills1
MotherRachel Hudson1 b. c 1773
Last Edited13 Oct 2017
     In Joshua Hudson Sr.'s will dated 5 January 1799 at Amherst Co., Virginia, USA, Rachel Wills was named as an heir; (Transcript of will provided by reddynj@juno.com)
Will of Joshua HUDSON
     Jan.5, 1799 - Apr. 20, 1801
     Will Book 4, pp.6-8, Amherst Co, VA.
     "In the name of God Amen I Joshua HUDSON of the County of Amherst being weake of Body but of sound mind and memory, do make and Ordain this my last will and Testament in name and form following.
     To wit: It is my Will & desire that after my Decease my Body be intered in a decent and Christian like manner at the discretion of my Executors hereafter named. My soul I recommend to Almighty God hoping to find Mercy & forgiveness at his hands and as touching such worldly goods as it hath Pleased Almighty God to bless me I dispose of in manner following vist:
     Item: I give and bequeath to my Daughter Sarah WRIGHT five Shillings to be paid by my Executors out of my Estate having formerly giving her what I intended for her.
     Item: I give and Bequeath unto my son Rush HUDSON Eight Acres of Land on the End of Turkey Mountain adjoining the Tract he now lives on to complement my Old Peach Orchard and as much more as will make up the Quantity to him & his heirs forever.
Item: I give & Bequeath to my Daughter Mary DAWSON the Sum of ten Pounds Per annum to be paid her by Reuben HUDSON her heirs & assigns during her Natural Life for her Maintainence.
     Item: I give and bequeath unto my Daughter Elizabeth DENNIS and the heirs of her body a good sound Title in the Negro formerly taken away by her named Jude and five Shillings Current Money.
     Item: I give and bequeath unto Horatio HUDSON and Nancy HUDSON Infant Children of my son Joshua HUDSON dec'd the Sum of seventy five Pounds Current Money in Consideration of their fathers Estate which fell into my hands on his decease which Sum my Executors are directed to receive out of my Estate and put out to Interest for the said Children until they come of Age or get married and that the Principal & Interest be Equally divided between them share & share alike and in Causes Either of them should Depart this Life before that time my desire is that the Survivor have the - - - of the said Seventy five Pounds & Interest and my Executors bring against the sd Children no further - - - and for Bedding or Clothing so as to receive the sd Seventy five Pounds & Interest.
     Item: It is my Will and desire that the Tract of land whereon I now live be sold by my Executors on Twelve Months Credit for the best Price can be had and the money Owing from such Sale to be Equally divided between my two Sons Reuben & George HUDSON to them & their heirs upon Reuben's paying to my Daughter Mary DAWSON ten Pounds p- Annum during her natural Life for her maintainence.
     Item: I give and bequeath to my Daughter Frances TATE five Shillings and no more.
     Item: I give unto my Daughter Ann GITTERSON five Shillings and no more having formerly given her a Negro Girl.
     Item: I give unto the heirs of Robert HUDSON dec'd the Sum of five Shillings.
     Item: I give and bequeath unto my Daughter Lucy SANDRIDGE the Sum of fifty Pounds to be paid equally divided between the heirs of her Body share and share alike to be received out of my Estate and paid into the hands of Pullom SANDRIDGE for the purpose aforesaid and to be paid by him to the Children as they come of age or get married.
     Item: I give and bequeath unto my Daughter Peggy CHILDRESS five Shillings and not more.
     Item: I give unto my Daughter Molly BALLINGER five Shillings & no more;
I give unto the Heirs of my Daughter Rachel MILES the sum of five Shillings.
     Item: I give unto the legal representative of my Daughter Patsy RUCKER dec'd the sum of five Shillings & no more.
I give unto my Gran Daughter Rachel HUDSON MILES the Sum of Seventy five Pounds to be put out to Interest for her maintainence and the balance paid her when she comes of age or gets married and the said Sum to be raised by my Executor from my Estate.
     Item: I give and bequeath unto my Son George HUDSON one Negro man Andrew and to him and his heirs forever.
     Item: I give and bequeath unto my Grand Daughter Molly DAWSON the Sum of fifty Pounds current money to be raised out of my Estate by my Executors and put out to Interest for her until she comes of age or gets married.
     Item: I give and bequeath unto my Grand Son Flemming DAWSON the Sum of fifty Pounds to be raised out of my Estate and put out to Interst for him by my Executors until he comes of age.
     Item: It is my Will and desire that all my just debts be fully paid and that all my Estate Desposed of be sold by my Executors for the best Price can be had on Twelve Months Credit and after complying with the aforesaid legacys the balance of the said Sale to the Equally Divided between my Son Reuben HUDSON and the lawful begotten Heirs of Robert HUDSON dec'd One moiety to the said Reuben and his heirs and the other moiety to the said Heirs of Robert HUDSON dec'd
     Item: Lastly I appoint my friend Rellson SANDRIDGE & my Son Reuben HUDSON my Executors to this last Will & Testament in Witness whereof I have hereunto set my Hand & fixed my Seal this 5 day of January, One thousand Seven hundred & Ninty Nine - - -
     Joshua HUDSON
     Signed Sealed & Acknowledged
     in Presence of
      Sharrod X BUGG
      John X HUDSON
      Rush X HUDSON"
(evident codicil)
     " September 18th 1800 My Will and desire is that fifty Pounds directed to be paid to Fleming DAWSON in consequence of his misconduct I wish the same to be withdrawn from him & paid by my Executors to my Son Rush HUDSON.
      Joshua HUDSON
      Wit: Rush HUDSON, Jr.
      D.S. GARLAND"
(evident codicil)
     "Whereas by my last Will & Testament executed the fifth day of January, 1799, I directed my Executors to Receive out of my Estate the Sum of Seventy five Pounds & Pay the same to Horatio & Nancy HUDSON Infant Children of Joshua HUDSON Dec'd in lieu of their father's Estate which fell into my hands which Estate has lately been demanded by the Executors of the said Children & delivered to them. It is therefore my Will & desire that the said Children do receive nothing further from my Estate than what they have already rec'd and that my Executors do receive from my Estate in manner aforesaid the said Seventy five Pounds and Pay the same to my Son Rush HUDSON - - Given under my hand & Seal this 16 day of November, 1800.
     his Joshua X HUDSON mark
     Sig'd Sealed in presence of us
      Isaac RUCKER
      Bennett HUDSON
      George WILLIS."1

Citations

  1. [S3625] Joshua HUDSON (Sr.) will (5 Jan 1799), Will of Joshua Hudson of Amherst Co., VA- 5 Jan 1799, proved 20 Apr 1801 Will Book 4, pp. 6-9: Will seen on Ancestry.com on 13 Oct. 2017 at: https://www.ancestry.com/mediaui-viewer/collection/1030/tree/65223573/person/36509999973/media/ea208628-6f00-4e7b-be66-3b5422f72db1?_phsrc=OQU386&usePUBJs=true, unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as Will - HUDSON, Joshua 5 Jan 1799.

Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau1

M, #4266, b. circa 695, d. circa 747
FatherNebi-Houching (?) Duke of the Allemans b. c 660, d. 709
ReferenceGAV34 EDV34
Last Edited6 Nov 2019
     Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau married Hereswinde (?)2 Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau was born circa 695 at Baden-Württemberg, Germany (now); Genealogics says b. ca 695; Wikipedia says b. ca 710.1,2,3
Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau died circa 747 at Baden-Württemberg, Germany (now); Genealogics says d. 747; Wikipedia says d. ca 789.1,2,3
     Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau
Per Wikipedia:
     "Hnabi or Nebi (c. 710 – c. 789) was an Alemannian duke. He was a son of Huoching and perhaps a grandson of the duke Gotfrid, which would make him a scion of the Agilolfing dynasty of Bavaria. He was the founder of the "old" line of the Ahalolfings. Around 724 he was one of the joint founders of the monastery of Reichenau.
     "By his wife Hereswind, Hnabi left at least two children, Ruadbert (Rodbert, Robert), who was count in the Hegau, and Imma or Emma (died c. 785), who married Gerold of Vintzgau and was the mother of Eric of Friuli and Hildegard, wife of Charlemagne. Rodbert son of Hnabi is mentioned in a St. Gall document dated 770. Imma is mentioned in documents of Lorsch, Fulda and St. Gall between 779 and 804.
     "The genealogy of Hildegard is recorded in the ninth-century Vita Hiudowici by Thegan of Trier: "the duke Gotfrid begat Huoching, Huoching begat Hnabi, Hnabi begat Emma, Emma herself the most blessed queen Hildegard" (Gotfridus dux genuit Huochingum, Huochingus genuit Nebi, Nebi genuit Immam, Imma vero Hiltigardem beatissimam reginam). Scholars have cast doubt on Huoching being the son of Gotfrid, comparing the father-and-son pair of Huoching and Hnabi to that of Hoc and Hnaef in Anglo-Saxon tradition.[1]
Notes
1. Hans Jänichen, "Die alemannischen Fürsten Nebi und Berthold und ihre Beziehungen zu den Klöstern St. Gallen und Reichenau", Blätter für deutsche Landesgeschichte (1976), pp. 30-40.
References
** Hnabi at Mittelalter-Genealogie.2 GAV-34 EDV-34 GKJ-35.

Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau
Per Genealogics:
     "Nebi/Hnabi, duke of The Allemans, count in the Linzgau, was born about 695, a son of Nebi-Huoching, duke of The Allemans, and perhaps a grandson of the Gottfried of the Allemans, which would make him a scion of the Agilolfing dynasty of Bavaria. He was the founder of the 'old' line of the Ahalolfings. Around 724 he was one of the joint founders of the monastery of Reichenau.
     "By his wife Hereswinde/Hersuinda, Nebi left at least two children, Ruadbert, who was count in the Hegau, and Imma or Emma, who married Gerold I, Graf in Kraichgau und Vintzgau, and was the mother of Hadrian, count of Orléans, Ulrich I, Graf in der Argengau und Linzgau, and Hildegardis, wife of Charlemagne. Ruadbert, son of Nebi, is mentioned in a St. Gall document dated 770. Emma is mentioned in documents of Lorsch, Fulda and St. Gall between 779 and 804.
     "The genealogy of Hildegardis is recorded in the ninth-century _Vita Hiudowici_ by Thegan of Trier: 'the duke Gottfried begat Huoching, Huoching begat Nebi, Nebi begat Emma, Emma herself the most blessed queen Hildegardis' (Gotfridus dux genuit Huochingum, Huochingus genuit Nebi, Nebi genuit Immam, Imma vero Hiltigardem beatissimam reginam). Scholars have cast doubt on Huoching being the son of Gottfried, comparing the father-and-son pair of Huoching and Nebi to that of Hoc and Hnaef in Anglo-Saxon tradition.
     "Nebi died about 747."1

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne, Paris, 1990 , Settipani, Christian.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef. 1700, Baltimore, 1995, Weis, Frederick Lewis; Sheppard, Walter.
3. Les seize quartiers des Reines et Imperatrices Francaises, 1977, Saillot, Jacques. 123.1



Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau
(an unknown value.)4 Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau was also known as HnabiNebi (?) Duke of Alamannia. He was Count in the Linzgau.5

Family

Hereswinde (?)
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Nebi: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220719&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hnabi. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  3. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 06 November 2019), memorial page for Hnabi von Alemannen (710–788), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146207383, ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664) Unknown, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146207383/hnabi-von_alemannen. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  4. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 182-3, 156. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  5. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 182-3, p. 156.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Imma|Emma: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020008&tree=LEO

Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania1

F, #4267, b. 726, d. between 786 and 789
FatherNebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau1,2 b. c 695, d. c 747
MotherHereswinde (?)3
ReferenceGAV32
Last Edited9 May 2020
     Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania was born in 726 at Baden-Württemberg, Germany (now).1,4 She married Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau, son of Hado (?) de Vintzgau and Gerniu (?) de Suevie/Souabe, in 749.5,1,6
Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania died between 786 and 789 at Baden-Württemberg, Germany (now).7,1,4
Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania was buried between 786 and 789 at Lorsch Abbey, Lorsch, Landkreis Schwäbisch Hall, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (now),

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     726, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
     DEATH     783 (aged 56–57), Baden-Württemberg, Germany
     Duchess of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau, Grevinna, Dutchess & Countess of Swabia, of Alemannia
     Family Members
     Parents
          Hnabi von Alemannen 710–788
          Hereswintha von Sachsen 710–747
     Spouse
     Photo     
          Gerold I von Vinzgau 725–799
     Children
          Adrian d'Orleans unknown–820
          Gerold II In der Baar
          Ermentrude von Schwaben
          Hildegarde de Vintzgau Herstal 757–783
     BURIAL     Lorsch Abbey, Lorsch, Kreis Bergstraße, Hessen, Germany
     Created by: Memerizion
     Added: 8 May 2015
     Find A Grave Memorial 146206323
     SPONSORED BY Christian H. F. Riley.4
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies, Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977 , Rösch, Siegfried. 63.
2. Les seize quartiers des Reines et Imperatrices Francaises, 1977, Saillot, Jacques. 123.
3. Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne, Paris, 1990 , Settipani, Christian.
4. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef. 1700, Baltimore, 1995, Weis, Frederick Lewis; Sheppard, Walter.1

GAV-35. Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania was also known as Emma (?) von Alemannen.4 Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania was also known as Imma (?) d’Alémanie.6

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Imma|Emma: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020008&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Nebi: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220719&tree=LEO
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hnabi. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 06 November 2019), memorial page for Emma von Alemannen (726–783), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146206718, citing Lorsch Abbey, Lorsch, Kreis Bergstraße, Hessen, Germany ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146206718/emma-von_alemannen. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gerold I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020007&tree=LEO
  6. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Comtes d’ Angoulême, p. 2: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Angouleme.pdf. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  7. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 182-4, p. 156. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ulrich I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00280715&tree=LEO
  9. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrian,_Count_of_Orl%C3%A9ans.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hildegardis: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020006&tree=LEO

Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks1,2

M, #4268, b. 23 August 688, d. 22 October 741
FatherPepin II (?) of Heristal3,1,2 b. 635, d. 15 Nov 714
MotherAlpaisAlpaidaAlpaïdis (?) of Saxony4,2,1 b. 654, d. 16 Dec 714
ReferenceGAV33 EDV34
Last Edited19 May 2020
     Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks was born on 23 August 688 at Heristal, Arrondissement de Liège, Wallonia, Belgium (now).5,2,1,6 He married Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia, daughter of Lantbertus II (Lambert) (?) of Hesbaye and Chrotlind (?), in 713;
His 1st wife.1,2,7 Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks married Suanhilde (?), daughter of Grimaldo (?) and Viletrude (?), in 725.1,2,8
Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks died on 22 October 741 at Quiercy-sur-Ouse, Aisne, Picardie, France (now), at age 53.1,2,6
Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks was buried after 22 October 741 at Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     23 Aug 676, Belgium
     DEATH     22 Oct 741 (aged 65), Picardie, France
     Frankish Monarch. The grandfather of Charlemagne, he is best remembered for winning the Battle of Tours in 732, which prevented Moslem advance from getting any farther into Europe than Spain. His Frankish army defeated an Arab and Berber army fighting to spread Islam, which had swept through southern Asia and north Africa, before conquering most of the Iberian peninsula and much of southern France. Although it took another two generations for the Franks to drive all the Arab garrisons out of what is now France and across the Pyrenees, Charles Martel's halt of the invasion of French soil turned the tide of Islamic advance, and the unification of the Frankish kingdom under him, his son Pippin the Short, and his grandson Charlemagne prevented the Ummayad kingdom from expanding over the Pyrenees. He was the son of Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia, and his concubine Alpaida. On Pippin's death in 714, the succession passed to an infant grandson, Theodoald. The faction of Austrasian nobles who supported Theodoald was led by his stepmother, Pippin's widow, Plectrude. Charles, who was already an adult, led a rival faction and prevailed in a series of battles against both invading Neustrian Franks and the forces of Plectrude. Between 718 and 723, he secured his power through a series of victories and by winning the loyalty of several important clerics. This he accomplished in part by donating lands and money for the foundations of abbeys such as Echternach. In the subsequent decade, he led the Frankish army against the eastern duchies, Bavaria and Alemannia, and the southern duchies, Aquitaine and Provence. He dealt with the ongoing conflict with the Saxons to his northeast with some success, but full conquest of the Saxons and their incorporation into the Frankish empire would have to wait for his grandson Charlemagne. Bio by: Mongoose
     Family Members
     Parents
      Pepin II of Herstal 635–714
      Alpaïdis d'Austrasia 654–714
     Spouses
      Chrotrudis de Treves 690–724
      Swanahild
     Siblings
      Childébrand I de Perracy d'Autun 670–751
     Half Siblings
      Drogo of Champagne
     Children
      Carloman Unknown
      Pepin The Short 714–768
      Aude (Aldana) d'Austrasia d'Autun 720–804
      Bernard duc de St Quentin d'Herstal 724–784
     BURIAL     Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
     Maintained by: Find A Grave
     Originally Created by: Mongoose
     Added: 14 Dec 2003
     Find A Grave Memorial 8183688.2,1,6
     Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks
Charles Martell, Maiordomus in Austrasia (719-741), Duke of Franks (737-741), *689, +Quiercy-sur-Oise 22.10.741, bur St.Denis; 1m: Chrotrude (*ca 690 +ca 724), dau.of Leutwinus, Bp of Trier; 2m: Suanahilde/Sonichilde N.1 GAV-33 EDV-34 GKJ-35.

Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks
Per Enc. of World History:
     "Charles Martel (i.e., the Hammer), Pepin's son, an ally of the Lombards. Decline of royal power under the last Merovingians and feudal decentralization. Feudalism implies a kind of politically decentralized society in which public powerto raise an army, to hold courts that administer some form of law or justice, to coin money, and to negotiate with outside powerspasses into private hands. Feudal decentralization was characterized by the breakdown of the old class and Germanic tribal organizations without an effective system to replace it, which led to the personal and economic dependence on private individuals; by the increasing concentration of land in the hands of a few (i.e., a landed “aristocracy” of which the mayors of the palace were representative; and perhaps by the increasing importance of the possession of a horse and the ability to fight on horseback. (This was due in part to the arrival of the stirrup, an Asian invention, that attached rider to horse, enabling him to use the force of his galloping animal to strike and cripple his enemy.) However, although Charles Martel used some cavalry in his wars against the Muslims, the infantry was the typical and decisive unit in all Carolingian warfare, and so the stirrup's importance has been downplayed. Warriors who attached themselves to strong “lords” were at first supported in the lord's own household; they were later rewarded, sometimes with land, sometimes with cash, with which they maintained themselves. In the lord's household, the wife frequently had responsibility for the dispersal of cash and goods.
     "Invasion of Spain (al-Andalus) by the Muslims under the command of the Berber Tariq ibn Ziyad [>]. The peninsula was subdued by 716. Raids across the Pyrenees began in the next year and culminated at Poitiers in 732, where Arab forces were defeated by Charles Martel [>]. The battle retrospectively retained far greater significance in European annals than in Islamic accounts, where it is described only as a skirmish.
     "Martel's victory at Tours arrested the advance of the Muslims in the west, and was followed by their final retreat over the Pyrenees (759).
     "Missionary activities of St. Boniface (Winfrid, Wynfrith), Apostle of Germany. With the support of Charles Martel and Pope Gregory II, Boniface worked to establish a centralized and episcopal church in Germany under Carolingian supervision. He founded dioceses, made Mainz a metropolitan see, established several monasteries, including Fulda, and encouraged the observance of the Rule of St. Benedict in all houses of men and women.
     "Pope Gregory III, threatened by the Lombards, sent an embassy to Martel, and offered the title of consul in return for protection. Charles, an ally of the Lombard king, ignored the appeal. At the end of his life, Martel, like a true sovereign, divided the Merovingian lands between his sons, Austrasia and the German duchies going to Carloman, Neustria and Burgundy to Pepin. Carloman and Pepin ruled together, 741-47; Pepin ruled alone, 747-68."9

Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks
Per Wikipedia:
     "
     "Charles Martel (c. 688[2] – 22 October 741) was a Frankish statesman and military leader who, as Duke and Prince of the Franks and Mayor of the Palace, was the de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.[3][4][5][6] He was a son of the Frankish statesman Pepin of Herstal and Pepin's mistress, a noblewoman named Alpaida.[7] Charles successfully asserted his claims to power as successor to his father as the power behind the throne in Frankish politics. Continuing and building on his father's work, he restored centralized government in Francia and began the series of military campaigns that re-established the Franks as the undisputed masters of all Gaul. According to a near-contemporary source, the Liber Historiae Francorum, Charles was "a warrior who was uncommonly [...] effective in battle".[8] Much attention has been paid to his success in defeating an Arab invasion in Aquitaine at the Battle of Tours. Alongside his military endeavours, Charles has been traditionally credited with a seminal role in the development of the Frankish system of feudalism.[9]
     "At the end of his reign, Charles divided Francia between his sons, Carloman and Pepin. The latter became the first king of the Carolingian dynasty. Charles' grandson, Charlemagne, extended the Frankish realms, and became the first emperor in the West since the fall of Rome.[10]
Background
     "Charles, nicknamed "Martel", or "the Hammer", in later chronicles, was the son of Pepin of Herstal and his second wife Alpaida. He had a brother named Childebrand, who later became the Frankish dux (that is, duke) of Burgundy.
     "In older historiography, it was common to describe Charles as "illegitimate". But the dividing line between wives and concubines was not clear-cut in eighth-century Francia, and it is likely that the accusation of "illegitimacy" derives from the desire of Pepin's first wife Plectrude to see her progeny as heirs to Pepin's power.[11][12]
     "After the reign of Dagobert I (629–639) the Merovingians effectively ceded power to the Pippinid Mayors of the Palace, who ruled the Frankish realm of Austrasia in all but name. They controlled the royal treasury, dispensed patronage, and granted land and privileges in the name of the figurehead king. Charles' father, Pepin of Herstal, was able to unite the Frankish realm by conquering Neustria and Burgundy. He was the first to call himself Duke and Prince of the Franks, a title later taken up by Charles.
Contesting for power
     "In December 714, Pepin of Herstal died.[13] Prior to his death, he had, at his wife Plectrude's urging, designated Theudoald, his grandson by their late son Grimoald, his heir in the entire realm. This was immediately opposed by the nobles because Theudoald was a child of only eight years of age. To prevent Charles using this unrest to his own advantage, Plectrude had him imprisoned in Cologne, the city which was intended to be her capital. This prevented an uprising on his behalf in Austrasia, but not in Neustria.
Civil war of 715–718
     "Pepin's death occasioned open conflict between his heirs and the Neustrian nobles who sought political independence from Austrasian control. In 715, Dagobert III named Ragenfrid mayor of their palace, effectively declaring political independence. On 26 September 715, Ragenfrid's Neustrians met the young Theudoald's forces at the Battle of Compiegne. Theudoald was defeated and fled back to Cologne. Before the end of the year, Charles Martel had escaped from prison and been acclaimed mayor by the nobles of Austrasia.[13] That same year, Dagobert III died and the Neustrians proclaimed Chilperic II, the cloistered son of Childeric II, as king.
Battle of Cologne
     "In 716, Chilperic and Ragenfrid together led an army into Austrasia intent on seizing the Pippinid wealth at Cologne. The Neustrians allied with another invading force under Radbod, King of the Frisians and met Charles in battle near Cologne, which was still held by Plectrude. Charles had little time to gather men, or prepare, and the result was the only defeat of his career. The Frisians held off Charles, while the king and his mayor besieged Plectrude at Cologne, where she bought them off with a substantial portion of Pepin's treasure. Then they withdrew.[14]
Battle of Amblève
     "Charles retreated to the hills of the Eifel to gather men, and train them. Having made the proper preparations, in April 716, he fell upon the triumphant army near Malmedy as it was returning to its own province. In the ensuing Battle of Amblève, Martel attacked as the enemy rested at midday. According to one source, he split his forces into several groups which fell at them from many sides.[15] Another suggests that while this was his intention, he then decided, given the enemy's unpreparedness, this was not necessary. In any event, the suddenness of the assault lead them to believe they were facing a much larger host. Many of the enemy fled and Martel's troops gathered the spoils of the camp. Martel's reputation increased considerably as a result, and he attracted more followers. This battle is often considered by historians as the turning point in Charles's struggle.[16]
Battle of Vinchy
     "Richard Gerberding points out that up to this time, much of Martel's support was probably from his mother's kindred in the lands around Liege. After Amblève, he seems to have won the backing of the influential Willibrord, founder of the Abbey of Echternach. The abbey had been built on land donated by Plectrude's mother, Irmina of Oeren, but most of Willibrord's missionary work had been carried out in Frisia. In joining Chilperic and Ragenfrid, Radbod of Frisia sacked Utrecht, burning churches and killing many missionaries. Willibrord and his monks were forced to flee to Echternach. Gerberding suggests that Willibrord had decided that the chances of preserving his life's work were better with a successful field commander like Martel than with Plectrude in Cologne. Willibrord subsequently baptized Martel's son Pepin. Gerberding suggests a likely date of Easter 716.[17] Martel also received support from Bishop Pepo of Verdun.
     "Charles took time to rally more men and prepare. By the following spring, Charles had attracted enough support to invade Neustria. Charles sent an envoy who proposed a cessation of hostilities if Chilperic would recognize his rights as mayor of the palace in Austrasia. The refusal was not unexpected but served to impress upon Martel's forces the unreasonableness of the Neustrians. They met near Cambrai at the Battle of Vincy on 21 March 717. The victorious Martel pursued the fleeing king and mayor to Paris, but as he was not yet prepared to hold the city, he turned back to deal with Plectrude and Cologne. He took the city and dispersed her adherents. Plectrude was allowed to retire to a convent; Theudoald lived to 741 under his uncle's protection, a kindness unusual for those times, when mercy to a former gaoler, or a potential rival, was rare.[citation needed]
Consolidation of power
     "Upon this success, Charles proclaimed Chlothar IV king of Austrasia in opposition to Chilperic and deposed Rigobert, archbishop of Reims, replacing him with Milo, a lifelong supporter.
     "In 718, Chilperic responded to Charles' new ascendancy by making an alliance with Odo the Great (or Eudes, as he is sometimes known), the duke of Aquitaine, who had become independent during the civil war in 715, but was again defeated, at the Battle of Soissons, by Charles.[18] Chilperic fled with his ducal ally to the land south of the Loire and Ragenfrid fled to Angers. Soon Chlotar IV died and Odo surrendered King Chilperic in exchange for Charles recognizing his dukedom. Charles recognized Chilperic as king of the Franks in return for legitimate royal affirmation of his own mayoralty over all the kingdoms.
Wars of 718–732
     "Between 718 and 723, Charles secured his power through a series of victories. Having unified the Franks under his banner, Charles was determined to punish the Saxons who had invaded Austrasia. Therefore, late in 718, he laid waste their country to the banks of the Weser, the Lippe, and the Ruhr.[13] He defeated them in the Teutoburg Forest and thus secured the Frankish border in the name of King Chlotaire.
     "When the Frisian leader Radbod died in 719, Charles seized West Frisia without any great resistance on the part of the Frisians, who had been subjected to the Franks but had rebelled upon the death of Pippin. When Chilperic II died the following year (720), Charles appointed as his successor the son of Dagobert III, Theuderic IV, who was still a minor, and who occupied the throne from 720 to 737 Charles was now appointing the kings whom he supposedly served, rois fainéants who were mere figureheads; by the end of his reign he didn't appoint one at all. At this time, Charles again marched against the Saxons. Then the Neustrians rebelled under Ragenfrid, who had left the county of Anjou. They were easily defeated (724), but Ragenfrid gave up his sons as hostages in turn for keeping his county. This ended the civil wars of Charles' reign.
     "The next six years were devoted in their entirety to assuring Frankish authority over the neighbouring political groups. Between 720 and 723, Charles was fighting in Bavaria, where the Agilolfing dukes had gradually evolved into independent rulers, recently in alliance with Liutprand the Lombard. He forced the Alemanni to accompany him, and Duke Hugbert submitted to Frankish suzerainty. In 725 he brought back the Agilolfing Princess Swanachild as a second wife.
     "In 725 and 728, he again entered Bavaria, but in 730, he marched against Lantfrid, Duke of Alemannia, who had also become independent, and killed him in battle. He forced the Alemanni to capitulate to Frankish suzerainty and did not appoint a successor to Lantfrid. Thus, southern Germany once more became part of the Frankish kingdom, as had northern Germany during the first years of the reign.
Aquitaine and the Battle of Tours in 732
     "In 731, after defeating the Saxons, Charles turned his attention to the rival southern realm of Aquitaine, and crossed the Loire, breaking the treaty with Duke Odo. The Franks ransacked Aquitaine twice, and captured Bourges, although Odo retook it. The Continuations of Fredegar allege that Odo called on assistance from the recently established emirate of al-Andalus, but there had been Arab raids into Aquitaine from the 720s onwards: indeed, in 721 the Chronicle of 754 records a victory of Odo at the Battle of Toulouse, while the Liber Pontificalis records that Odo had killed 375,000 Saracens.[19] It is more likely that this invasion or raid took place in revenge for Odo's support for a rebel Berber leader named Munnuza.
     "Whatever the precise circumstances, it is clear that an army under the leadership of Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi headed north, and after some minor engagements marched on the wealthy city of Tours. According to British medieval historian Paul Fouracre, "Their campaign should perhaps be interpreted as a long-distance raid rather than the beginning of a war".[20] They were however defeated by the army of Charles at a location between Tours and Poitiers, in a victory described by the Continuations of Fredegar. News of this battle spread, and may be recorded in Bede's Ecclesiastical History (Book V, ch. 23). However, it is not given prominence in Arabic sources from the period.[21]
     "Despite his victory, Charles did not gain full control of Aquitaine, and Odo remained duke until his death in 735.
Wars of 732–737
     "Charles Martel depicted in the French book "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum" by Guillaume Rouillé, published in 1553
Between his victory of 732 and 735, Charles reorganized the kingdom of Burgundy, replacing the counts and dukes with his loyal supporters, thus strengthening his hold on power. He was forced, by the ventures of Bubo, Duke of the Frisians, to invade independent-minded Frisia again in 734. In that year, he slew the duke at the Battle of the Boarn. Charles ordered the Frisian pagan shrines destroyed, and so wholly subjugated the populace that the region was peaceful for twenty years after.
     "In 735, Duke Odo of Aquitaine died. Though Charles wished to rule the duchy directly and went there to elicit the submission of the Aquitainians, the aristocracy proclaimed Odo's son, Hunald I of Aquitaine, as duke, and Charles and Hunald eventually recognised each other's position.
Interregnum
     "In 737, at the tail end of his campaigning in Provence and Septimania, the Merovingian king, Theuderic IV, died. Charles, titling himself maior domus and princeps et dux Francorum, did not appoint a new king and nobody acclaimed one. The throne lay vacant until Charles' death. The interregnum, the final four years of Charles' life, was more peaceful than most of it had been but in 738, he compelled the Saxons of Westphalia to submit and pay tribute, and in 739 he checked an uprising in Provence, the rebels being under the leadership of Maurontus.
     "Charles used the relative peace to set about integrating the outlying realms of his empire into the Frankish church. He erected four dioceses in Bavaria (Salzburg, Regensburg, Freising, and Passau) and gave them Boniface as archbishop and metropolitan over all Germany east of the Rhine, with his seat at Mainz. Boniface had been under his protection from 723 on; indeed the saint himself explained to his old friend, Daniel of Winchester, that without it he could neither administer his church, defend his clergy, nor prevent idolatry.
     "In 739, Pope Gregory III begged Charles for his aid against Liutprand, but Charles was loath to fight his onetime ally and ignored the plea. Nonetheless, the pope's request for Frankish protection showed how far Charles had come from the days he was tottering on excommunication, and set the stage for his son and grandson to assert themselves in the peninsula.
Death and transition in rule
     "Charles Martel died on 22 October 741, at Quierzy-sur-Oise in what is today the Aisne département in the Picardy region of France. He was buried at Saint Denis Basilica in Paris.[22]
     "His territories had been divided among his adult sons a year earlier: to Carloman he gave Austrasia, Alemannia, and Thuringia, and to Pippin the Younger Neustria, Burgundy, Provence, and Metz and Trier in the "Mosel duchy"; Grifo was given several lands throughout the kingdom, but at a later date, just before Charles died.[23]:50
Legacy
     "At the beginning of Charles Martel's career, he had many internal opponents and felt the need to appoint his own kingly claimant, Chlotar IV. By his end, however, the dynamics of rulership in Francia had changed, and no hallowed Merovingian ruler was required. Charles divided his realm between his sons without opposition (though he ignored his young son Bernard). For many historians, Charles Martel laid the foundations for his son Pepin's rise to the Frankish throne in 751, and his grandson Charlemagne's imperial acclamation in 800. However, for Paul Fouracre, while Charles was "the most effective military leader in Francia", his career "finished on a note of unfinished business".[24]
Family and children
     "Charles Martel married twice, his first wife being Rotrude of Treves, daughter either of Lambert II, Count of Hesbaye, or of Leudwinus, Count of Treves. They had the following children:
** Hiltrud,
** Carloman,[23]:50
** Landrade, also rendered Landres,
** Auda, also called Aldana or Alane, and
** Pepin the Short, also called Pippin,[23]:50
     "Most of the children married and had issue. Hiltrud married Odilo I (a Duke of Bavaria). Landrade was once believed to have married a Sigrand (Count of Hesbania) but Sigrand's wife was more likely the sister of Rotrude. Auda married Thierry IV (a Count of Autun and Toulouse). Charles also married a second time, to Swanhild, and they had a child, Grifo.[23]:50
     "Finally, Charles Martel also had a known mistress, Ruodhaid, with whom he had children Bernard, Hieronymus, and Remigius. Remigius became an archbishop of Rouen.
Reputation and historiography
     "For early medieval authors, Charles Martel was famous for his military victories. Paul the Deacon for instance attributed a victory against the Saracens actually won by Odo of Aquitaine to Charles.[25] However, alongside this there soon developed a darker reputation, for his alleged abuse of church property. A ninth-century text, the Visio Eucherii, possibly written by Hincmar of Reims, portrayed Martel as suffering in hell for this reason.[26] According to British medieval historian Paul Fouracre, this was "the single most important text in the construction of Charles Martel's reputation as a seculariser or despoiler of church lands".[27]
     "By the eighteenth century, historians such as Edward Gibbon had begun to portray the Frankish leader as the saviour of Christian Europe from a full-scale Islamic invasion. In Gibbon's The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire he wonders whether without Charles' victory, "Perhaps the interpretation of the Koran would now be taught in the schools of Oxford".[28]
     "In the nineteenth century, the German historian Heinrich Brunner argued that Charles had confiscated church lands in order to fund military reforms that allowed him to defeat the Arab conquests, in this way brilliantly combining two traditions about the ruler. But Fouracre has argued that "...there is not enough evidence to show that there was a decisive change either in the way in which the Franks fought, or in the way in which they organised the resources needed to support their warriors."[29]
     "Many twentieth-century European historians continued to develop Gibbon's perspectives, such as French medievalist Christian Pfister, who wrote in 1911 that:
"Besides establishing a certain unity in Gaul, Charles saved it from a great peril. In 711 the Arabs had conquered Spain. In 720 they crossed the Pyrenees, seized Narbonensis, a dependency of the kingdom of the Visigoths, and advanced on Gaul. By his able policy Odo succeeded in arresting their progress for some years; but a new vali, Abdur Rahman, a member of an extremely fanatical sect, resumed the attack, reached Poitiers, and advanced on Tours, the holy town of Gaul. In October 732—just 100 years after the death of Mahomet—Charles gained a brilliant victory over Abdur Rahman, who was called back to Africa by revolts of the Berbers and had to give up the struggle. ...After his victory, Charles took the offensive".[30]

     "Similarly, William E. Watson who wrote of the battle's importance in Frankish and world history in 1993, suggested that
"Had Charles Martel suffered at Tours-Poitiers the fate of King Roderick at the Rio Barbate, it is doubtful that a "do-nothing" sovereign of the Merovingian realm could have later succeeded where his talented major domus had failed. Indeed, as Charles was the progenitor of the Carolingian line of Frankish rulers and grandfather of Charlemagne, one can even say with a degree of certainty that the subsequent history of the West would have proceeded along vastly different currents had ‘Abd al-Rahman been victorious at Tours-Poitiers in 732."[31]

     "Other recent historians however argue that the importance of the battle is dramatically overstated, both for European history in general and for Charles Martel's reign in particular. This view is typified by Alessandro Barbero, who in 2004 wrote,
"Today, historians tend to play down the significance of the battle of Poitiers, pointing out that the purpose of the Arab force defeated by Charles Martel was not to conquer the Frankish kingdom, but simply to pillage the wealthy monastery of St-Martin of Tours".[32]

     "Similarly, in 2002 Tomaž Mastnak wrote:
"The continuators of Fredegar's chronicle, who probably wrote in the mid-eighth century, pictured the battle as just one of many military encounters between Christians and Saracens—moreover, as only one in a series of wars fought by Frankish princes for booty and territory... One of Fredegar's continuators presented the battle of Poitiers as what it really was: an episode in the struggle between Christian princes as the Carolingians strove to bring Aquitaine under their rule."[33]

     "More recently, the memory of Charles Martel has been appropriated by far right and white nationalist groups, such as the 'Charles Martel Group' in France, and by Australia-born Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the alleged perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand in 2019.[34]
References
1. This sculpture was located in the Palace of Versailles. By Debaye, pere, sculpted marble, 1839, first displayed at the Salon in 1839. Height 2.09 m. Soulié (1855), op. cit.
2. Paul Fouracre, The Age of Charles Martel, (Routledge, 2000), ix.
3. "Charles Martel and Charlemagne". Charlemagne. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
4. Schulman, Jana K. (2002). The Rise of the Medieval World, 500–1300: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 101. ISBN 0-313-30817-9.
5. Cawthorne, Nigel (2004). Military Commanders: The 100 Greatest Throughout History. Enchanted Lion Books. pp. 52–53. ISBN 1-59270-029-2.
6. Kibler, William W; Zinn, Grover A. (1995). Medieval France: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 205–206. ISBN 0-8240-4444-4.
7. Commire, Anne, ed. (2002). "Alphaida (c. 654–c. 714)". Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Waterford, Connecticut: Yorkin Publications. ISBN 0-7876-4074-3. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
8. Late Merovingian France : history and hagiography, 640-720. Fouracre, Paul., Gerberding, Richard A. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 1996. p. 93. ISBN 0719047900. OCLC 32699266.
9. White, Jr., Lynn (1962). Medieval technology and social change. London, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 2–14.
10. Fouracre, Paul (2000) The Age of Charles Martel, London, GBR: Longman, see ISBN 0-582-06475-9, see [1], accessed 2 August 2015.[page needed]
11. Joch, Waltraud (1999). Legitimität und Integration: Untersuchungen zu den Anfängen Karl Martells. Husum, Germany: Matthiesen Verlag.
12. Gerberding, Richard A. (October 2002). "Review of Legitimität und Integration: Untersuchungen zu den Anfängen Karl Martells by Waltraud Joch". Speculum. 77 (4). pp. 1322–1323.
13. Kurth, Godefroid. "The Franks." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909
14. Costambeys, Marios; Matthew Innes & MacLean, Simon (2011) The Carolingian World, p. 43, Cambridge, GBR: Cambridge University Press, see [2], accessed 2 August 2015.
15. [3] Daniel, Gabriel. The History of France, G. Strahan, 1726, p. 148]
16. Paul., Fouracre, (2000). The age of Charles Martel. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 61. ISBN 0582064759. OCLC 43634337.
17. Gerberding, Richard. "716: A Crucial Year For Charles Martel", Medievalists.net, November 3, 2014
18. Strauss, Gustave Louis M. (1854) Moslem and Frank; or, Charles Martel and the rescue of Europe, Oxford, GBR:Oxford University Press, see [4], accessed 2 August 2015.[page needed]
19. Paul., Fouracre, (2000). The age of Charles Martel. Harlow, England: Longman. pp. 84–5. ISBN 0582064759. OCLC 43634337.
20. Paul., Fouracre, (2000). The age of Charles Martel. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 88. ISBN 0582064759. OCLC 43634337.
21. Christys, Ann (4 April 2019), Esders, Stefan; Fox, Yaniv; Hen, Yitzhak; Sarti, Laury (eds.), "'Sons of Ishmael, Turn Back!'", East and West in the Early Middle Ages (1 ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 318–328, doi:10.1017/9781316941072.021, ISBN 9781316941072, retrieved 7 May 2019
22. "History of the Monument". BASILIQUE CATHÉDRALE DE SAINT-DENIS. BASILIQUE CATHÉDRALE DE SAINT-DENIS. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
23. Riche, Pierre (1993) The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe, [Michael Idomir Allen, transl.], Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0-8122-1342-4, see [5], accessed 2 August 2015.
24. Paul Fouracre, 'Writing about Charles Martel', in Law, Laity and Solidarities: essays in honour of Susan Reynolds, ed. Pauline Stafford et al. (Manchester, 2001), pp. 12-26.
25. Paul., Fouracre, (2000). The age of Charles Martel. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 85. ISBN 0582064759. OCLC 43634337.
26. 1950-, Wood, I. N. (Ian N.), (1994). The Merovingian kingdoms, 450-751. London: Longman. ISBN 0582218780. OCLC 27172340. pp. 275-6
27. Paul., Fouracre, (2000). The age of Charles Martel. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 124. ISBN 0582064759. OCLC 43634337.
28. "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire".
29. Paul., Fouracre, (2000). The age of Charles Martel. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 149. ISBN 0582064759. OCLC 43634337.
30. Pfister, Christian (1911). Encyclopedia Britannica.
31. Watson, William (1993). "The Battle of Tours-Poitiers Revisited". Providence: Studies in Western Civilization. 2.
32. Alessandro., Barbero, (2004). Charlemagne : father of a continent. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520239431. OCLC 52773483. p.10
33. Tomaž., Mastnak, (2002). Crusading peace : Christendom, the Muslim world, and Western political order. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520925991. OCLC 52861403.
34. "Perspective | The fake history that fueled the accused Christchurch shooter". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 June 2019.10

Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks
Per Genealogics:
     "Charles Martel ('the Hammer') was born in Herstal (in modern Belgium) on 23 August 688, the son of Pippin II by his mistress Alpais. He was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace and ruled the Franks in the name of a titular king, Clothaire IV. Late in his reign he proclaimed himself duke of the Franks (over the last four years of his reign he did not even bother with the façade of a king) and by any name he was de facto ruler of the Frankish realms. In 739 he was offered an office of Roman consul, which he rejected. He expanded his rule over all three of the Frankish kingdoms: Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy. He was described by Louis Gustave and Charles Strauss, in their book _Muslem and Frank: or Charles Martel and the rescue of Europe,_ as a tall, powerfully built man who was more agile than his size would lead men to believe.
     "His first battles were with the Saxons, Alemanni and Bavarians. However, his importance was established when he rolled back the Saracens in a desperate battle between Tours and Poitiers in 732. This has traditionally been characterised as an event that halted the Islamic expansion in Europe that had conquered Iberia. Prior to the battle, Abdul Rahman, the Arab governor of Spain, had won a great battle near Bordeaux. This Muslem threat united the Burgundians and the Gauls of Provence, who then acknowledged the sovereignty of Charles Martel, recognising him as their saviour from the Muslem conquests. Charles finished his work by driving the Saracens out of Burgundy and the Languedoc in 737.
     "In addition to being the leader of the army that prevailed at Tours, Charles Martel was a truly giant figure of the Middle Ages. A brilliant general, he is considered the forefather of western heavy cavalry, chivalry, founder of the Carolingian empire (which was named after him), and a catalyst for the feudal system, which would see Europe through the Middle Ages. Although some recent scholars have suggested he was more of a beneficiary of the feudal system than a knowing agent for social change, others continue to see him as the primary catalyst.
     "When Charles died on 22 October 741, his sons Carloman and Pippin, still joint mayors of the palace, shared power over the kingdom of the Franks with the Merovingian king, Childeric III of the Franks."2

Reference: Genealogics cites: Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 52.2


Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks
Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia. Victor over the Saracens at Poitiers/Tours, 732.11,12,13 He was Mayor of Austrasia and Neustria. (See attached map of Frankish Kingdoms) between 714 and 741.14

Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks
Victor at the Battle of Tours, stopping the Saracen invasion insuring the sruvival of "our Western Christian civilization"...
(See attached map of military campaigns) in October 732.5

Family 1

Child

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles Martel: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020918&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020925&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Chalpaida/Alpais: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020926&tree=LEO
  5. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. cvi. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  6. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 10 October 2019), memorial page for Charles of the Franks (23 Aug 676–22 Oct 741), Find A Grave Memorial no. 8183688, citing Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France ; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8183688/charles_of_the_franks. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  7. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 06 November 2019), memorial page for Chrotrudis de Treves (690–22 Oct 724), Find A Grave Memorial no. 144753240, citing Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/144753240/chrotrudis-de_treves
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Swanahild: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020928&tree=LEO
  9. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), various. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  10. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Martel. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  11. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  12. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  13. [S616] Inc. Br²derbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 26 Dec 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1, Family #18-0770 (n.p.: Release date: March 27, 1998, unknown publish date).
  14. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 172.
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Landrade: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00201703&tree=LEO
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hiltrude: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00201695&tree=LEO
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin 'the Short': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020000&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Carloman: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00280786&tree=LEO
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alda: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00201697&tree=LEO
  20. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I44326

Pepin II (?) of Heristal1,2,3

M, #4269, b. 635, d. 15 November 714
FatherAnsegiselAnguiseAnchises (?) Mayor of Austrasia3,2,4 b. c 630, d. 675
MotherSaint Begga (?) of Landen2,3,5 b. 613, d. 17 Dec 693
ReferenceGAV35 EDV36
Last Edited27 Oct 2019
     Pepin II (?) of Heristal was born in 635 at Heristal, Liège, Wallonia, Belgium.6,7 He married Plectrudis (?), daughter of Hugobert (?) Seneschal, Pfalzgraf and Irmina (?) of Oeren/Trier, in 673.2,3,8 Pepin II (?) of Heristal married AlpaisAlpaidaAlpaïdis (?) of Saxony, daughter of Alberic (?) von Aquitanien d'Austrasia and Adèlais (?) d'Austrasia, in 688.9
Pepin II (?) of Heristal died on 15 November 714 at Jupille (near Liège), Arrondissement de Liège, Wallonia, Belgium (now); The date given by almost every modern historian for the death of Charlemagne's great-grandfather Pippin (the Fat) of Heristal is 16 December 714.

For instance, this is stated - without a source - by Eduard Hlawitschka in
'Die Vorfahren Karls des Grossen', _Karl der Grosse: Lebenswerk und
Nachleben_, Band I, Persönlichkeit und Geschichte (Düsseldorf, 1965) p. 62
and table. Christian Settipani in _La préhistoire des Capétiens 481-987_,
(Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1993), p. 154, describes this date as traditional, also
giving no source. Neither of these authors refers to any other date or
discusses the matter further.

The annals of many monasteries record Pippin's death in 714, and the source
for 16 December is 'Annales Mettenses priores', edited by Bernhard von
Simson, MGH SSrG 10 (Hanover & Leipzig, 1905) p. 19: "Pippinus princeps...in
pace obiit XVII. Kal. Ian.". The same month, without a specific date, is
given in 'Annales Petaviani', edited by Georg Heinrich Pertz, MGH SS I p.
7: "domnus Pippinus mortuus est in mense Decembrio".

Although more definite than "tradition", these apparently derive from a
copied record of his burial rather than his death, as suggested by 'Annales
Sancti Amandi', edited by Georg Heinrich Pertz, MGH SS I p. 6: "depositio
Pippino in mense Decembrio".

Pippin died at Jupille near Heristal & was buried at Saint-Arnoul in Metz,
the church dedicated to his grandfather. In the necrology of Saint-Arnoul,
most likely to be accurate, his death was placed on 15 November: "XVII
kalendas Decembris. Pipinus dux" see Joseph Depoin, 'Obits mémorables tirés
de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', _Revue Mabillon_ 6
(1910-1911) p. 265.

I don't know why this information should have been overlooked.

Peter Stewart.10,2
Pepin II (?) of Heristal was buried on 16 December 714 at Cathedral de Saint-Arnoul, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France (now).10


     Pepin II (?) of Heristal
Per Genealogics:
     "Pippin was born about 635, the grandson and namesake of Pippin I 'the Elder' from the marriage of Pippin's daughter Begga and Ansegisel, son of Arnulf, bishop of Metz. That marriage united the two houses of the Pippinids and the Arnulfings which created what would be called the Carolingian dynasty. Pippin II was probably born in Herstal (Héristal), in modern Belgium (where his centre of power lay), whence his epithet (he is sometimes called 'of Heristal').
     "As _major domus_ (mayor) of Austrasia, Pippin and Martin, duke of Laon, fought the Neustrian mayor Ebroin, who had designs on all Frankland. Ebroin defeated the Austrasians at Lucofao (Bois-du-Fay, near Laon) and came close to uniting all the Franks under his rule; however he was assassinated in 681, the victim of a combined attack by his numerous enemies. Pippin immediately made peace with his successor, Waratton.
     "However, Waratton's successor Berthar, and the Neustrian king Theuderic III, who since 679 was nominal king of all the Franks, made war on Austrasia. The king and his mayor were decisively defeated at the Battle of Tertry (Textrice) in the Vermandois in 687. Berthar and Theuderic withdrew themselves to Paris, where Pippin followed and eventually forced on them a peace treaty with the condition that Berthar leave his office. Pippin was created mayor in all three Frankish kingdoms (Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy) and began calling himself Duke and Prince of the Franks (_dux et princeps Francorum_). In the ensuing quarrels, Berthar killed his mother-in-law Ansfled and fled. His wife Anstrude married Pippin's eldest son Drogo, duke of Champagne, and Pippin's place in Neustria was secured.
     "Over the next several years, Pippin subdued the Alemanni, Friesians and Franconians, bringing them within the Frankish sphere of influence. He also began the evangelisation of Germany. In 695 he placed Drogo in the Burgundian mayorship and his other son Grimoald in the Neustrian one.
     "Around 670 Pippin had married Plektrudis, who had inherited substantial estates in the Moselle region. She was the mother of Drogo of Champagne and Grimoald, both of whom died before their father. However, Pippin also had a mistress named Chalpaida/Alpais who bore him two more sons: Charles and Childebrand. Just before Pippin's death, Plektrudis convinced him to disinherit his bastards in favour of his grandson Theudoald, the son of Grimoald, who was still young (and amenable to Plektrudis' control).
     "Pippin died suddenly at an old age on 15 November 714, at Jupille near Herstal. His legitimate grandchildren claimed themselves to be Pippin's true successors and, with the help of Plektrudis, tried to maintain the position of Mayor of the Palace after Pippin's death. However, Charles had gained favour among the Austrasians, primarily for his military prowess and ability to keep them well supplied with booty from his conquests. Despite the efforts of Plektrudis to silence her rival's child by imprisoning him, Charles Martel became the sole mayor of the palace and de facto ruler of Francia after a civil war which lasted for more than three years after Pippin's death."2 GAV-34 EDV-36 GKJ-36.

Pepin II (?) of Heristal
Per Enc. of World History: "Pepin II (of Heristal), grandson of Pepin I, gained supremacy in Austrasia and Neustria by his victory at Tertry. The kingdom was on the verge of dissolution (ducal separatism), and Pepin began an effort to reduce the landed aristocracy from which he himself had sprung."11

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Obits mémorables tirés de necrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins, Revue Mabillon 6 (1910-1911), Depoin, Joseph. for date of death.
2. Kwartieren Greidanus-Jaeger in Stamreeksen, 1994, 's-Gravenhage, Wimersma Greidanus, Mr. G. J. J. van. 754.
3. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 1.1 3.
4. Caroli Magni Progenies, Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977 , Rösch, Siegfried. 52.
5. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.2

Pepin II (?) of Heristal was also known as Pippin "the Fat" (?) of Heristal.

Pepin II (?) of Heristal
(an unknown value.)12,9,6 He was Maiordomus in Austrasia and Neustria and Bourgogne between 687 and 714.1,13,3

Family 2

AlpaisAlpaidaAlpaïdis (?) of Saxony b. 654, d. 16 Dec 714
Children

Citations

  1. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. cvi. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020925&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ansegisel: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020923&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Begga: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020924&tree=LEO
  6. [S616] Inc. Br²derbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 26 Dec 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1, Family #18-0770 (n.p.: Release date: March 27, 1998, unknown publish date).
  7. [S640] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0021 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Plektrudis: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020927&tree=LEO
  9. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  10. [S1781] Peter Stewart, "Stewart email 4 May 2005 "Death of Pippin the Fat"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 4 May 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Stewart email 4 May 2005."
  11. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), pp. 171. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  12. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  13. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., pp. 172.
  14. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I872
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles Martel: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020918&tree=LEO

AnsegiselAnguiseAnchises (?) Mayor of Austrasia1,2,3

M, #4270, b. circa 630, d. 675
FatherSaint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz4,3,5,2,6 b. c 13 Aug 582, d. 18 Jul 640
MotherDode (Clothilde) Heristal3 b. 586, d. a 640
ReferenceGAV36 EDV36
Last Edited7 May 2020
     AnsegiselAnguiseAnchises (?) Mayor of Austrasia was born circa 630 at France; Charlemagne Desc. says b. 602.1,2 He married Saint Begga (?) of Landen, daughter of Pepin I "the Elder" (?) of Landen, Mayor of the palace of Austrasia and Itta/Iduburga (?), before 639; Emergence of the Carolingians in Austrasia. The son of Arnulf married the daughter of Count Pepin I (of Landen, d. 640), mayor of the palace, founding the line later called Carolingian.1,7,4,3,2,8
AnsegiselAnguiseAnchises (?) Mayor of Austrasia died in 675; Genealogy.EU (Carolin 2 page) says d. 694.2,3
AnsegiselAnguiseAnchises (?) Mayor of Austrasia died in 685 at Andene Monastery.9
     GAV-36 EDV-36 GKJ-36.10 He was Mayor (maiordomus) of the Palace of Austrasia between 632 and 638.1,7,2

Family

Saint Begga (?) of Landen b. 613, d. 17 Dec 693
Children

Citations

  1. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. cvi. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ansegisel: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020923&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  4. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Arnulf of Metz at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01752b.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Arnulf: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020922&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKSMaiordomi.htm#Arnouldied640. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), pp. 171. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Begga: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020924&tree=LEO
  9. [S616] Inc. Br²derbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 26 Dec 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1, Family #18-0770 (n.p.: Release date: March 27, 1998, unknown publish date).
  10. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  11. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theuderic_III. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020925&tree=LEO
  13. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I44119

Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz1,2,3,4

M, #4271, b. circa 13 August 582, d. 18 July 640
FatherBodegisel II (?) of Schelde d. 588
MotherSaint Oda (?) of Savoy d. 640
ReferenceGAV36
Last Edited7 May 2020
     Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz was born circa 13 August 582 at Heristal, Liège, Wallonia, Belgium; Med lands says b. 580/85.5,6,7,4,8 He married Dode (Clothilde) Heristal, daughter of Arnoldus (?) Bishop of Metz, circa 596; Genealogy.EU (Carolin 2 page) says m. 611.6,8
Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz died on 18 July 640 at Remiremont, Departement des Vosges, Lorraine, France; Genealogy.EU (Carolin 2 page) says d. 641; Med Lands and Genealogics say d. ca 18 July 640.6,1,3,4,8
Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz was buried after 18 July 640 at Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France.1,9,8


     Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference 51.
2. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, London, 1965 , Attwater, Donald. 52 biography.
3. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.4



Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz
St.Arnulf, Bp of Metz (612-627), Maiordomus of Dagobert I of Austrasia, *ca 582, +641; m. 611 Dode/Ode (Clothilde.)3

Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz
Per Catholic Encyclopedia:
     "St. Arnulf of Metz - Statesman, bishop under the Merovingians, born c. 580; died c. 640. His parents belonged to a distinguished Frankish family, and lived in Austrasia, the eastern section of the kingdom founded by Clovis. In the school in which he was placed during his boyhood he excelled through his talent and his good behaviour. According to the custom of the age, he was sent in due time to the court of Theodebert II, King of Austrasia (595-612), to be initiated in the various branches of the government. Under the guidance of Gundulf, the Mayor of the Palace, he soon became so proficient that he was placed on the regular list of royal officers, and among the first of the kings ministers. He distinguished himself both as a military commander and in the civil administration; at one time he had under his care six distinct provinces. In due course Arnulf was married to a Frankish woman of noble lineage, by whom he had two sons, Anseghisel and Clodulf. While Arnulf was enjoying worldly emoluments and honours he did not forget higher and spiritual things. His thoughts dwelled often on monasteries, and with his friend Romaricus, likewise an officer of the court, he planned to make a pilgrimage to the Abbey of Lérins, evidently for the purpose of devoting his life to God. But in the meantime the Episcopal See of Metz became vacant. Arnulf was universally designated as a worthy candidate for the office, and he was consecrated bishop of that see about 611. In his new position he set the example of a virtuous life to his subjects, and attended to matters of ecclesiastical government. In 625 he took part in a council held by the Frankish bishops at Reims. With all this Arnulf retained his station at the court of the king, and took a prominent part in the national life of his people. In 613, after the death of Theodebert, he, with Pepin of Landen and other nobles, called to Austrasia Clothaire II, King of Neustria. When, in 625, the realm of Austrasia was entrusted to the kings son Dagobert, Arnulf became not only the tutor, but also the chief minister, of the young king. At the time of the estrangement between the two kings, and 625, Arnulf with other bishops and nobles tried to effect a reconciliation. But Arnulf dreaded the responsibilities of the episcopal office and grew weary of court life. About the year 626 he obtained the appointment of a successor to the Episcopal See of Metz; he himself and his friend Romaricus withdrew to a solitary place in the mountains of the Vosges. There he lived in communion with God until his death. His remains, interred by Romaricus, were transferred about a year afterwards, by Bishop Goeric, to the basilica of the Holy Apostles in Metz.
     "Of the two sons of Arnulf, Clodulf became his third successor in the See of Metz. Anseghisel remained in the service of the State; from his union with Begga, a daughter of Pepin of Landen, was born Pepin of Heristal, the founder of the Carlovingian dynasty. In this manner Arnulf was the ancestor of the mighty rulers of that house. The life or Arnulf exhibits to a certain extent the episcopal office and career in the Merovingian State. The bishops were much considered at court; their advice was listened to; they took part in the dispensation of justice by the courts; they had a voice in the appointment of royal officers; they were often used as the king's ambassadors, and held high administrative positions. For the people under their care, they were the protectors of their rights, their spokesmen before the king and the link uniting royalty with its subjects. The opportunities for good were thus unlimited; and Arnulf used them to good advantage.2

Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz
Per Med Lands:
     "ARNOUL [Arnulf], son of [ARNOLD & his wife ---] ([580/85]-Remiremont 18 Jul [640], bur Remiremont, later transferred to Metz, basilique de Saint-Arnoul). The origins of Arnulf are unknown. The Vita Sancti Arnulfi names "Arnulfus episcopus prosapia genitus Francorum" but gives no further details of his ancestry[51]. The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis names "Arnulfus…ex nobilissimo fortissimoque Francorum stemmate ortus", with no further information on his parentage, as ninth bishop of Metz and "palatii moderator"[52]. A 9th century genealogy names "beatum Arnulfum episcopum" as the son of Arnold[53]. Settipani points out that this genealogy forms part of a series compiled at Metz, from the late 8th century onwards, which glorify the ancestry of the Carolingian dynasty by establishing descent from the early Merovingians as well as from a family of Roman senatorial origin[54]. Further confusion is added by the Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis which names "Agiulfus" as sixth bishop of Metz, stating that "patre ex nobili senatorum familia orto, ex Chlodovei regis Francorum filia procreatus", and that "nepos ipsius…Arnoaldus" succeeded him as bishop[55], the alleged senatorial and Merovingian ancestry appearing to provide the basis for the 9th century genealogy although the latter assigns the descent to what appears to be a different Arnold. The Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis makes no family connection between Arnulf and his predecessor bishops. Another genealogy from the 8th/9th century names "Buotgisus" as father of "Arnulfum…episcopum urbis Metensium", although the editor of the Monumenta Germaniæ in which this is published cites another source which names "Burtgisus, qui a multis cognominatur Arnoaldus" although the dating of the latter is unclear[56]. Arnulf entered the service of Theodebert King of Austrasia, becoming intendant of the royal domains. Together with Warnachar, maior domus of the palace of Burgundy, he helped King Clotaire II defeat King Sigebert II and the latter's great-grandmother Queen Brunechildis in 613[57]. Sigeberto's Vita Landiberto episcopi Traiectensis names "Pippinus…principes Francorum…paterni avi eius Arnulfi", specifying that he was "primo maior domus regis post Mettensis episcopus"[58], although no other document has yet been identified which indicates that Arnulf held the position of maior domus in Austrasia. He was elected Bishop of Metz, dated to [613]: the Vita Sancti Arnulfi records that "Arnulfum domesticum adque consiliarium regis" was appointed as bishop of Metz[59]. Arnulf retired to the monastery of Remiremont, Vosges, dated to [629]. A charter dated 20 Feb 691 of "Pippinus filius Ansegisili quondam necnon…matrone mea Plectrudis" donating property to the church of St Arnulf at Metz specifies that "domnus et avus noster Arnulphus" was buried in the church[60]. A list of bishops of Metz records "Arnulfus" as 29th bishop, that he held the position for 10 years, and that he died "XVII Kal Sep"[61]. Sigebert's late 11th century Chronica records the death of "Sanctus Arnulfus ex maiore domus Mettensium episcopus, et ex episcopo solitarius" in 640[62].
     "m [DODA], daughter of --- (-after [640]). The Vita Sancti Arnulfi records that Arnulf married "inclitam et nobilissimam...puellam" but gives no further details about her[63]. The 11th century Vita Chlodulfi Episcopi names “mater…Chlodulfi Doda”[64]. Settipani suggests that this source is “de médiocre valeur”[65]. Sigebert's late 11th century Chronica records that "Doda mater...Clodulfi" retired to Trier as a nun, based on the same source[66]. "
Med Lands cites:
[51] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 1, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 432.
[52] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 264.
[53] Genealogiæ Karolorum I, MGH SS XIII, p. 245.
[54] Settipani, C. 'L'apport de l'onomastique dans l'étude des genealogies carolingiennes', Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. and Settipani, C. (eds.) (2000) Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident medieval (Prosopographica et Genealogica, Vol. 3), p. 186.
[55] Pauli Gesta Episcoporum Mettensis , MGH SS 2, p. 264.
[56] Genealogiæ Karolorum III, MGH SS XIII, p. 246, footnote 1 citing Meurisse Hist. de Metz, p. 85.
[57] McKitterick (1983), p. 22.
[58] Vita Landberti episcopi Traiectensis Auctore Sigeberto xvi, MGH SS rer. Merov. VI, p. 397.
[59] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 7, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 434.
[60] MGH DD Mer (1872), Diplomata Maiorum Domus ex stirpe Arnulforum, no. 2, p. 92.
[61] Catalogus Episcoporum Mettensium, MGH SS 2, p. 269.
[62] Sigeberti Chronica 640, MGH SS VI, p. 324.
[63] Vita Sancti Arnulfi 5, MGH SS rer. Merov. II, p. 433.
[64] Ex Vita S. Chlodulfi Episcopi Mettensis, RHGF, Tome III, p. 542, and Acta Sanctorum, June II, De Sancto Chlodulpho Episcopo Metensi, Caput I, p. 127.
[65] Settipani (1993), p. 148.8


Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz
Per Genealogics:
     "Arnulf (Arnoul or Arnoulf in French) was born of an important Frankish family at an uncertain date around 582. His father may have been Arnoald, who was dux of the Scheldt before becoming bishop of Metz.
     "Arnulf was married to a woman believed to have been called Doda, and to have had children by her. Chlodulf of Metz was his eldest son, but more important is his second son Ansegisel, who married Begga, daughter of Arnulf's lifelong friend Pippin 'the Elder' (Pippin of Landen).
     "In Arnulf's younger years he was called to the Merovingian court to serve King Theudebert II of Austrasia (in what is now France) and as dux of the Scheldt. After the death of Theudebert in 612, Arnulf was made bishop of Metz. The rule of Austrasia came into the hands of Brunichilde, the grandmother of Theudebert, who also ruled in Burgundy in the name of her great-grandchildren. In 613 Arnulf joined with Pippin 'the Elder' and led the opposition of Frankish nobles against Queen Brunichilde. The revolt led to her overthrow, torture and eventual execution, and the subsequent reunification of Frankish lands under Chlotar II.
     "From 623 (with Pippin of Landen, then the major domus of the palace), Arnulf was an advisor to Dagobert I, son of Chlotar II. He retired around 629 to a hermitage at a mountain site in the Vosges, to implement his lifelong resolution to become a monk and a hermit. His friend Romaric, whose parents had been killed by Brunichilde, had preceded him in the mountains and, together with Amatus, had already and begun the monastic community at Habend later called Remiremont. Arnulf settled there, and remained until his death twelve years later, about 18 July 640.
     "Arnulf was canonised as a saint by the Catholic Church. In iconography he is portrayed with a rake in his hand and is often confused in legend with Arnold of Soissons, who is a patron saint of brewing."

Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz
Per Wikipedia:
     "Saint Arnulf of Metz (c. 582 – 640) was a Frankish bishop of Metz and advisor to the Merovingian court of Austrasia, who retired to the Abbey of Remiremont. In French he is also known as Arnoul or Arnoulf. In English he is known as Arnold.
Genealogy
     "The Vita Sancti Arnulfi, written shortly after the saint's death, states that he was of Frankish ancestry, from "sufficiently elevated and noble parentage, and very rich in worldly goods".[1]
     "Shortly after 800, most likely in Metz, a brief genealogy of the Carolingians was compiled, with no verifiable historical basis. It was modelled in style after the genealogy of Jesus in the New Testament. According to this source, Arnulf's father was a certain Arnoald, who in turn was the son of Ansbertus and Blithilt (or Blithilde), an alleged and otherwise unattested daughter of Chlothar I. This claim of royal Merovingian descent is not confirmed by the contemporary reference in the Vita. Under Salic Law no children of Blithilde would be recognized as legitimate heirs to the dynasty, so an event like this would hardly be recorded, least remembered after many centuries.
     "J. Depoin observed that Arnulf was identified as a Frank in contemporary documents, whereas Arnoald was identified by Paul the Deacon as a Roman.[2] Based on the Vita Gundolphi Arnulf's father was Bodegisel, a Frankish noble. David Humiston Kelley then proposed that Arnoald was likely an ancestor of the Carolingians through a daughter Itta, wife of Pepin of Landen. Christian Settipani carefully revisited and expanded upon the work of Depoin and Kelley, and concurred in Arnulf's descent from Bodegisel instead of Arnoald, but noting that there was a connection between the Ripuarian Frankish royal house and the Carolingians. He argued (without dismissing the possibility of Itta's being Arnoald's daughter) that there was a connection through Arnulf's wife Doda, whom he posited as a daughter of Arnoald. Kelly then considered probable Settipani's proposed connection between the Carolingians and Arnoald.
Life
     "Arnulf was born to an important Frankish family near Nancy in Lorraine around 582.[3] The family owned vast domains between the Moselle and Meuse rivers.[4] As an adolescent, he was called to the Merovingian court of king Theudebert II (595–612) of Austrasia[5] where he was educated by Gondulf of Provence.[3] Arnulf was later sent to serve as dux at the Schelde.
     "Arnulf gave distinguished service at the Austrasian court under Theudebert II. He distinguished himself both as a military commander and in the civil administration; at one time he had under his care six distinct provinces.[5] Arnulf was married ca 596 to a noblewoman whom later sources give the name of Dode or Doda, (born ca 584). Chlodulf of Metz was their oldest son, but more important is his second son Ansegisel, who married Begga daughter of Pepin I, Pepin of Landen. Arnulf is thus the male-line grandfather of Pepin of Herstal, great-grandfather of Charles Martel and 3rd great-grandfather of Charlemagne.
     "The rule of Austrasia came into the hands of Brunhilda, the grandmother of Theudebert, who ruled also in Burgundy in the name of her great-grandchildren. In 613 Arnulf joined his politics with Pepin of Landen and led the opposition of Frankish nobles against Queen Brunhilda. The revolt led to her overthrow, torture, and eventual execution, and the subsequent reunification of Frankish lands under Chlothachar II.
     "He and his friend Romaricus, likewise an officer of the court, planned to make a pilgrimage to the Abbey of Lérins.[5] Chlothachar, who appreciated Arnulf's administrative skills, offered him the vacant see of Metz, the capital of the Autrasian kingdom. His wife took the veil as a nun in a convent at Treves, and Arnulf saw it as a sign of God and became a priest and bishop afterwards.[6] Arnulf continued to serve as the king's steward and courtier.[4]
     "Chlothachar later made his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia, which he ruled with the help of his adviser Arnulf. Pepin of Landen, became the Mayor of the Palace. In 624 Pepin and Arnulf encouraged Dagobert in the murder of Chrodoald, an important leader of the Frankish Agilolfings family.
     "During his career he was attracted to religious life, and he retired to become a monk. He retired around 628 to a hermitage at a mountain site in his domains in the Vosges. His friend Romaric, whose parents had been killed by Brunhilda, had preceded him to the mountains around 613, and together with Amatus had already established Remiremont Abbey there. After the death of Chlothachar in 629, Arnulf settled near Habendum, where he died some time between 643 and 647. He was buried at Remiremont.[4]
     "Arnulf was canonized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. In iconography he is portrayed with a pastoral staff in his hand.
Legends
     "There are three legends associated with Arnulf:[7][unreliable source?]
The Legend of the Ring
     "Arnulf was tormented by the violence that surrounded him and feared that he had played a role in the wars and murders that plagued the ruling families. Obsessed by these sins, Arnulf went to a bridge over the Moselle river. There he took off his bishop's ring and threw it into the river, praying to God to give him a sign of absolution by returning the ring to him. Many penitent years later, a fisherman brought to the bishop's kitchen a fish in the stomach of which was found the bishop's ring. Arnulf repaid the sign of God by immediately retiring as bishop and becoming a hermit for the remainder of his life.[8]
The Legend of the Fire
     "At the moment Arnulf resigned as bishop, a fire broke out in the cellars of the royal palace and threatened to spread throughout the city of Metz. Arnulf, full of courage and feeling unity with the townspeople, stood before the fire and said, “If God wants me to be consumed, I am in His hands.” He then made the sign of the cross at which point the fire immediately receded.
The Legend of the Beer Mug
     "It was July 642 and very hot when the parishioners of Metz went to Remiremont to recover the remains of their former bishop. They had little to drink and the terrain was inhospitable. At the point when the exhausted procession was about to leave Champigneulles, one of the parishioners, Duc Notto, prayed “By his powerful intercession the Blessed Arnold will bring us what we lack.” Immediately the small remnant of beer at the bottom of a pot multiplied in such amounts that the pilgrims' thirst was quenched and they had enough to enjoy the next evening when they arrived in Metz.
See also
** The Pippinids, who traced their descent from St. Arnulf.: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pippinids
** Tonantius Ferreolus (prefect): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonantius_Ferreolus_(prefect)
Notes
1. Vita Arnulfi c. 1, MG. SS. rer. Merov. 2, p. 432.
2. Grand Figures Monacales Du Temps Merovingiens. St. Arnoul de Metz, Etudes de Critique Historique, Revue Mabillon, 1921.
3. Monks of Ramsgate. “Arnoul – Bishop”. Book of Saints, 1921
4. Riche, Pierre. The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993 ISBN 9780812213423
5. Schaefer, Francis. "St. Arnulf of Metz." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 18 Jul. 2014
6. Jean-Christophe Imbert, Geniphone.com: Lectio Divina; 18 July.
7. The 3 Legends of St. Arnold of Metz
8. Agasso, Domenico. "Sant Arnolfo of Metz", Santi e Beati, February 1, 2001
References
** Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints, edited, revised and supplemented by Thurston and Attwater. Christian Classics, Westminster, Maryland.
** Christian Settipani – La Préhistoire des Capétiens, Première Partie.
** Saint ARNOUL – ancêtre de Charlemagne et des Européens, edited by Imp. Louis Hellenbrand. Le Comité d'Historicité Européene de la Lorraine, Metz, France, 1989."10 GAV-36 EDV-37 GKJ-37.

Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz
Stone (2000) Chart 50-8: "...a counselor of King Chlothar II and of the young Dagobert I."6 He and Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks were Maiordomus of Dagobert I of Austrasia.3 Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz was Bishop of Metz between 613 and 629.11

Citations

  1. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. cv. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  2. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Arnulf of Metz at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01752b.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Arnulf: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020922&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S616] Inc. Br²derbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 26 Dec 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 18, Ed. 1, Family #18-0770 (n.p.: Release date: March 27, 1998, unknown publish date).
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 190-8, p. 163. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  7. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  8. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKSMaiordomi.htm#Arnouldied640. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  9. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 06 November 2019), memorial page for Arnoul de Metz (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 130797322, citing Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France ; Maintained by K. C. Mellem (contributor 47424941), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/130797322/arnoul-de_metz. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  10. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnulf_of_Metz. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  11. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), Chart 50-8.
  12. [S792] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=johanson, Susan Johanson (unknown location), downloaded updated 29 June 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=johanson&id=I11051
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ansegisel: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020923&tree=LEO

Baderic/Baderich/Balderich/Boderic (?) Co-King of the Thuringii.1

M, #4272, b. circa 480, d. 529
FatherBisinus (?) King of Thuringia1,3
MotherBasina (?) de Thuringes1,2 b. c 438, d. 477
ReferenceGAV41
Last Edited5 Nov 2019
     Baderic/Baderich/Balderich/Boderic (?) Co-King of the Thuringii. was born circa 480.1
Baderic/Baderich/Balderich/Boderic (?) Co-King of the Thuringii. died in 529.1
     Baderic/Baderich/Balderich/Boderic (?) Co-King of the Thuringii.
From Wikipedia:
     "Baderic, Baderich, Balderich or Boderic (ca. 480 – 529), son of Bisinus and Menia, was a co-king of the Thuringii. He and his brothers Hermanfrid and Berthar succeeded their father Bisinus. After Hermanfrid defeated Berthar in battle, he invited King Theuderic I of Metz to help him defeat Baderic in return for half of the kingdom. Theuderic I agreed and Baderic was defeated and killed in 529. Hermanfrid became the sole king.
     "Baderic is known to have two daughters: Ingund and Aregund, who became the 3rd and 4th wives respectively of Clothar I, King of the Franks.
Notes
** Victor Duruy (1918). A Short History of France. J. M. Dent. p. 86.1

Family

Children

Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia1,2,3

F, #4273, b. 690, d. 22 October 724
FatherLantbertus II (Lambert) (?) of Hesbaye4,5,6 b. 669, d. b 741
MotherChrotlind (?)4,6 b. c 670
ReferenceGAV34 EDV34
Last Edited19 May 2020
     Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia was born in 690 at Treves, Departement du Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon, France (now).2,7 She married Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks, son of Pepin II (?) of Heristal and AlpaisAlpaidaAlpaïdis (?) of Saxony, in 713;
His 1st wife.2,1,7
Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia died on 22 October 724 at Trier, Stadtkreis Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany (now).3,8,2,5,7
Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia was buried after 22 October 724 at Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     690, Treves, Departement du Gard, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
     DEATH     22 Oct 724 (aged 33–34), Trier, Stadtkreis Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
     Married 713 in Moselle, Austrasia. Duchess of Austrasia
     Rotrude (Chrodtrudis) (died 724) was the first wife of Charles Martel, Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of Francia from 718 to 741. She was the mother of Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, and therefore the grandmother of Charlemagne. Rotrude is believed to be the daughter of Lambert, Count of Hesbaye, although this designation is not without controversy, as discussed below. She is also referred to as Rotrude of Treves.
     Traditionally, the information available about the family background of Rotrude was the indication that Wido (Guy), Count of Hornbach and Lay Abbot of Fontenelle, was a propinquus of Martel. This kinship term, vague enough, means a close relationship with women: a brother, a cousin by women or a cousin by marriage. Wido is the brother of Milo, Bishop of Trier, and son of Saint Leudwinus, Bishop of Trier.
     Christian Settipani, in his seminal work on the ancestors of Charlemagne, details an analysis by Anton Halbedel, first issued in 1915, and echoed by historians Jean Depoin, Maurice Chaume and Szabolcs Vajay. According to this analysis, the word propinquus implies "brother", so that Wido was Rotrude’s brother. Rotrude has therefore often been identified as the daughter of Saint Leudwinus.
     However, in Settipani’s Addendum to the Ancestors of Charlemagne, he returns to this problem, reflecting thinking that of medieval history professor Richard Gerberding, who believed that Rotrude’s background was related directly to the Robertians. He noted that Charles Martel had three wives and that Wido may be a relative of the other two.
     Settipani concludes that Rotrude was the daughter of Lambert, Count of Hesbaye, and so sister of Robert I, Duke of Neustria. In addition, Rotrude’s sister was named Landrada and was married to Sigramnus, Count of Hesbaye. Landrada and Sigramnus were parents of Saint Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz. Note that Rotrude and Charles had daughter also named Landrade, who is often erroneously identified as the wife of Sigramnus. Wikipedia
     Family Members
     Parents
          Saint Leudwinus
          Willigarde von Bayern de Treves 670–732
     Spouse
          Charles of the Franks 676–741
     Siblings
          Gui de Treves 689 – unknown
     Children
          Carloman Unknown
          Pepin The Short 714–768
          Aude (Aldana) d'Austrasia d'Autun 720–804
          Bernard duc de St Quentin d'Herstal 724–784
     BURIAL     Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France
     Created by: Memerizion
     Added: 8 Apr 2015
     Find A Grave Memorial 144753240.7
     Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia
See Settipani's discussion of the ancestors of Charlemagne, including the question of Rotrude's parentage (copy attached).6 GAV-34 EDV34 GKJ-35.

Reference: Genealogics cites: Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 53.3
Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia was also known as Rotrude (?) of Hesbaye.5 Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia was also known as Chrotrudis (?) de Treves.7

Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia
Per Wikipedia:
     "Rotrude (Chrodtrudis) (died 724) was the first wife of Charles Martel, Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of Francia from 718 to 741. She was the mother of Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, and therefore the grandmother of Charlemagne. Rotrude is believed to be the daughter of Lambert, Count of Hesbaye, although this designation is not without controversy, as discussed below. She is also referred to as Rotrude of Treves.
     "Traditionally, the information available about the family background of Rotrude was the indication that Wido (Guy), Count of Hornbach and Lay Abbot of Fontenelle, was a propinquus of Martel. This kinship term, vague enough, means a close relationship with women: a brother, a cousin by women or a cousin by marriage. Wido is the brother of Milo, Bishop of Trier, and son of Saint Leudwinus, Bishop of Trier.
     "Christian Settipani, in his work on the ancestors of Charlemagne, details an analysis by Anton Halbedel, first issued in 1915, and echoed by historians Jean Depoin, Maurice Chaume and Szabolcs de Vajay. According to this analysis, the word propinquus implies "brother", so that Wido was Rotrude’s brother. Rotrude has therefore often been identified as the daughter of Saint Leudwinus.
     "However, in Settipani’s Addendum to the Ancestors of Charlemagne,[1] he returns to this problem, reflecting thoughts of medieval history professor Richard Gerberding, who believed that Rotrude’s background was related directly to the Robertians. He noted that Charles Martel had three wives and that Wido may be a relative of the other two.
     "Settipani concludes that Rotrude was the daughter of Lambert, Count of Hesbaye, and so sister of Robert I, Duke of Neustria. In addition, Rotrude’s sister was named Landrada and was married to Sigramnus, Count of Hesbaye. Landrada and Sigramnus were parents of Saint Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz. Note that Rotrude and Charles had daughter also named Landrade, who is often erroneously identified as the wife of Sigramnus.[2]
     "Rotrude and Charles had five children:
** Carloman, Mayor of the Palace
** Pepin the Short, King of the Franks and father of Charlemagne
** Hiltrude, Duchess Consort of Bavaria, married to Odilo, Duke of Bavaria
** Landrade
** Auda of France, married to Thierry IV, Count of Autun.
     "After Rotrude’s death in 724, Charles married Swanachild and had one child Grifo. Charles also had a mistress Ruodhaid with whom he had numerous children.
References
1. Christian, Settipani (1990). "Addendum to the Ancestors of Charlemagne" (PDF).
2. Claussen, M. A. (2004). The Reform of the Frankish Church: Chrodegang of Metz and the Regula Canonicorum in the Eighth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 21.
Sources
** Settipani, Christian, Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne, Paris, 1989
** Gerberding, Richard A., The Rise of the Carolingians and the Liber Hisgtoriae Francorum, Oxford University Press, 1987
** Claussen, M. A., The Reform of the Frankish Church: Chrodegang of Metz and the Regula Canonicorum in the Eighth Century, Cambridge University Press, 2004.5

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles Martel: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020918&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Chrodtrud: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020919&tree=LEO
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambert,_Count_of_Hesbaye. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotrude_of_Hesbaye
  6. [S4745] "The Ancestors of Charlemagne: Addendum to Addenda", The Ancestors of Charlemagne: Addendum to Addenda, online http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~medieval/addcharlENG.pdf, printout dated 2000. Previously published in hard copy (n.p.: n.pub., 2000). Hereinafter cited as "Settipani [2000] Ancestors of Charlemagne."
  7. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 06 November 2019), memorial page for Chrotrudis de Treves (690–22 Oct 724), Find A Grave Memorial no. 144753240, citing Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/144753240/chrotrudis-de_treves. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  8. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin 'the Short': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020000&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Carloman: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00280786&tree=LEO

Saint Leutwinis (Lievin) (?) Bishop of Treves1,2

M, #4274, d. 713
FatherCount Warinus (?) Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris d. 677
MotherGunza (?) de Metz b. c 640, d. 700
Last Edited12 Nov 2019
     Saint Leutwinis (Lievin) (?) Bishop of Treves married Willigard (?) of Bavaria.3
Saint Leutwinis (Lievin) (?) Bishop of Treves died in 713.4
     Saint Leutwinis (Lievin) (?) Bishop of Treves
(an unknown value.)4 GKJ-36. Saint Leutwinis (Lievin) (?) Bishop of Treves was also known as St. Luitwin (?) Bishop of Treves.2 Saint Leutwinis (Lievin) (?) Bishop of Treves was also known as Saint Lievin (?) Bishop of Treves.5 He was Bishop of Treves between 685 and 704.6

Family

Willigard (?) of Bavaria

Citations

  1. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. cvi. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  2. [S792] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=johanson, Susan Johanson (unknown location), downloaded updated 29 June 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=johanson&id=I11317
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leudwinus. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  5. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I10357
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 50-10, p. 51. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.

Count Warinus (?) Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris1

M, #4275, d. 677
FatherBodlion (?)2 b. c 610
MotherSigrada (?)2 b. c 630
Last Edited12 Nov 2019
     Count Warinus (?) Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris married Gunza (?) de Metz, daughter of Clodoule/Chlodulf (?) Bishop of Metz and Childa (?) de Landen, before 670.3
Count Warinus (?) Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris died in 677 at near Arras, Pas-de-Calais, Hauts-de-France, France.4
     GKJ-37.

Count Warinus (?) Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris
Count Guerin (or Warin), brother of St. Leger, Bishop of Autun; described as being descended from the ancient Burgundian Kings.5

Count Warinus (?) Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris
Weis AR 50-9.6,7

Count Warinus (?) Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris
Per Wikipedia:
     "Warinus of Poitiers (also Warin, Guerin, Gerinus, Varinus; died 677 AD) was the Franco-Burgundian Count of Poitiers and Count of Paris and later Saint Warinus, Martyr of the Franks.[1][2][3] He was the son of Saint Sigrada of Sainte-Marie de Soissons and the brother of Saint Leodegarius.[1][4] He was the father of Saint Leudwinus.[2][4]
     "In 677 AD, Warinus was stoned to death near Arras because of a feud between his brother Leodegarius and Ebroin, the Frankish Mayor of the Palace of Neustria.[1][3][4]
Life
     "Warinus was born in Autun, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy.[1][4] He was the son of Bodilon, a Count of Poitiers and Sigrada of Alsace, and Sainte-Marie de Soissons.[1][4] He was the founder of the famous noble family of the Guideschi.[citation needed]
     "As a nobleman, Warinus spent his childhood at the court of Clotaire II.[1]
     "He married Gunza von Treves, a Frankish noblewoman in France.[1][4] His wife came from an influential Frankish family and was the sister of Saint Basinus of Treves. They had three children:
* Doda of Poitiers (born c. 659 AD - died c. 678 AD)
* Leudwinus, Count of Poitier (born 660 AD - died 722 AD)
* Grimgert, Count of Paris (born c. 667 AD)
References
* Watkins, Basil (ed) (2002). Book of Saints (Reference) (7th ed.) A&C Black. p. 655. ISBN 0713653000.
* Weiner, Dr. Andreas. "Holy Lutwinus Pray for Us! (Heiliger Lutwinus bitte für uns!)". www.lutwinuswerk.de. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
* "Saints & Angels: St. Warinus". Catholic Online. catholic.org. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
* Margaret R Bunson, Matthew Bunson, Stephen Bunson (2003). Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia Of Saints - Revised. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. p. 1008. ISBN 1-931709-75-0.4

Citations

  1. [S792] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=johanson, Susan Johanson (unknown location), downloaded updated 29 June 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=johanson&id=I09443
  2. [S792] e-mail address, updated 29 June 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=johanson&id=I11318
  3. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 08 October 2019), memorial page for Gunza de Metz de Poitiers (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146298202, ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664) Unknown, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146298202/gunza-de_poitiers. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Warinus. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  5. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. cvi. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.
  6. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  7. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 50-9, p. 51: "...of uncertain parentage...brother of St. Leger, d. 677, Bishop of Autun:. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.

Gunza (?) de Metz1

F, #4276, b. circa 640, d. 700
FatherClodoule/Chlodulf (?) Bishop of Metz2,3 b. 13 Aug 604, d. 8 Jun 697
MotherChilda (?) de Landen4
Last Edited12 Nov 2019
     Gunza (?) de Metz was born circa 640 at Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France (now).2,1 She married Count Warinus (?) Count of Poitiers, Count of Paris, son of Bodlion (?) and Sigrada (?), before 670.1
Gunza (?) de Metz died in 700 at Stadtkreis Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany (now).1
     GKJ-37.

Gunza (?) de Metz
Weis AR7 [2002:51].5 Gunza (?) de Metz was also known as Kunza (?)

Citations

  1. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 08 October 2019), memorial page for Gunza de Metz de Poitiers (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146298202, ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664) Unknown, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146298202/gunza-de_poitiers. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  2. [S792] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=johanson, Susan Johanson (unknown location), downloaded updated 29 June 2001, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=johanson&id=I11319
  3. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 08 October 2019), memorial page for Chlodulf Cloud de Metz (13 Aug 604–8 Jun 697), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146305835, ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664) Unknown, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146305835/chlodulf-cloud-de_metz
  4. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 08 October 2019), memorial page for Childa de Landen (625–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146306062, ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664) Unknown, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146306062/childa-de_landen
  5. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 50-9, p. 51: "...sister of Bazin, Bishop of Treves". Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.

Ida J. Hudson1

F, #4277, b. 3 September 1864, d. 20 October 1888
FatherIsaac M. "Ike" Hudson1 b. c 1838, d. 29 Jun 1906
MotherAnn E. Singleton1
Last Edited10 Dec 2017
     Ida J. Hudson was born on 3 September 1864.1 She married George H. Luster on 2 December 1885 at Davidson Co., Tennessee, USA; his 1st wife.2
Ida J. Hudson died on 20 October 1888 at age 24.1
Ida J. Hudson was buried after 20 October 1888 at Spring Hill Cemetery, Nashville, Davidson Co., Tennessee, USA,

; from Find A Grave:
     Birth:      Sep. 3, 1864
     Death:      Oct. 20, 1888
     George Luster married Ida J Hudson Dec 02 1885 in Davidson CO TN.
     Family links: Parents: Isaac M. Hudson (____ - 1906)
     Spouse: George H. Luster (1857 - 1935)*
     Children: Turner Hudson Luster (1887 - 1957)*
     Burial: Spring Hill Cemetery, Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee, USA
     Created by: James Hill
     Record added: Nov 27, 2008
     Find A Grave Memorial# 31754660.1
     Ida J. Hudson was listed as a resident in Isaac M. "Ike" Hudson and Ann E. Singleton's household in the census report on 22 July 1870 at District 19, Davidson Co., Tennessee, USA; p. 84-A, lines 11-18, dwelling 42, family 44
     11 HUDSON, Isaac 31 [1839] M W Farmer $1000 KY
     12 " , Anna 28 [1842] F W Keeping house TN
     13 " , Aratia 8 [1862] M W At home TN
     14 " , Ida 5 [1865] F W At home TN
     15 BEELEY, William 23 [1847] M W At home TN,
     16 MAY, Francis 40 [1830] F W Domestic Servant TN Cannot read Cannot write
     17 " , Anna 13 [1857] F W At home TN Cannot read Cannot write
     18 HAYES, pAULINE 5 [1865] F Black At home TN.3

Ida J. Hudson was listed as a resident in Isaac M. "Ike" Hudson and Ann E. Singleton's household in the census report on 16 June 1880 at District 19, Davidson Co., Tennessee, USA; pp. 305-D & 306-A, lines 47-50, 1, dwelling 196, family 207
     47 HUDSON, Isaac W M 40 [1840] Self Married Farmer KY KY KY
     48 " , Anna W F 35 [1845] Wife Married Keeping House TN TN TN
     49 " , Aratia W M 18 [1862] Son Single Laborer TN KY TN
     50 " , Ida W F 15 [1865] Daughter Single At School TN KY TN
     1 " , Ellouise W F 6 [1874] Daughter Single TN KY TN
     2 HARRIS, Tilomon Black Male 7 [1873] Servant Single TN TN TN.4
     

Family

George H. Luster b. 1 Oct 1857, d. 5 Jun 1935
Child

Citations

  1. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Ida J Hudson Luster: https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=31754660. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  2. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, George H. Luster: https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=146865860
  3. [S3797] 1870 Federal Census, 1870 Census TN Davidson Co District 19, Year: 1870; Census Place: District 19, Davidson, Tennessee; Roll: M593_1522; Page: 84A; Family History Library Film: 553021
    Info: https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1870usfedcen&indiv=try&h=7130945
    Image: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7163/4276591_00172?pid=7130945&backurl=https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db%3D1870usfedcen%26indiv%3Dtry%26h%3D7130945&treeid=&personid=&hintid=&usePUB=true&usePUBJs=true
  4. [S3879] 1880 Federal Census, 1880 Census TN Davidson Co District 19, Year: 1880; Census Place: District 19, Davidson, Tennessee; Roll: 1251; Family History Film: 1255251; Page: 305D; Enumeration District: 078
    Info: https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1880usfedcen&indiv=try&h=15358560
    Image: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/6742/4244541-00615?pid=15358560&backurl=https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db%3D1880usfedcen%26indiv%3Dtry%26h%3D15358560&treeid=&personid=&hintid=&usePUB=true&usePUBJs=true
  5. [S3880] Unknown household, 1900 1900 Federal Census, unknown repository address unknown repository, Year: 1900; Census Place: Civil District 19, Davidson, Tennessee; Roll: 1566; Page: 11B; Enumeration District: 0134; FHL microfilm: 1241566
    Info: https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db=1900usfedcen&indiv=try&h=60200793
    Image: https://www.ancestry.com/interactive/7602/4118953_00494?pid=60200793&backurl=https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?db%3D1900usfedcen%26indiv%3Dtry%26h%3D60200793&treeid=&personid=&hintid=&usePUB=true&usePUBJs=true

Sir Thomas Blount of Kinlet1,2

M, #4278, b. 1456, d. 1524
FatherSir Humphrey Blount of Kinlet1,2 b. 1422, d. 12 Oct 1477
MotherElizabeth Winnington1,2,3 d. a 1502
Last Edited16 Jul 2016
     Sir Thomas Blount of Kinlet married Anne Croft, daughter of Sir Richard Croft Knt., of Croft Castle and Eleanor Cornwall.1,4 Sir Thomas Blount of Kinlet was born in 1456.2
Sir Thomas Blount of Kinlet died in 1524.1,2

Family

Anne Croft d. 27 Sep 1549
Children

Citations

  1. [S2009] Nathaniel Taylor, "Taylor email 15 Nov 2005: "Blount of Kinlet, Astley, North Carolina (was re: Children of Sancha de Ayala)"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 15 Nov 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Taylor email 15 Nov 2005."
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir Thomas Blount: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00425506&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elizabeth Winnington: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00425504&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Anne Croft: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00425507&tree=LEO
  5. [S3434] Ravinmaven, ""Best" line for Anne Hyde, Duchess of York?," e-mail message from ravinmaven2001 via <e-mail address> (unknown address) to e-mail address, 5 July 2016. Hereinafter cited as "Ravinmaven Email 5 Jul 2016: ""Best" line for Anne."
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sir John Blount: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00247796&tree=LEO

Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon1,2

F, #4279, b. 720, d. 12 July 783
FatherHeribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon2,1,3,4 b. 690, d. Apr 747
MotherBertrada (?) of Prüm5
ReferenceGAV32 EDV33
Last Edited6 Nov 2019
     Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon was born in 720 at Laon, Aisne, France; Genealogics says b. c 720; Wikipedia says b. 710-727.4,5 She married Pepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks, son of Charles Martel "the Hammer" (?) King of the Franks and Chrotrud/Rotrou/Rotrude (?) of Austrasia, in 740.2,6,1
Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon died on 12 July 783 at Choisy-au-Bac, Departement de l'Oise, Picardie, France (now).2,1,5,4,7
Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon was buried after 17 July 783 at Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     726, Laon, Departement de l'Aisne, Picardie, France
     DEATH     12 Jun 783 (aged 56–57), Choisy-au-Bac, Departement de l'Oise, Picardie, France
     Frankish Queen. The daughter of Count Charibert de Laon and Gisele of Aquitaine, she was well educated and spoke Latin. She met Pippin in 741 and they fell in love, but he was already married to Princess Leutburga with whom he had five children. Another obstacle to their marriage was their close blood relationship. She lived by his side as his mistress for several years. After she gave birth to their first child, Charlemagne around 743, he convinced Leutburga to separate and retire to the monastery of Lorsch. Pippin married Berthe probably in 749. Pippin had succeeded his father Charles Martel as majordomos in 741 and ousted King Childeric III. from power in 751 and sent him also to a monastery. In the same year she gave birth to a second son, Carloman. A few months later the nobles of the kingdom elected him as King and soon after that he went to Narbonne to fight against the Saracen. She accompanied him on this and other campaigns. In later years the marriage became much cooler and they nearly separated. Only the intervention of the Pope prevented that. After Pippin's death in 768 she became more involved in the politics in her son's kingdoms. She mediated between Charles and his brother and they stopped fighting with each other. In 770 she traveled to Bavaria where she met her nephew Duke Tassilo. She lived for several years at Charles' court at Aachen. She later moved to the Abbey of Choisy sur Aisne where she spend the last decade of her life. It's not sure that she is buried in St. Denis as some say she might be buried in the Val de Meuse. Bio by: Lutetia
     Family Members
     Parents
          Charibert de Laon 690–747
          Gisele d'Aquitaine      Spouse
Photo     
          Pepin The Short 714–768
     Siblings
          V de Laon d'Herstal
          Gerberge de Laon 730 – unknown
     Children
          Bertbelle Martel de Vere
          Chrothias Carolingian
          Adelais Carolingian
          Charlemagne 742–814
          Carloman I 751–771
     BURIAL     Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
     Maintained by: Find A Grave
     Added: 2 Apr 2001
     Find A Grave Memorial 21069.7
     Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon
Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 53.
2. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.1


Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon
Per Genealogics:
     "Bertrada of Laon, also called Bertrada 'au grand pied' and Bertha Broadfoot, was born about 720 in Laon, in today's Aisne, France, the daughter of Heribert/Caribert of Laon. In 740 she married Pippin 'the Short', the son of Charles Martel, the Frankish Mayor of the Palace, although the union was not canonically sanctioned until several years later. Eleven years later, in 751, Pippin and Bertrada became King and Queen of the Franks, following Pippin's successful coup against the Frankish Merovingian monarchs.
     "Bertrada and Pippin are known to have had four children, three sons and one daughter; of these, Charles (Charlemagne), Carloman and Gisela survived to adulthood, while Pippin died in infancy. Charlemagne and Carloman would inherit the two halves of their father's kingdom when he died, and Gisela became a nun.
     "Bertrada lived at the court of her elder son Charles, and according to Einhard their relationship was excellent. She recommended that he marry his first wife Desiderata, a daughter of the Lombard king Desiderius, but he soon divorced her. Einhard claims that this was the only episode that ever strained relations between mother and son. Bertrada lived with Charlemagne until her death on 12 June 783. The king buried her with great honours in the Basilica of Saint Denis."4

Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon
Per Wikipedia:
     "Bertrada of Laon (born between 710 and 727 – 12 July 783), also known as Bertrada the Younger or Bertha Broadfoot (cf. Latin: Regina pede aucae i.e. the queen with the goose-foot), was a Frankish queen. She was the wife of Pepin the Short and the mother of Charlemagne, Carloman and Gisela.
Nickname
     "Bertrada's nickname "Bertha Broadfoot" dates back to the 13th century, when it was used in Adenes Le Roi's trouvère Li rouman de Berte aus grands piés.[1] The exact reason that Bertrada was given this nickname is unclear. It is possible that Bertrada was born with a clubfoot,[2] although Adenes does not mention this in his poem.[1] The nickname might have been a reference to an ancient legend about a Germanic goddess named Perchta, to real and mythological queens named Bertha, or to several similarly-named Christian queens.[3] Many myths and legends exist in Europe and Asia, in which clubfooted people are described as the link between the world of the living and the spirit world.[4] The tavern sign in Anatole France's novel At the Sign of the Reine Pédauque alludes to this queen.
Biography
Early life and ancestry
     "Bertrada was born sometime between 710 and 727 in Laon, in today's Aisne, France, to Count Charibert of Laon.[5] Charibert's father might have been related to Hugobertides.[6][7] Charibert's mother was Bertrada of Prüm, who founded Prüm Abbey along with Charibert. Bertrada of Prüm was possibly the daughter of Theuderic III.[5]
Marriage and children
     "Bertrada married Pepin the Short, the son of Charles Martel, the Frankish "Mayor of the Palace", in 741. However, Pepin and Bertrada were too closely related for their marriage to be legal at that time; the union was not canonically sanctioned until 749, after the birth of Charlemagne.[8]
     "According to French historian Léon Levillain, Bertrada was Pepin's first and only wife.[9][10][11] Other sources suggest that Pepin had previously married a "Leutberga" or "Leutbergie", with whom Pepin would have had five children.[12]
     "Bertrada and Pepin are known to have had seven children: three sons and four daughters. Of these, Charlemagne (c. 742 – 814),[13] Carloman (751–771)[14] and Gisela (757–811) survived to adulthood. Pepin, born in 756, died in his infancy in 762. Bertrada and Pepin also had Berthe, Adelaide, and Rothaide, Gisela became a nun at Chelles Abbey.[15]
Queen of the Franks
     "In 751, Pepin and Bertrada became King and Queen of the Franks, following Pepin's successful coup against the Frankish Merovingian monarchs.[16] Pepin was crowned in June 754, and Bertrada, Charlemagne, and Carloman were blessed by Pope Stephen II.[17][18]
     "After Pepin's death in 768, Bertrada lost her title as Queen of the Franks. Charlemagne and Carloman inherited the two halves of Pepin's kingdom. Bertrada stayed at the court and often tried to stop arguments between the two brothers.[14] Some historians credit Bertrada's support for her elder son Charlemagne over her younger son Carloman, and her diplomatic skills, for Charlemagne's early success.[19] Although her influence over Charlemagne may have diminished in time, she lived at his court, and, according to Einhard, their relationship was excellent. Bertrada recommended that Charlemagne set aside his legal wife, Himiltrude, and marry Desiderata, a daughter of the Lombard king Desiderius, but Charlemagne soon divorced Desiderata. Einhard claims this was the only episode that ever strained relations between mother and son.[14]
Later life and death
     "Bertrada retired from the court after Carloman's death in 771 to live in Choisy-au-Bac, where Charlemagne had set aside a royal house for her. Choisy-au-Bac was favorable because of its history of being the home and burial place of several Merovingian kings.[14]
     "Bertrada died on 12 July 783 in Choisy-au-Bac.[14] Charlemagne buried her in the Basilica of St Denis near Pepin.[20]
In literature
     "Bertrada inspired Adenes Le Roi to write the trouvère Li rouman de Berte aus grands piés in 1270. Adenes referred to her as "Bertha Broadfoot", the earliest known usage of that nickname.[1]
     "Bertrada is also referred to as "Bertha Broadfoot" in François Villon's 15th-century poem Ballade des dames du temps jadis.[21]
Notes
1. Scheler & Le Roi 1874.
2. Pelletier 2014, p. 52.
3. Grimm 1835, p. 8.
4. Ginzburg & Aymard 1989, pp. 206–251.
5. Settipani 1989.
6. Keats-Rohan & Settipani 2000, p. 18.
7. Pinoteau & de Vaulchier 2004, p. 43.
8. Kurze 1895, p. 8.
9. Tessier 1952.
10. Settipani & van Kerrebrouck 1993, pp. 180–187.
11. Levillain 1944, p. 55.
12. Ducret 2007.
13. Settipani & van Kerrebrouck 1993, p. 188.
14. Settipani & van Kerrebrouck 1993, p. 185.
15. Settipani & van Kerrebrouck 1993, pp. 185–187.
16. Mémoires couronnés et autres mémoires publiés par l'Académie royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de Belgique 1861, p. 97.
17. Settipani & van Kerrebrouck 1993, p. 184.
18. Bernard 2004, p. 91.
19. Lewis 2008.
20. Les gisants de la basilique de Saint-Denis 2014.
21. Villon c. 1460.
References
** Les gisants de la basilique de Saint-Denis [The Recumbent Statues of the Saint Denis Basilica] (Map). 1 : 10 m (in French). Saint-Denis, France. 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
** Mémoires couronnés et autres mémoires publiés par l'Académie royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de Belgique [Crown Memoirs and Other Memoirs Published by the Royal Academy for the Sciences and the Arts of Belgium] (in French). 11. Belgium: Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium. 1861. OCLC 1770765.
** "Bibliothèque de l'École des chartes" [Library of the School of Charters] (in French). 104. Paris, France: Librairie Droz. 1943. ISSN 0373-6237. OCLC 1532871.
** Bernard, Guillaume (2004). Introduction à l'histoire du droit et des institutions [Introduction to the History of Law and Institutions]. Panorama du droit. Premier cycle. (in French). Levallois-Perret: Studyrama. ISBN 2844724426. OCLC 419527703.
** Ducret, Alix (2007). Les femmes et le pouvoir dans l'histoire de France [Women and Power in French History]. Perspectives (in French). Levallois-Perret: Studyrama. ISBN 978-2759001118. OCLC 421956409.
** Ginzburg, Carl; Aymard, Monique (1989). Mythes, emblèmes, traces ; morphologie et histoire [Myths, Symbols, Tracks; Morphology and History] (in French). Paris, France: Flammarion. ISBN 2082111849. OCLC 19925431.
** Grimm, Jacob (1835). "Deutsche Mythologie" [German Mythology]. New Northvegr Center (in German). Transcribed by Aaron Myer. Northvegr. ch. 13. Archived from the original on 2013-11-26. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
** Keats-Rohan, Katharine Stephanie Benedicta; Settipani, Christian (2000). Onomastique et Parenté dans l'Occident médiéval [Onomastic and Kinship in the Medieval West]. Prosopographica et Genealogica (in French). Oxford, UK: Linacre College. ISBN 1900934019. OCLC 492431344.
** Kurze, Friedrich (1895). Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 6: Annales regni Francorum inde ab a. 741 usque ad a. 829, qui dicuntur Annales Laurissenses maiores et Einhardi [Published separately for the use of the schools of the German writers on 6: Annals of the kingdom of the Franks, from 741 to 829 and the authority had departed; major Laurissenses years and Einhard] (in Latin). Hannover: Hannoverian Library.
** Levillain, Léon (1944). "La charte de Clotilde (10 mars 673)" [Clotilda's Charter (10 March 673)]. Études mérovingiennes (in French). Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes. 105 (105): 5–63. doi:10.3406/bec.1944.449321.
** Lewis, David Levering (2008). God's Crucible: Islam and the Making of Europe, 570 to 1215. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 9780393064728. OCLC 172521784.
Pelletier, Michel (2014). Quelques femmes remarquables dans l'histoire du département de l'Aisne [Some Remarkable Women in the History of the Department of Aisne] (PDF) (in French). pp. 52–64.
** Pinoteau, Hervé; de Vaulchier, Jean (2004). La symbolique royale française, Ve – XVIIIe siècles [Symbolic French Royals, 5th – 18th Centuries] (in French). La Roche-Rigault, France: PSR. ISBN 2908571366. OCLC 55051298.
** Scheler, Auguste; Le Roi, Adenet (1874). Li roumans de Berte aus grans piés par Adenés li Rois; poëme publié, d'après le manuscrit de la bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, avec notes et variantes [The Romance of Bertrada Broadfoot by Adenes le Roi; Poem Published at the End of the Arsenal Library Manuscript, with Notes and Variations] (in French). Brussels, Belgium: Académie royale de Belgique. OCLC 465546842.
** Settipani, Christian (1989). Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne [Charlemagne's Ancestors] (in French). Paris, France. ISBN 2-906483-28-1. OCLC 28323789.
** Settipani, Christian; van Kerrebrouck, Patrick (1993). "Première partie : Mérovingiens, Carolingiens et Robertiens" [First part: Merovingians, Carolingians, and Robertians]. La préhistoire des Capétiens (481–987) [The Prehistory of the Capetians (481–987)]. Nouvelle histoire généalogique de l'auguste maison de France (in French). 1. ISBN 2-9501509-3-4. OCLC 29856008.
** Tessier, Georges (1952). "Léon Levillain". Chronique: Nécrologie. Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes (in French). 110: 306–313.
** Villon, François (c. 1460). Ballade des dames du temps jadis (in French). France."5 GAV-32 EDV-33 GKJ-34.

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertrada 'au grand pied': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020001&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Heribert/Caribert: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020920&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertrada 'au grand pied': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020001&tree=LEO
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertrada_of_Laon. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin 'the Short': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020000&tree=LEO
  7. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 01 November 2019), memorial page for Berthe de Laon (726–12 Jun 783), Find A Grave Memorial no. 21069, citing Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France ; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/21069/berthe-de-laon. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  8. [S753] Jr. Aileen Lewers Langston and J. Orton Buck, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. II (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (1996 reprint)), p. 1. Hereinafter cited as Langston & Buck [1974] - Charlemagne Desc. vol II.

Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon1

M, #4280, b. 690, d. April 747
MotherBertrada "the Elder" de Prüm2,3 b. c 670, d. a 23 Jun 721
ReferenceGAV33 EDV34
Last Edited6 Nov 2019
     Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon was born in 690 at Laon, Departement de l'Aisne, Picardie, France (now).4
Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon died in April 747 at Laon, Departement de l'Aisne, Picardie, France (now); Genealogics says d. bef 762.4,1
Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon was buried after April 747 at Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     690, Laon, Departement de l'Aisne, Picardie, France
     DEATH     Apr 747 (aged 56–57), Laon, Departement de l'Aisne, Picardie, France
     Count of Laon. Charibert (also spelled Caribert and Heribert), Count of Laon, was the maternal grandfather of Charlemagne. He was the father of Charles's mother, Bertrada of Laon. Only his mother is known from contemporary records. In 721, Charibert signed, with his mother Bertrada of Prüm the foundation act of the Abbey of Prüm. The same year, also with his mother, he made a donation to the Abbey of Echternach. By 744, his daughter Bertrada of Laon had married Pippin the Younger, mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy and later king of the Franks. He died before 762, as stated in an act of his daughter and son-in-law. Wikipedia
     Family Members
     Parents
      Martin de Laon 647 – unknown
      Bertrade de Prum 670–721
     Spouse
      Gisele d'Aquitaine
     Siblings
      Chrodelinde de Laon d'Aquitaine d'Autun 695–742
     Children
      V de Laon d'Herstal
      Berthe de Laon 726–783
      Gerberge de Laon 730 – unknown
     BURIAL     Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
     Created by: Memerizion
     Added: 6 May 2015
     Find A Grave Memorial 146134947.4
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 53.
2. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia .1



Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon
Per Genealogics: "Heribert (also spelled Caribert and Charibert), count of Laon, was the son of Bertrada 'the Elder', also known as Bertrada of Prüm. One source gives his father as Martin, count of Laon, but this is not authenticated. He was the father of Bertrada of Laon, the mother of Charlemagne. On 23 June 721, with his mother Bertrada of Prüm, he signed the foundation act of the Abbey of Prüm. The same year, also with his mother, he made a donation to the Abbey of Echternach. In 744 his daughter Bertrada of Laon married Pippin 'the Short', mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy and later king of the Franks. Heribert died before 762, as stated in an act of his daughter and son-in-law."

Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon
Per Wikipedia:
     "Charibert (also spelled Caribert and Heribert), Count of Laon, was the maternal grandfather of Charlemagne. He was the father of Charles's mother, Bertrada of Laon. Only his mother is known from contemporary records. In 721, Charibert signed, with his mother Bertrada of Prüm the foundation act of the Abbey of Prüm. The same year, also with his mother, he made a donation to the Abbey of Echternach. By 744, his daughter Bertrada of Laon had married Pippin the Younger, mayor of the palace of Neustria and Burgundy and later king of the Franks. He died before 762, as stated in an act of his daughter and son-in-law.
References
** Settipani, Christian, Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne, Paris, 1989
** Settipani, Christian, Addendum to the Ancestors of Charlemagne, 1990 (PDF.)5 Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon was also known as Charibert (?) de Laon, Count of Laon.4 GAV-33 EDV-34 GKJ-35.

Heribert/Caribert (?) Count of Laon
founded the Prum Monastery on 23 June 721.1

Family

Bertrada (?) of Prüm
Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Heribert/Caribert: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020920&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertrada 'the Elder': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020921&tree=LEO
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertrada_of_Pr%C3%BCm. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 10 October 2019), memorial page for Charibert de Laon (690–Apr 747), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146134947, citing Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146134947/charibert-de_laon. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charibert_of_Laon
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertrada 'au grand pied': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020001&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertrada 'au grand pied': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020001&tree=LEO

Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau1

F, #4281, b. between 2 May 757 and 30 April 761, d. 30 April 783
FatherCount GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau2,3 b. c 720, d. 799
MotherImma/Emma (?) of Allemania2,4 b. 726, d. bt 786 - 789
ReferenceGAV31 EDV32
Last Edited29 May 2020
     Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau was born between 2 May 757 and 30 April 761; Genealogics says b. between 02 May 0757 and 30 Apr 0761; Wikipedia says b. c754.2,5 She married Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West, son of Pepin III "The Short" (?) King of the Franks and Bertha/Bertrade (?) of Laon, on 30 April 771; his 2nd wife.6,7,8
Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau died on 30 April 783 at Thionville, Moselle, France.6,9,2,5
Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau was buried after 30 April 783 at Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     757, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
     DEATH     783 (aged 25–26), France
     Hildegard of Vinzgouw, Hildegarde Empress Of The West. She was the daughter of Gerold I Duke of Swabia, Count of Vinzgouw and Count in the Anglachau and Imma Duchess of Swabia. Granddaughter of Gerold Bishop of Mayence and Hnabi, Duke of Alamannia. Born about 757 and died in 783.
     Hildegard was the second wife of Charlemagne. They were married about 771, and had the following children:
* Charles, Count of Maine, joint King of the Franks
* Adelaide
* Pippin Carloma, King of Italy
* Rotrude, mistress of Rorgo of Rennes, became a nun
* Louis the Pious, king of Aquitaine and Emperor
* Lothair, twin brother of Louis, died young
* Bertha, mistress of Angilbert
* Gisela, died early
* Hildegarde, died early

     After her death, Charlemagne married a third wife, Fastrada. in 784, and had a fourth wife, Luitgard.
     Family Members
     Parents
          Gerold I von Vinzgau 725–799
          Emma von Alemannen 726–783
     Spouse
          Charlemagne 742–814
     Siblings
          Adrian d'Orleans unknown–820
          Gerold II In der Baar
          Ermentrude von Schwaben      Children
          Pepin Carolingian of Italy 773–810
          Louis I of the Franks 778–840
     BURIAL     Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France
     Maintained by: Anne Shurtleff Stevens
     Originally Created by: Jerry Ferren
     Added: 26 Jan 2012
     Find A Grave Memorial 84021764
     SPONSORED BY Billie Jasper.10
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 63.
2. Henry Project , Baldwin, Stewart.11,2



Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau
Per Genealogics: "Hildegardis was born between 2 May 757 and 30 April 761, the daughter of Gerold I, Graf in Kraichgau und Vintzgau, and his wife Imma/Emma, the daughter of Nebi, duke of The Allemans, count in the Linzgau. On 30 April 771 Hildegardis became the second wife of the future Emperor Charlemagne, son of Pippin 'the Short', king of the Franks, and his wife Bertrada. They had nine children, of whom Pippin I, Louis I, Rotrud and Bertha would have progeny. Hildegardis died on 30 April 783."2 GAV-31 EDV-32 GKJ-33. Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau was also known as Hildegard (?) of the Vinzgau.5

Hildegardis (?) of Swabia, Countess of Vinzgau
Per Wikipedia:
     "Hildegard (c. 754[2] – 30 April 783), was a Frankish queen consort who was the second[3] wife of Charlemagne and mother of Louis the Pious. Little is known about her life, because, like all women related to Charlemagne, she became notable only from a political background, recording her parentage, wedding, death, and her role as a mother.[4]
Origins
     "She was the daughter of the Germanic Count Gerold of Kraichgau (founder of the Udalriching family) and his wife Emma, in turn daughter of Duke Nebe (Hnabi) of Alemannia and Hereswintha vom Bodensee (of Lake Constance).[5] Hildegard's father had extensive possessions in the dominion of Charlemagne's younger brother Carloman, so this union was of significant importance for Charlemagne, because he could strengthen its position in the east of the Rhine and also could bind the Alemannian nobility to his side.[6]
Life
     "It is unknown if Charlemagne planned his marriage before the sudden death of Carloman or was just a part of the purposeful incorporation of his younger brother's Kingdom, in detriment of the claims of his nephews.[7] In any event, the wedding between Charlemagne and Hildegard took place at Aix-la-Chapelle certainly before 30 April 771, after the repudiation of the Lombardian princess Desiderata, Charlemagne's previous wife.
     "No exact date of birth of Hildegard was recorded, but a birthdate of 754 has been suggested. She could hardly have been younger than 16 or 17, because she gave birth to her first child in the year following her wedding.[citation needed] Girls could be married at any time after puberty, and in Roman law, which the Church upheld, the age of 12 was well established as being adequate.[8] An intense physical relationship between the spouses was demonstrated by the fact that, during her 12 years of marriage, Hildegard had 8 pregnancies (including one set of twins). Quite remarkably, the chronicles never mention either miscarriages or stillbirths, indicating that she was of sturdy health and that she was probably not too young at the time of the wedding.
     "Hildegard accompanied Charlemagne on many of his military campaigns. She gave birth to her second child and first daughter, Adelaide, during the siege of Pavia, capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards (September 773/June 774), but the child died during the return journey to France. In 778, Hildegard accompanied her husband as far as Aquitaine, where she gave birth to twin boys Louis and Lothair.[9] In 780/781, she traveled with Charlemagne and four of their children to Rome, where the sons Louis and Carloman (the latter renamed Pepin after his baptism by Pope Adrian I) were appointed sub-kings of Aquitaine and Italy respectively. This contributed to the strengthening of the alliance between the Carolingians and the Papacy.[10] Because of her frequent pregnancies, it can be presumed that Hildegard accompanied her husband on further campaigns, at least temporarily.
     "Hildegard died on 30 April 783, according to Paul the Deacon, from the after effects of her last childbirth.[11] She was buried the following day (1 May 783) in the Abbey of Saint-Arnould in Metz. Following the wishes of Charlemagne, near her grave were burning candles and daily prayers were said for her soul.[12]
Interaction with the Church and Donations
     "Hildegard made several donations to the monasteries of St. Denis and St. Martin of Tours.[13] She was a friend of Saint Leoba, who reportedly lived some time with her at court. She intervened in Hildegard's religious education and also offered her spiritual advice.[14] Together with her husband she commissioned the Godescalc Evangelistary,[15] where for the first time she was explicitly mentioned as Queen -also of the Lombards- through the joint signature of documents with her husband.[16]
     "Hildegard enjoyed in her own lifetime from a high reputation, as was demonstrated in her obituary written by Paul the Deacon.[17] However, these compliments are to be regarded with some skepticism. In her Epitaph were included phrases that may have been introduced to flatter Charlemagne: for example, the reference to the fact that Hildegard was the epitome of beauty, wisdom and virtue. This were common words used by medieval writers to their rulers.[18] Pope Adrian I, in a letter to Charlemagne, expressed his condolences over the untimely death of Hildegard.
     "Hildegard used her position as Queen consort to obtain for her siblings several territorial and monetary benefits; as far was known, she was the only of Charlemagne's wives or concubines who managed to obtain for a relative an office after her marriage.[14] In addition, was also assumed that she, like other medieval queens, held several roles, such as ruling the court or being the representative (or regent) of the sovereign during his absence. This could mean that she was in close contact with all the government decision of her husband.[19]
     "Together with her husband, she was the main benefactress of the Monastery of Kempten (founded in 752), who received financial and political support. From Italy they brought after the conquest of the Kingdom of the Lombards in 773/774 the relics of the Roman martyrs Saints Gordianus and Epimachus to Kempten, whom, along with the Virgin Mary, are the patrons of the monastery.
     "Hildegard was extensively mentioned in Kempten as one of the founders; her bust graced the pin crest and some coins of the later Imperial Abbey. In the late Middle Ages it was alleged that Hildegard was buried in Kempten, as well as her son Louis the Pious; there was built the called Hildegard Chapel (Hildegardkapelle), who quickly became in a place of pilgrimage and were several miracles are reported. This explains that the Queen was revered as a saint in the Allgäu and always presented with an aureola. In the 17th century the building of another Hildegard Chapel at the Fürstäbtliche of Kempten was projected, but this was abandoned after the secularization.
     "Even in modern times, the memory of Hildegard and her importance in the urban development at Kempten is still very noticeable: The central square in front of St. Lorenz Basilica was named the Hildegard Square (Hildegardplatz) in her honor. In 1862 a Neo-Gothic Hildegard fountain (Hildegardsbrunnen) was erected in the square, which was closed in the 1950s. At the facade of the local Landhaus, appeared her idealized portrait painted by Franz Weiß. Also, in 1874 was founded the originally exclusive for girl Hildegardis-Gymnasium Kempten Lyceum. At the Lindau Road, close to the school, was also located another Hildegard Fountain. On the facades of some houses were shown the image of the Queen, and on the edge of the Kempten forest there was the Hildegard Oak (Hildegardseiche) for several years until was replaced by a new plantation. Until the 1950s, many girls born in Kempten were named after Hildegard.
Children
     "Although Charlemagne already had an older son (Pepin the Hunchback) from his first union with Himiltrude, he was not considered an heir after the rebellion in which he participated in 792. In his will of 806 (the called Divisio Regnorum), he divided his domains between the three surviving sons of Hildegard. Because her son Louis the Pious succeeded Charlemagne as Emperor, Hildegard is often called "mother of Kings and Emperors".
** Charles (772/73 – 4 December 811 in Bavaria[20]), the eldest son according to Paul the Deacon, who recorded his parentage.[21] His father associated him in the government of Francia and Saxony in 790, and crowned joint King of the Franks at Rome on 25 December 800, but died before his father.[16]
** Rotrude (775 – 6 June 810[22]), named after her paternal great-grandmother. "Hruodrudem et Bertham et Gislam" are named daughters of King Charles and Hildegard by Einhard.[23] Angilbert's poem Ad Pippinum Italiæ regum names (in order) "Chrodthrudis...Berta...Gisla et Theodrada" as daughters of King Charles.[24] She was betrothed in 781 with Constantine VI, Emperor of Byzantium, and received the name Erythro in preparation for her future wedding. The betrothal was broken in 787,[25] and she, like all her sisters, remained unmarried. From a liaison with Rorgo of Rennes she had one son, the latter Louis, Abbot of Saint-Denis.
** Carloman (777 – 8 July 810 in Milan, buried Verona, San Zeno Maggiore), renamed Pepin in Rome on 15 April 781 by Pope Adrian I, and crowned King of Italy that day. He also predeceased his father.
** Louis (Chasseneuil-du-Poitou, Vienne, 16 April/September 778 – 20 June 840 in Ingelheim, buried Metz, Abbey of Saint-Arnould). He is named, and his parentage recorded, by Paul the Deacon, which specifies that he was his parents' third son, born a twin with Lothair.[21] Crowned King of Aquitaine in Rome on 15 April 781 by Pope Adrian I, his father named him as his successor at Aix-la-Chapelle, crowning him as joint Holy Roman Emperor on 11 September 813.
** Bertha (779/80 – after 11 March 824), named after her paternal grandmother. An offer by Offa of Mercia to arrange a marriage between her and his son, Ecgfrith, led to Charlemagne breaking off diplomatic relations with Britain in 790, and banning British ships from his ports.[26] Like her sisters, she never married, but from her liaison with Angilbert, a court official, she had two sons: Hartnid (about whom little is known) and the historian Nithard, Abbott of St. Riquier.
** Gisela (before May 781 – after 800, maybe after 814). Named after her surviving paternal aunt, she was baptized in Milan in May 781.[27]

Sources
** Einhard: Vita Karoli Magni (Chapter 18).
** Notker the Stammerer: Gesta Karoli Magni (Book I, Chapter 4)
** Paul the Deacon: Epitaphium Hildegardis reginae
** Royal Frankish Annals (years 780, 781 and 783)
** Thegan of Trier: Vita Hludowici (Chapter 2)
** Annales Mettenses priores (years 780 and 783)
** Annales mosellani
References
1. Reinhard Barth: Karl der Große, Munich 2000, p. 97.
2. The exact date of her birth is unknown, as the queen's consorts were only considered notable when they became part of the ruling family. Historically, they were barely mentioned in the chronicles. See Achim Thomas Hack: Alter, Krankheit, Tod und Herrschaft im frühen Mittelalter, (= Monographien zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 56), Stuttgart 2009, p. 42.
3. As described by historians such as Pierre Riché (The Carolingians, p.86.), Lewis Thorpe (Two Lives of Charlemagne, p.216) and others. Other historians list Himiltrude, described by Einhard as a concubine, as Charlemagne's first wife, and reorder his subsequent wives; accordingly Hildegard is sometimes numbered as his third wife. See Dieter Hägemann (Karl der Große. Herrscher des Abendlands, Ullstein 2003, p. 82f.), Collins (Charlemagne, p. 40.)
4. Ingrid Heidrich: Von Plectrud zu Hildegard. Beobachtungen zum Besitzrecht adliger Frauen im Frankenreich des 7. und 8. Jahrhunderts und zur politischen Rolle der Frauen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 52 (1988), p. 10.
5. Reinhard Barth: Karl der Große, Munich 2000, pp. 97-98.
6. Matthias Becher: Karl der Große, München 1999, p. 108.
7. Martina Hartmann: Die Königin im frühen Mittelalter, Stuttgart 2009, p. 97.
8. Achim Thomas Hack: Alter, Krankheit, Tod und Herrschaft im frühen Mittelalter, (= Monographien zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 56), Stuttgart 2009, p. 51.
9. Martina Hartmann: Die Königin im frühen Mittelalter, Stuttgart 2009, p. 100.
10. Wilfried Hartmann: Karl der Große, Stuttgart 2010, pp. 50-51.
11. Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, Monumenta Germaniæ Historica Scriptorum II, p. 267.
12. Klaus Schreiner: "Hildegardis regina". Wirklichkeit und Legende einer karolingischen Herrscherin, in: Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 57 (1975), p. 10.
13. Klaus Schreiner: "Hildegardis regina". Wirklichkeit und Legende einer karolingischen Herrscherin, in: Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 57 (1975), p. 8.
14. Rosamond McKitterick: Karl der Grosse, Darmstadt 2008, p. 91.
15. Klaus Schreiner: "Hildegardis regina". Wirklichkeit und Legende einer karolingischen Herrscherin, in: Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 57 (1975), pp. 9-10.
16. Silvia Konecny: Die Frauen des karolingischen Königshauses. Die politische Bedeutung der Ehe und die Stellung der Frau in der fränkischen Herrscherfamilie vom 7. bis zum 10. Jahrhundert, Vienna 1976, p. 65.
17. Klaus Schreiner: "Hildegardis regina". Wirklichkeit und Legende einer karolingischen Herrscherin, in: Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 57 (1975), pp. 4-5. The "Epitaphium Hildegardis reginae" is printed in MGH poat. lat. aevi Carolini I, pp. 58-59. Cf. Franz Bittner: Studien zum Herrscherlob in der mittelalterlichen Dichtung, Dissertation Würzburg 1962, pp. 43-44.
18. Klaus Schreiner: "Hildegardis regina". Wirklichkeit und Legende einer karolingischen Herrscherin, in: Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 57 (1975), pp. 4-5.
19. Matthias Becher: Karl der Große, Munich 1999, p. 111.
20. Scholz, B. W. with Rogers, B. (2000) Carolingian Chronicles: Royal Frankish Annals and Nithard's Histories (University of Michigan Press) (RFA) 811, p. 94.
21. Pauli Gesta Episcop. Mettensium, Monumenta Germaniæ Historica Scriptorum II, p. 265.
22. RFA 810, p. 91.
23. Einhardi Vita Karoli Imperator 18, 'Monumenta Germaniæ Historica Scriptorum II, p. 453.
24. Angilberti (Homeri) Carmina, I, MGH Poetæ Latini ævi Carolini I, pp. 359-60.
25. RFA 787, p. 64.
26. Wilfried Hartmann: Karl der Große, p. 50.
27. RFA 781, p. 59.
Bibliography
** Reinhard Barth: Karl der Große, Munich 2000.
** Matthias Becher: Karl der Große, Munich 1999.
** Hans-Werner Goetz: Frauen im frühen Mittelalter. Frauenbild und Frauenleben im Frankenreich, Weimar (u.a.) 1995.
** Achim Thomas Hack: Alter, Krankheit, Tod und Herrschaft im frühen Mittelalter, (= Monographien zur Geschichte des Mittelalters 56), Stuttgart 2009.
** Martina Hartmann: Die Königin im frühen Mittelalter, Stuttgart 2009.
** Wilfried Hartmann (Historiker)|Wilfried Hartmann]]: Karl der Große, Stuttgart 2010.
** Ingrid Heidrich: Von Plectrud zu Hildegard. Beobachtungen zum Besitzrecht adliger Frauen im Frankenreich des 7. und 8. Jahrhunderts und zur politischen Rolle ** der Frauen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 52 (1988), pp. 1–15.
** Silvia Konecny: Die Frauen des karolingischen Königshauses. Die politische Bedeutung der Ehe und die Stellung der Frau in der fränkischen Herrscherfamilie vom 7. bis zum 10. Jahrhundert, Vienna 1976.
** Rosamond McKitterick: Karl der Grosse, Darmstadt 2008.
** Michael Richter: Karl der Große und seine Ehefrauen. Zu einigen dunkleren Seiten Karls des Großen anhand von Quellen des ausgehenden achten und beginnenden neunten Jahrhunderts. pp 17–24, in: Franz-Reiner Erkens (ed.): Karl der Große und das Erbe der Kulturen, Berlin 2001.
** Rudolf Schieffer: Die Karolinger, 3rd revised Edition, Stuttgart 2000.
** Klaus Schreiner: „Hildegardis regina“. Wirklichkeit und Legende einer karolingischen Herrscherin, in: Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 57 (1975), pp. 1–70."5 She was Queen of the Franks between 771 and 783.5

Family

Charlemagne (?) King of the Franks and Emperor of the West b. 2 Apr 747, d. 28 Jan 814
Children

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charlemagne: http://www.genealogics.org/getextras.php?personID=I00000001&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hildegardis: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020006&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gerold I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020007&tree=LEO
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Imma|Emma: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020008&tree=LEO
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hildegard_of_the_Vinzgau. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  6. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  7. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 50-13, p. 51. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charlemagne: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00000001&tree=LEO
  9. [S636] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 6 Oct 2000 from World Family Tree Vol. L1, Ed. 1, Family #0043 (n.p.: Release date: October 30, 1998, unknown publish date).
  10. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 06 November 2019), memorial page for Hildegarde de Vintzgau Herstal (757–783), Find A Grave Memorial no. 84021764, citing Saint Arnoul Royal Abbey, Metz, Departement de la Moselle, Lorraine, France ; Maintained by Anne Shurtleff Stevens (contributor 46947920), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/84021764/hildegarde-de-herstal. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charlemagne: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00000001&tree=LEO
  12. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 175. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  13. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles "the Youger": http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020016&tree=LEO
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin I (Karlmann): http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020039&tree=LEO
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rotrud (Hruothraud): http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020028&tree=LEO
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Lothar: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020018&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis I "the Pious": http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020040&tree=LEO
  19. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Famille & Seigneurs de BOUBERS (1), p. 2: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Boubers1.pdf. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bertha: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020032&tree=LEO
  21. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#Bertradadied823. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gisela: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020019&tree=LEO
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hildegard: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020026&tree=LEO

Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau

M, #4282, b. circa 720, d. 799
FatherHado (?) de Vintzgau
MotherGerniu (?) de Suevie/Souabe1
ReferenceGAV32 EDV33
Last Edited10 May 2020
     Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau was born circa 720 at Landkreis Schwäbisch Hall, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (now).2,3 He married Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania, daughter of Nebi (?) Duke of The Allemans, Count in the Linzgau and Hereswinde (?), in 749.3,4,5
Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau died in 799 at Germany (now); Wikipedia says d. 799; Genealogcs says d. bef 786.6,3,2
Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau was buried in 799 at Kloster Lorsch, Lorsch, Kreis Bergstraße, Hesse, Germany,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     725, Landkreis Schwäbisch Hall, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
     DEATH     799 (aged 73–74), Germany
     Gerold of Vinzgau (also Vintzgouw or Anglachgau). Count of Vinzgau, Duke of Swabia, Count in the Anglachau. Was a count in Kraichgau and Anglachgau. His daughter married King Charlemagne in 771. In 784 generous donations to the monastery of Lorsch by Gerold and Emma are recorded.
     Family Members
     Parents
          Lantfrid II von Alemannen 704 – unknown
          Germiude von Schwaben 700 – unknown
     Spouse
          Emma von Alemannen 726–783
     Children
          Adrian d'Orleans unknown–820
          Gerold II In der Baar
          Ermentrude von Schwaben
          Hildegarde de Vintzgau Herstal 757–783
     BURIAL     Lorsch Abbey, Lorsch, Kreis Bergstraße, Hessen, Germany
     Created by: Memerizion
     Added: 8 May 2015
     Find A Grave Memorial 146206323
     SPONSORED BY Christian H. F. Riley.2
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies, Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977 , Rösch, Siegfried. 63.
2. Les seize quartiers des Reines et Imperatrices Francaises, 1977, Saillot, Jacques. 123.3

GAV-32 EDV-33 GKJ-34.

Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau
Per Racines et Histoire: "Gérard comte en Vintzgau ép. Imma d’Alémanie."5

Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau
Per Wikipedia:
     "Gerold of Vinzgau (also Vintzgouw or Anglachgau; died 799) was a count in Kraichgau and Anglachgau.[1] His daughter married King Charlemagne in 771.[2] In 784 generous donations to the monastery of Lorsch by Gerold and Emma are recorded.
Marriage and issue
     "He was married before 754 to Emma (d. 789 or 798 or after 784), daughter of Hnabi, Duke of Alamannia. They had the following:
** Gerold[2]
** Udalrich
** Hildegard, born in 754, married King Charlemagne in 771.[2]
** probably Adrian, Count of Orléans, father of Odo I, Count of Orléans
** Eric of Friuli

     "Through Udalrich, Gerold is reckoned as the founder of the family of the Udalrichings [de].
References
1. Lapidge 2017, p. 5.
2. Lapidge 2017, p. 5-6.
Sources
** Lapidge, Michael (2017). Hilduin of Saint-Denis: The Passio S. Dionysii in Prose and Verse. Brill.
External links
** Cawley, Charles, Gerold, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,[self-published source][better source needed], Charles Cawley's "Medieval Lands", hosted at the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SWABIAN%20NOBILITY.htm#GeroldUdalrichingerMImma
** Gerold, genealogie-mittelalter.de: https://www.genealogie-mittelalter.de/"


Per Wikipédia (Fr.)"
     "Gérold Ier de Vintzgau1, mort à la fin du viiie siècle, est un aristocrate germanique, comte en Anglachgau et Kraichgau, mais surtout père d'Hildegarde de Vintzgau, la seconde épouse de Charlemagne et la mère de Louis le Pieux.
Biographie
     "On sait dans l'ensemble peu de choses de Gérold. Il semble cependant se rattacher à la famille des Agilolfing, la première dynastie régnant en Bavière. Mais son ascendance exacte n'est pas assurée.
     "Selon Pierre Riché2, il est le fils d'un Agilulf, peut-être fils de Théodon, fils d'un autre Agilulf. Selon d'autres sources[réf. nécessaire], il serait le fils d'Hado de Vintzgau et de Gerniu de Souabe, cet Hado se rattachant cependant à la lignée d'Agilulf.
     "À la vue de ses possessions situées dans la moyenne vallée du Rhin, il pourrait aussi être un membre de l'aristocratie franque installé en Alémanie après la répression du soulèvement de la noblesse de ce pays[réf. nécessaire].
     "Il épouse une fille du duc d'Alémanie Nebe, appelée Emma ou Imma. De ce mariage nait, en 758, Hildegarde, qui, en 771, se marie avec Charlemagne, malgré son jeune âge, après la répudiation de sa deuxième femme, Désirée3. Il a aussi un fils appelé Gérold, avec lequel il est parfois confondu.
     "En 784, lui et son épouse font d´importantes donations à la toute récente abbaye de Lorsch. Il s'agit de domaines situés aux alentours de Worms et d´Heidelberg.
     "Il est aussi mentionné comme comte en Baar en 779 et en 7834.
     "En ce qui concerne sa mort, sont proposées les dates soit de 784/786 soit de 795.
Union et descendance
     "De son mariage avec Emma naissent :
** Hildegarde (758 - † 783), épouse de Charlemagne ;
** Odalric ou Udalrich († vers 824), comte en Alpgau et Breisgau en 780/781, en Hegau en 787/791 en Thurgau en 787 et en Alsace en 8175 ;
** Gérold († le 1er septembre 799), préfet de Bavière en 796.
     "Filiation incertaine :
** Adrien (Adrianus) († après le 10 novembre 821), comte d’Orléans, comte palatin, époux de Waldrade, grand-père d'Ermentrude, femme de Charles le Chauve6 ;
** Éric, duc de Frioul († 799).
Notes et références
1. Généalogie de Gérold sur le site Medieval Lands [archive]
2. Pierre Riché, Les Carolingiens, Tableau V : Familles de Bavière et d'Alémanie
3. Généalogie d'Hildegarde sur le site Medieval Lands [archive]
4. (de) Généalogie de Gérold sur le site Genealogie-Mittelalter [archive]
5. (de) Généalogie de Udalrich sur le site Mittelalter-Genealogie [archive]
6. Pierre Riché, Tableau V, qui désigne Adrien par un X."6,1 Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau was also known as Gérard (?) comte en Vintzgau.5 Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau was also known as Gerold I (?) Graf in Kraichgau, Vintzgau.3

Count GeroudGerold I (?) Duke of Swabia, Count in Vinzgau
Per Genealogics: "Gerold, born about 720, was a count in the Kraichgau and Vintzgau. About 749 he married Imma/Emma, the daughter of Nebi, duke of The Allemans, count in the Linzgau, and his wife Herswinde/Hersuinda. They had several children, of whom Hadrian, Ulrich I and Hildegardis are recorded with progeny, the latter marrying Emperor Charlemagne in 771. Through Ulrich I, Gerold is reckoned as the founder of the family of the Udalrichings. In 784 generous donations to the monastery of Lorsch by Gerold and Emma are recorded. Gerold died between 786 and 789."3

Family

Imma/Emma (?) of Allemania b. 726, d. bt 786 - 789
Children

Citations

  1. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Gérold Ier de Vintzgau: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%A9rold_Ier_de_Vintzgau. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (Fr.).
  2. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 06 November 2019), memorial page for Gerold I von Vinzgau (725–799), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146206323, citing Lorsch Abbey, Lorsch, Kreis Bergstraße, Hessen, Germany ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146206323/gerold_i-von_vinzgau. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gerold I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020007&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Imma|Emma: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020008&tree=LEO
  5. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Comtes d’ Angoulême, p. 2: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Angouleme.pdf. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  6. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerold_of_Vinzgau. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ulrich I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00280715&tree=LEO
  8. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrian,_Count_of_Orl%C3%A9ans.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Hildegardis: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020006&tree=LEO

Nebi-Houching (?) Duke of the Allemans1

M, #4283, b. circa 660, d. 709
FatherGodefroyGodfried (?) Duke of Alamannia2 b. c 630, d. c 709
MotherRegentrude(?) (?) of Bavaria3
ReferenceGAV34
Last Edited6 Nov 2019
     Nebi-Houching (?) Duke of the Allemans was born circa 660; Find A Grave says b. 675.1,4
Nebi-Houching (?) Duke of the Allemans died in 709.5
Nebi-Houching (?) Duke of the Allemans died in 727; Find A Grave says d. 744.1,4
     GAV-34 EDV-35 GKJ-36.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Les Ancêtres de Charlemagne, Paris, 1990 , Settipani, Christian.
2. Les seize quartiers des Reines et Imperatrices Francaises, 1977, Saillot, Jacques. 123.1



Nebi-Houching (?) Duke of the Allemans
Per Genealogics: "Parents possibly Gottfried of the Allemans & (Regentrude) of Bavaria."1 Nebi-Houching (?) Duke of the Allemans was also known as Huoching (?) von Alemannen.4

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Nebi-Huoching: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220717&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gotfrid. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, (Regentrude ?) of Bavaria: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220716&tree=LEO
  4. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 06 November 2019), memorial page for Huoching von Alemannen (675–744), Find A Grave Memorial no. 146220721, ; Maintained by Memerizion (contributor 48072664) Unknown, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/146220721/huoching-von_alemannen. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  5. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).

GodefroyGodfried (?) Duke of Alamannia

M, #4284, b. circa 630, d. circa 709
ReferenceGAV36 EDV36
Last Edited6 Nov 2019
     GodefroyGodfried (?) Duke of Alamannia was born circa 630.1 He married Regentrude(?) (?) of Bavaria, daughter of Theodo II (?) Duke of Bavaria and Regintrude (?), in 657.2,1,3
GodefroyGodfried (?) Duke of Alamannia died circa 709; in or before 709.4,1
     GAV-36 EDV-36 GKJ-37.

GodefroyGodfried (?) Duke of Alamannia
Genealogics cites:
1. Les Ancetres de Charlemagne Paris, 1990 , Christian Settipani
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef.1700 Baltimore, 1995, Frederick Lewis Weis, Walter L.Sheppard, Reference: 156
3. Les seize quartiers des Reines et Imperatrices Francaises. 1977., Jacques Saillot, Reference: 123.1
GodefroyGodfried (?) Duke of Alamannia lived at an unknown place ; Per Wikipedia:
     "Gotfrid (also Gotefrid, modernized Gottfried; Latin: Gotfridus or Cotefredus; died 709) was the Duke of Alemannia in the late seventh century and until his death. He was of the house of the Agilolfing, which was the dominant ruling family in the Frankish Duchy of Bavaria.
     "In a document dated to the year 700 in Cannstatt, Gotfrid at the request of a priest named Magulfus donated the castle of Biberburg to the monastery of Saint Gall.
     "Gotfrid fought a war over his de facto independence with the mayor of the palace Pepin of Heristal. The war was unfinished when Gotfrid died in 709. His sons, Lantfrid and Theudebald, had the support of Pepin and succeeded him.
     "Gotfrid married a daughter of Theodo of Bavaria, and his third son, Odilo, later ruled in Bavaria. From his son Huoching (Huocin, Houchi, or Hug) came the later stock of the Ahalolfings. His daughter Regarde married Hildeprand of Spoleto, and he left a youngest son named Liutfrid.
Sources
** Geuenich, Dieter. Geschichte der Alemannen. Verlag Kohlhammer: Stuttgart, 2004. ISBN 3-17-018227-7
** Gotfrid at Mittelalter-Geneaolgie.3

GodefroyGodfried (?) Duke of Alamannia
(an unknown value.)5 GodefroyGodfried (?) Duke of Alamannia was also known as Gotfrid (?) Duke of Alemannia.3 He was living between 679 and 708; "seen in 679."6

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gottfried: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220715&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, (Regentrude ?) of Bavaria: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220716&tree=LEO
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gotfrid. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 182-1, p. 156. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  5. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  6. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 182-1, 156.

Theodo II (?) Duke of Bavaria1

M, #4285, d. 716
FatherFara II (?) Duke of Bavaria b. bt 587 - 625, d. bt 628 - 708
MotherFara (?)2
ReferenceGAV37 EDV37
Last Edited6 Nov 2019
     Theodo II (?) Duke of Bavaria married Regintrude (?), daughter of Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks and Ragnetrude (?).1
Theodo II (?) Duke of Bavaria died in 716.1
     GAV-37 EDV-37 GKJ-38.

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theodo II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220713&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Fara: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00248930&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, (Regentrude ?) of Bavaria: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220716&tree=LEO
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gotfrid. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.

Regintrude (?)

F, #4286
FatherDagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks b. bt 608 - 610, d. 19 Jan 639
MotherRagnetrude (?)
ReferenceGAV37 EDV37
Last Edited10 Mar 2004
     Regintrude (?) married Theodo II (?) Duke of Bavaria, son of Fara II (?) Duke of Bavaria and Fara (?).1
     GAV-37 EDV-37 GKJ-38.

Regintrude (?)
Leo van de Pas: "she is not the daughter of Dagobert I.2'

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Theodo II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220713&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Regintrude: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220714&tree=LEO
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, (Regentrude ?) of Bavaria: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00220716&tree=LEO

Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks1,2,3

M, #4287, b. between 608 and 610, d. 19 January 639
FatherClothaire II "Le Jeune, Le Grand" (?) King of the Franks4,2,3 b. 18 Oct 584, d. bt 4 Jan 629 - 18 Oct 629
MotherBeretrude (?) de Bourgogne5,2,3 b. 586, d. 618
ReferenceGAV37 EDV37
Last Edited9 Oct 2019
     Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks married Wulfegunde (?); his 4th wife.6,2 Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks married Berthilde (?); his 5th wife.7,2 Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks was born between 608 and 610; Genealogy.EU Merove 2 page says b. 606; Leo van de Pas says b. 608/610; Find A Grave says b. 603.2,3,8 He married Gometrude (?), daughter of unknown (?), in 626; his 2nd wife; repudiated.2,9,3 Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks married Nantilda (?) in 629; his 3rd wife.10,2,3 Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks married Ragnetrude (?) in 630; his 1st wife.2,11,3
Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks died on 19 January 639; Genealogy.EU Merove 2 page says d. Nov 639; Leo van de Pas says d. 19 Jan 639.2,3,8
Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks was buried after 19 January 639 at Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France (now),

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     603
     DEATH     19 Jan 639 (aged 35–36)
     King of France. Reigned from 628 to 637.
     Family Members
     Parents
      Chlothar II King Of The Franks 584–629
      Beretrude de Bourgogne 586–618
     Spouse
      Nanthild of Austrasia
     Siblings
      Charibert II of the Franks
     Children
      Sigebert III King Of Austrasia
      King Clovis II 635–657
     BURIAL     Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
     Maintained by: Find A Grave
     Added: 2 Apr 2001
     Find A Grave Memorial 21066.2,8
     He and Saint Arnulf (Arnuld) (?) Bishop of Metz were Maiordomus of Dagobert I of Austrasia.12

Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks
[2m.] Dagobert I, *606, +XI.639, bur Saint-Denis, King of Austrasia (629-634), Paris, Orléans, Bourgogne, Soissons and all the Land of Franks (629-639), King of Aquitaine (631-639); 1m: 626 Gometrude (reputiated); 2m: 629 Nantilde N (+642); 3m: 630 Ragnetrude N.3 GAV-37 EDV-37 GKJ-38.

Reference: Leo van de Pas cites:
     1. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag Marburg., Detlev Schwennicke, Editor, Reference: I-1 2
     2. Encyclopaedia Britannica Chicago,London,Toronto, 1961
     3. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: I 1.2


Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks
In 622 he became king of Austrasia and in 629 of all the Frankish lands. He secured peace by making a friendship treaty with the Byzantine Emperor, Heraclius, by defeating the Gascons and the Bretons, then campaigning against the Slavs on his eastern frontier.

In 631 he sent an army to Spain to help the Visigothic usurper, Swinthila. He moved his capital from Austrasia to Paris, a central location from which the kingdom could be governed more effectively.

He then appeased the Austrasians by making his three-year-old son, Sigebert, their king in 634. Dagobert loved justice but was also greedy and dissolute. During his reign there was a revival of the arts, a revision of the Frankish law, and encouragement for learning. Dagobert founded the first great abbey of Saint Denis to which he made many gifts.

His chief advisers were two Austrasian aristocrats, Arnulf, bishop of Metz, and Pippin, who was made mayor of Dagobert's palace. It was a marriage arranged between Arnulf's son and Pippin's daughter that was to form the powerful dynasty known later as the Carolingians.2

Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks
Dagobert (Lothair's son), the last strong ruler of the Merovingian house, made wide dynastic alliances and found wise advisers in Bishop Arnulf and Pepin of Landen. His firm rule led to a revolt. Under the rois fainéants(lazy, “do-nothing kings,” who were rulers in name only) following Dagobert, the mayors of the palace emerged from a menial position to take a dominant role in the government both in Austrasia and Neustria.1 He was King of Austrasia between 623 and 628.13 He was King of all Franks between 629 and 639.13,3

Family 1

Wulfegunde (?)

Family 2

Berthilde (?)

Family 3

Gometrude (?)

Family 5

Ragnetrude (?)
Children

Citations

  1. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 171. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dagobert I: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199467&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Merove 2 page (Merovingians): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/merove/merove2.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Chlotar II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199462&tree=LEO
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Beretrude: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199464&tree=LEO
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wulfegunde: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199471&tree=LEO
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Berthilde: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199472&tree=LEO
  8. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 9 October 2019), memorial page for King Dagobert I (603–19 Jan 639), Find A Grave Memorial no. 21066, citing Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France ; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/21066/king_dagobert_i. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gometrude: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199469&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Nantilda: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199470&tree=LEO
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ragnetrude: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199468&tree=LEO
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 2 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin2.html
  13. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 170.
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Clovis II: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199477&tree=LEO
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sigebert III: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199475&tree=LEO

Ragnetrude (?)1

F, #4288
ReferenceGAV37 EDV37
Last Edited15 Aug 2004
     Ragnetrude (?) married Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks, son of Clothaire II "Le Jeune, Le Grand" (?) King of the Franks and Beretrude (?) de Bourgogne, in 630; his 1st wife.2,1,3
     Ragnetrude (?)
Leo van de Pas cites: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 4 volumes, Marburg, 1953, 1975., W. K. Prinz von Isenburg, Reference: I 1.1 GAV-37 EDV-37 GKJ-38. Ragnetrude (?) was also known as Ragnetrude (?) of Austrasia.4

Ragnetrude (?)
(an unknown value.)5

Family

Dagobert I (?) King of Austraisa, King of the Franks b. bt 608 - 610, d. 19 Jan 639
Children

Citations

  1. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ragnetrude: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199468&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Dagobert I: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199467&tree=LEO
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Merove 2 page (Merovingians): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/merove/merove2.html
  4. [S812] e-mail address, online http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?db=bferris, Jr. William R. Ferris (unknown location), downloaded updated 4 Apr 2002, http://worldconnect.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=bferris&id=I32147
  5. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sigebert III: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00199475&tree=LEO

Fara II (?) Duke of Bavaria

M, #4289, b. between 587 and 625, d. between 628 and 708
ReferenceGAV38 EDV38
Last Edited19 Feb 2003
     Fara II (?) Duke of Bavaria was born between 587 and 625; WFT Est.1
Fara II (?) Duke of Bavaria died between 628 and 708; WFT Est.1
     GAV-38 EDV-38 GKJ-39.

Fara II (?) Duke of Bavaria
(an unknown value.)1

Citations

  1. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).

Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex1,2,3

M, #4290, b. circa 795, d. 13 January 858
FatherEgbert (?) King of Wessex4,5 b. 775, d. a 19 Nov 839
MotherRedburga (Raedburh) (?)4,5 b. 788
ReferenceGAV31 EDV32
Last Edited11 May 2020
     Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex was born circa 795; probably in the court of Charlemagne; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1 page) says b. 795/810.6,4,5 He married Unknown (?) circa 820;
His 1st wife.7 Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex married Osburh/Osburga (?), daughter of Oslac (?) of Hampshire, the Royal Cup Bearer, of the Isle of Wight, circa 830;
His 2nd wife.6,4,5 Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex married Judith (?) Princess of France, daughter of Charles II "The Bald" (?) Holy Roman Emperor, etc. and ErmentrudeErmengardeHermintrudis (?) of Orleans, on 1 October 856 at Verberie-sur-Oise, France;
His 3rd wife.8,6,9,10,3,11,5,7
Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex was buried circa January 858 at Steyning, co. Sussex, England.6


Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex died on 13 January 858 at England.12,1,4,5
Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex was buried after 13 January 858 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     806
     DEATH     13 Jan 858 (aged 51–52)
     Wessex Monarch. Born the son of Egberht, King of Wessex and Rudberga. Alternate name spelling is Aethelwulf. He served as Sub-king of Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey between 825 and 828. About 830 he married Osburga of Hampshire with whom he had at least seven children. He succeeded to the title of King of Wessex in February 839 upon the death of his father. He continued wars against invading Danes until 851 when an alliance with Mercia secured a victory over the Danish at Aclea. He betrothed his daughter to King Burgred of Mercia in 853 and in 855 made a pilgrimage to Rome. He donated gold chalices and silver candelabras to the clergy at St. Peter's Basilica. Upon his return in 856 he married for a second time to Judith, daughter of Charles I of France and changed the status of English Queens. Before his reign, queens in England did not hold an official title, however, due to his new wife's status as a descendent of Charlemagne she was officially made his queen. Following his return to England, his oldest surviving son, Ethelbald conspired to oppose Ethelwulf's resumption of his throne, the pair, however, reached an understanding in which Ethelbald was given western Wessex, while Ethelwulf kept central and eastern Wessex. He died two years later and was succeeded by Ethelbald. During the English civil war, Parliamentarian soldiers violated his grave and smashed the windows of the cathedral with the bones from the royal graves. With the restoration of the monarchy, the scattered bones were gathered up and placed in the present mortuary chests. Bio by: Iola
     Family Members
     Parents
          Egbert 755–839
     Spouses
          Judith de France 844–870
          Osburh Queen Consort Of Wessex
     Children
          Ethelbald 834–860
          Ethelbert, King of Kent 836–866
          Ethelred I of Wessex 844–871
          Alfred the Great 849–899
     BURIAL     Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England
     Maintained by: Find A Grave
     Added: 4 Mar 2000
     Find A Grave Memorial 8720.4,13
     Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex
Per Genealogics:
     "Aethelwulf was born about 795, the elder son of Egbert of Wessex, king of England. He conquered Kent on behalf of his father in 825. Thereafter he was styled king of Kent until he succeeded his father as king of Wessex in 839, whereupon he became king of Wessex, Kent, Cornwall, the West Saxons and the East Saxons. He was crowned at Kingston upon Thames.
     "The most notable and commonly used primary source about Aethewulf is the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle._ The Chronicle makes reference to a few influential battles in which Aethelwulf took part. In 840 he fought at Carhampton against thirty-five ship companies of Danes, whose raids had increased considerably. His most notable victory came in 851 at 'Acleah', probably Ockley or Oakley in Surrey. Here Aethelwulf and his son Aethelbald fought against the heathens, and according to the Chronicle it was 'the greatest slaughter of heathen host ever made.' Around 853 Aethelwulf and his son-in-law Burgred, king of Mercia, defeated Cyngen ap Cadell of Wales and made the Welsh subject to him. The Chronicle depicts more battles throughout the years, mostly against invading pirates and Danes. This was an era in European history when nations were being invaded by many different groups; there were Saracens in the south, Magyars in the east, Moors in the west, and Vikings in the north. Before Aethelwulf's death, raiders had wintered on the Isle of Sheppey, and pillaged at will in East Anglia. Over the course of the next twenty years the struggles of his sons were to be 'ceaseless, heroic, and largely futile.'
     "In 839 Aethelwulf succeeded his father Egbert as king. Egbert had been a grizzled veteran who had fought for survival since his youth. Aelthelwulf had a worrying style of kingship. Having come naturally to the throne of Wessex, he proved to be intensely religious, cursed with little political sense and too many able and ambitious sons. One of the first acts of Aethelwulf as king was to split the kingdom. He gave the eastern half, covering Kent, Essex, Surrey and Sussex, to his eldest son Athelstan. Aethelwulf kept the ancient, western side of Wessex (Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon) for himself. Aethelwulf and his first wife Osburh, daughter of the earldorman Oslac, had five sons and a daughter. After Athelstan came Aethelbald, Aethelbert, Aethelred and Alfred. Each of his sons succeeded to the throne, but only Aethelred and Alfred would have progeny. Alfred, the youngest, has been praised as one of the greatest kings to ever reign in Britain. Aethelwulf's only daughter Aethelswith was married as a child to the king of Mercia.
     "Religion was always an important area in Aethelwulf's life. As early as the first year of his reign he had planned a pilgrimage to Rome. Due to the ongoing and increasing raids he felt the need to appeal to the Christian God for help.
     "In 853 Aelthelwulf sent his son Alfred, a child of about four years, to Rome. In 855, about a year after his wife Osburh's death, Aethelwulf followed Alfred to Rome. There he was generous with his wealth, distributing gold to the clergy of St. Peter's. During the return journey in 856 he married Judith, a Frankish princess and great-granddaughter of Charlemagne. She was about twelve years old, the daughter of Charles 'the Bald', king of the West Franks.
     "On their return to England in 856 Aethelwulf met with an acute crisis. His eldest surviving son Aethelbald (Athelstan had since died) had devised a conspiracy with the ealdorman of Somerset and the bishop of Sherborne to oppose Aethelwulf's resumption of the kingship. There was enough support for Aethelwulf to either have a civil war or to banish Aethelbald and his fellow conspirators. Instead Aethelwulf yielded Wessex proper to his son, and accepted Surrey, Sussex and Essex for himself. He ruled there until his death on 13 January 858. The family quarrel, had it been allowed to continue, could have ruined the House of Egbert.
     "That the king should have consented to treat with his rebellious son, to refer the compromise to a meeting of Saxon nobles, to moderate the pugnacity of his own supporters, and to resign the rule over the more important half of his dominions, is testimony to Aethelwulf's character and Christian spirit.
     "Aethelwulf's restoration included a special concession on behalf of Saxon queens. The West Saxons previously did not allow the queen to sit next to the king. In fact they were not referred to as a queen, but merely the 'wife of the king'. This restriction was lifted for Queen Judith, probably because she was a high ranking European princess.
     "Aethelwulf was first buried at Steyning, and then later transferred to the Old Minster in Winchester. His remains lie in one of several mortuary chests in Winchester Cathedral."5 GAV-31 EDV-32 GKJ-31.

Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex
Per Med Lands:
     ""ÆTHELWULF, son of ECGBERHT King of Wessex & his wife Redburga --- ([795/810]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester Cathedral). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names Æthelwulf as son of Ecgberht[1486]. Kirby suggests[1487] that Æthelwulf could have been born as late as 810, although this would not be consistent with the supposed date of his father's marriage and is unlikely to be correct if Æthelstan (see below) was King Æthelwulf's son. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 825 "Egbert king of Wessex…sent his son Æthelwulf…and Wulfheard his ealdorman to Kent with a great force" where they expelled King Baldred[1488]. "Æthelwulfi regis filii mei" was co-grantor of land at Canterbury to "Ciaba clericus" with "Ægberhtus rex occidentalium Saxonum" by charter dated 836[1489]. "Æthelwulf rex Cancie" was co-grantor of land in Kent with "Egberthus rex occident Saxonum pater meus" by charters dated [833/39] and 838 respectively[1490]. Under-King of Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey 825-839. He succeeded his father in 839 as ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex, crowned [later in 839] at Kingston-upon-Thames. Danish raids intensified during his reign. Great damage was done in Lindsey, East Anglia and Kent in 841, and Southampton was plundered in 842. Before 850, King Æthelwulf had settled the ancient dispute with Mercia about the lands to the west of the middle Thames by transferring Berkshire from Mercia to Wessex[1491]. He defeated a large Danish army south of the Thames at Aclea in 851 after it had stormed Canterbury and London and driven Burghred King of Mercia to flight[1492]. King Æthelwulf made a pilgrimage to Rome in 855, leaving the government in the hands of his son Æthelbald. At the request of Pope Benedict III, he made a public distribution of gold and silver to the clergy, leading men of Rome and the people[1493]. William of Malmesbury records that Æthelbald rebelled against his father during his absence and, after returning, King Æthelwulf abdicated part of his realm in Wessex in favour of his son to avoid civil war, continuing to rule in the other part of Wessex, Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex[1494]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Æthelwulf two years after returning from Rome and his burial at Winchester[1495].
     "Per Med Lands: [:TAB:]""ÆTHELWULF, son of ECGBERHT King of Wessex & his wife Redburga --- ([795/810]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester Cathedral). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names Æthelwulf as son of Ecgberht[1486]. Kirby suggests[1487] that Æthelwulf could have been born as late as 810, although this would not be consistent with the supposed date of his father's marriage and is unlikely to be correct if Æthelstan (see below) was King Æthelwulf's son. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 825 "Egbert king of Wessex…sent his son Æthelwulf…and Wulfheard his ealdorman to Kent with a great force" where they expelled King Baldred[1488]. "Æthelwulfi regis filii mei" was co-grantor of land at Canterbury to "Ciaba clericus" with "Ægberhtus rex occidentalium Saxonum" by charter dated 836[1489]. "Æthelwulf rex Cancie" was co-grantor of land in Kent with "Egberthus rex occident Saxonum pater meus" by charters dated [833/39] and 838 respectively[1490]. Under-King of Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey 825-839. He succeeded his father in 839 as ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex, crowned [later in 839] at Kingston-upon-Thames. Danish raids intensified during his reign. Great damage was done in Lindsey, East Anglia and Kent in 841, and Southampton was plundered in 842. Before 850, King Æthelwulf had settled the ancient dispute with Mercia about the lands to the west of the middle Thames by transferring Berkshire from Mercia to Wessex[1491]. He defeated a large Danish army south of the Thames at Aclea in 851 after it had stormed Canterbury and London and driven Burghred King of Mercia to flight[1492]. King Æthelwulf made a pilgrimage to Rome in 855, leaving the government in the hands of his son Æthelbald. At the request of Pope Benedict III, he made a public distribution of gold and silver to the clergy, leading men of Rome and the people[1493]. William of Malmesbury records that Æthelbald rebelled against his father during his absence and, after returning, King Æthelwulf abdicated part of his realm in Wessex in favour of his son to avoid civil war, continuing to rule in the other part of Wessex, Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Essex[1494]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Æthelwulf two years after returning from Rome and his burial at Winchester[1495]. [:TAB:]"[m] [firstly] ([815/20]) ---. There is no direct proof of this supposed first marriage. However, the likely birth date of King Æthelwulf's son Æthelstan suggests a substantial age difference with his brothers, indicating that he was probably not born from the same mother. [:TAB:]"m [secondly] ([830/33]) OSBURGA, daughter of OSLAC Ealdorman of the Isle of Wight & his wife --- (-[852/55]). Asser names "Osburga…daughter of Oslac the famous butler of King Æthelwulf…a Goth by nation" as the mother of King Alfred, specifying that her father was descended from "the Goths and Jutes…namely of Stuf and Whitgar two brothers…who…received possession of the Isle of Wight from their uncle King Cerdic"[1496]. She is named as mother of King Alfred by Roger of Hoveden, who also names her father, specifying that he was "pincerna regis"[1497]. [:TAB:]"m [thirdly] ([Verberie-sur-Oise] 1 Oct 856) as her first husband, JUDITH of the Franks, daughter of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrudis [d’Orléans] ([844]-after 870). The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in Jul 856 of "Iudith filiam Karli regis" and "Edilvulf rex occidentalium Anglorum" after the latter returned from Rome and their marriage "Kal Oct in Vermaria palatio", during which "Ingmaro Durocortori Remorum episcopo" set a queen's diadem on her head[1498]. She and her father are named by Roger of Hoveden when he records her marriage to King Æthelwulf[1499]. Her husband placed her "by his own side on the regal throne", contrary to normal practice according to Asser, who also says that the subservient position previously given to the queen was adopted in Wessex after the reign of King Beorhtric because of the unpopular influence of his queen Eadburh of Mercia[1500]. Queen Judith married secondly ([858/59]) her stepson, Æthelbald King of Wessex. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage of "Iudit reginam" and "Adalboldus filius eius [=Edilvulf regis]" in 858 after the death of her first husband[1501]. She eloped with her future third husband, Baudouin I Count of Flanders, around Christmas 861 and married him at Auxerre end-863. The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year[1502]. Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita…Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi Anglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium"[1503]. [:TAB:]"[Mistress (1): ---. The uncertain nature of the precise relationship of King Æthelberht to the royal family is explained below, one of the possibilities being that he was an illegitimate son of King Æthelwulf by an unknown concubine.] Medieval Lands cites: [LIND:][1486] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 855. [1487] Kirby (2000), p. 166. [1488] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 823 [825]. [1489] S 279. [1490] S 323 and S 286. [1491] Stenton (2001), p. 245. [1492] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E 851. Asser, Book I. Stenton (2001), p. 245 says that the site of this battle is unknown, but that it is most unlikely to be Oakley in Surrey. [1493] Liber Pontificalis, 106.34. [1494] Malmesbury II, 113, p. 95. [1495] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 855. [1496] Asser, p. 3. [1497] Roger of Hoveden I, pp. 35-6. [1498] Annales Bertiniani II 856. [1499] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 37. [1500] Asser, Part I. [1501] Annales Bertiniani II 858. [1502] Annales Bertiniani auct Hincmari Remensis 862 and 863, MGH SS I, pp. 456 and 462. [1503] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III.12, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 218."[:LIND] For further information: [LIND:]** See Wikipedia article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf,_King_of_Wessex ** See The Henry Project: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/aethe001.htm[:LIND] [firstly] ([815/20]) ---. There is no direct proof of this supposed first marriage. However, the likely birth date of King Æthelwulf's son Æthelstan suggests a substantial age difference with his brothers, indicating that he was probably not born from the same mother.
     "m [secondly] ([830/33]) OSBURGA, daughter of OSLAC Ealdorman of the Isle of Wight & his wife --- (-[852/55]). Asser names "Osburga…daughter of Oslac the famous butler of King Æthelwulf…a Goth by nation" as the mother of King Alfred, specifying that her father was descended from "the Goths and Jutes…namely of Stuf and Whitgar two brothers…who…received possession of the Isle of Wight from their uncle King Cerdic"[1496]. She is named as mother of King Alfred by Roger of Hoveden, who also names her father, specifying that he was "pincerna regis"[1497].
     "m [thirdly] ([Verberie-sur-Oise] 1 Oct 856) as her first husband, JUDITH of the Franks, daughter of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrudis [d’Orléans] ([844]-after 870). The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in Jul 856 of "Iudith filiam Karli regis" and "Edilvulf rex occidentalium Anglorum" after the latter returned from Rome and their marriage "Kal Oct in Vermaria palatio", during which "Ingmaro Durocortori Remorum episcopo" set a queen's diadem on her head[1498]. She and her father are named by Roger of Hoveden when he records her marriage to King Æthelwulf[1499]. Her husband placed her "by his own side on the regal throne", contrary to normal practice according to Asser, who also says that the subservient position previously given to the queen was adopted in Wessex after the reign of King Beorhtric because of the unpopular influence of his queen Eadburh of Mercia[1500]. Queen Judith married secondly ([858/59]) her stepson, Æthelbald King of Wessex. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage of "Iudit reginam" and "Adalboldus filius eius [=Edilvulf regis]" in 858 after the death of her first husband[1501]. She eloped with her future third husband, Baudouin I Count of Flanders, around Christmas 861 and married him at Auxerre end-863. The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year[1502]. Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita…Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi Anglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium"[1503].
     "[Mistress (1): ---. The uncertain nature of the precise relationship of King Æthelberht to the royal family is explained below, one of the possibilities being that he was an illegitimate son of King Æthelwulf by an unknown concubine.]
Medieval Lands cites:
[1486] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 855.
[1487] Kirby (2000), p. 166.
[1488] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 823 [825].
[1489] S 279.
[1490] S 323 and S 286.
[1491] Stenton (2001), p. 245.
[1492] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E 851. Asser, Book I. Stenton (2001), p. 245 says that the site of this battle is unknown, but that it is most unlikely to be Oakley in Surrey.
[1493] Liber Pontificalis, 106.34.
[1494] Malmesbury II, 113, p. 95.
[1495] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and E, 855.
[1496] Asser, p. 3.
[1497] Roger of Hoveden I, pp. 35-6.
[1498] Annales Bertiniani II 856.
[1499] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 37.
[1500] Asser, Part I.
[1501] Annales Bertiniani II 858.
[1502] Annales Bertiniani auct Hincmari Remensis 862 and 863, MGH SS I, pp. 456 and 462.
[1503] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III.12, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 218."

For further information:
** See Wikipedia article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf,_King_of_Wessex
** See The Henry Project: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/aethe001.htm.7


Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex
Per Weis [1992:1]: "King of England, 839-858, d. 13 Jan 858; m 1) Osburh, dau. of Oslac, the royal cup-bearer."14 Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex was also known as Ethelwulf (?)15

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 189.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef.1700, 7th Edition, 1992, Weis, Frederick Lewis. 2.
3. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.5



Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex and Osburh/Osburga (?)
Per Genealogy.EU: "Ethelwulf, King of Wessex (839-855)+(857-858), King of Essex, Sussex & Kent (839-58), *ca 795/810, +13.1.858, bur Winchester Cathedral;
     1m: ca 830 Osburga (+852/5), dau.of Oslac of Hampshire or the Isle of Wight;
     2m: Verberie-sur-Oise, France 1/15.10.856 Judith of Franks (*843/444, +after 870); all issue from 1m."4 Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex was King of Wessex:
     Per Ashley [1998:3167]: "ATHELWOLF Kent, 825-839, 856-858; Wessex, July(?) 839-855. Born: France (probably the court of Charlemagne, Aachen), c795; Died: 13 January 858, aged about 62. Buried: Steyning (Sussex) but later moved to Winchester Cathedral. Married: (1) c830, Osburh (died c852), dau. Oslac of Hampshire: 5 children; (2) 1 October 856 at Verberie-sur-Oise, France, Judith (c843-post 879), dau. Charles the Bald, king of the Franks: no children. Athelwolf was the son of EGBERT, whose subjugation of most of England from 825 onward became the foundation of the future kingdom of England. Although usually listed amongst the kings of England, Athelwolf remained king of Wessex only. These territories incorporated Sussex, Kent and Essex, which Athelwolf had conquered on his father's behalf in 825 and of which Athelwolf was duly appointed sub-king. Athelwolf appointed his brother (or son) ATHELSTAN as sub-king of these territories when he became king of Wessex. However, Athelwolf did not directly rule East Anglia, Mercia or Northumbria, all of which had their own kings who acknowledged Athelwolf as their overlord. Athelwolf's direct ascent to the throne of Wessex was a rare event in the West Saxon kingdom. Over the past three centuries the kingdom had passed either to the next most appropriate local chieftain as confirmed by the council or witan or, in a few cases, by conquest. Wessex had been a fairly loose knit confederacy of smaller kingdoms, and succession did not pass directly from father to son. Egbert's rigorous readministration of the kingdom had ensured his eldest son would inherit and that there would not be the inter-dynastic squabbling that had weakened other kingdoms. The ability to appoint younger sons to sub-kingdoms helped this process. Elsewhere the leading chieftain of the shire became the ealdorman, a position of considerable privilege second only to the king. In Athelwolf's time we find that the ealdormen became of major importance in helping defend the kingdom from the Danes, whose raids increased considerably during the 840s. Athelwolf or his ealdormen succeeded in defeating the Danes on almost every occasion. The raids reached a peak in the years 850/1 when there were three assaults spread across the south. The sequence may not be as the ASC records, but it suggests that first an army landed in Devon which was defeated by the local ealdorman. A further army arrived off the Kent coast near Sandwich, where Athelstan and his ealdormen fought a sea battle, defeating the Danes and capturing nine of their ships. The Danes spent that winter in Thanet. Then, early in 851, a major force arrived in over three hundred ships which sailed up the Thames and attacked inland. It first defeated BEORHTWULF of Mercia and then turned its attention south of the Thames, where it met Athelwolf and his son ATHELBALD at a place called Acleah, somewhere in Surrey (usually associated with Ockley, though not all authorities agree). If the number of ships is correct (and not miscopied as 350 instead of 35) then the Danish force must have numbered nearly 10,000 men. The ASC notes that this was the greatest slaughter of the Danes that was known up to that time and was evidently a significant battle.
     "A few years of peace followed, and we may imagine that after the battle of Acleah Athelwolf had agreed some form of peace arrangement with the Danes, or that they sought easier places of conquest. The following year (852) Beorhtwulf of Mercia died, and a new king, BURGRED, appeared. He was almost certainly a vassal of Athelwolf's, possibly even one of his ealdormen. At Easter 853, Burgred married Athelwolf's daughter Athelswith, and later that year Athelwolf aided Burgred in his battle against the Welsh where they subjected CYNGEN AP CADELL to a major defeat.
     "Athelwolf's life was soon after tinged with sadness as his wife died, probably at the end of 853 or early 854. By all accounts Athelwolf loved her deeply. The character of this king is somewhat perplexing. Many of the chroniclers recorded his bravery in battle, and there is no reason to doubt that he was anything other than courageous; but he was a very religious man and from his youth had apparently been devoted to the church. He probably accepted his role as king as a consequence of his heritage and his role in battle as a necessary evil, but there is no reason to assume he relished fighting. In 855, even though it is recorded that the Danes had wintered in Sheppey in Kent, and thus still represented a threat, Athelwolf abdicated the throne. He first donated a tenth of his estate to the church, a measure that was bound to endear him to later chroniclers, and then set off on a pilgrimage to Rome with his youngest son ALFRED. He left the government of England to his two eldest sons, Athelbald and ATHELBERT, supported ably by his council of ealdormen. He must have been convinced that he had left England in safe hands. He was himself now approaching sixty and would have been too old to fight. The ASC records that he spent a year in Rome and on his return spent some time at the court of Charles the Bald, king of the Franks, whose daughter Judith he married. This was clearly a political alliance as Judith was no more than thirteen, but it had its repercussions. At the ceremony, the officiating archbishop, Hincmar of Rheims, placed a crown upon Judith's head, thereby making her a queen. This position had been outlawed by the West Saxons sixty years earlier because of the wickedness of BEORHTRIC's wife Eadburh. It may have been this action that alienated the ealdormen of Wessex for when Athelwolf returned to England later that year (856) he was welcomed but they would not accept him as king. This has been described as a civil war, but it is unlikely to have been that destructive. Athelwolf almost certainly did not want the rigours of kingship, and was quite happy to retire to Sussex as the sub-king of the Kent, Sussex and Essex territories. He died there some eighteen months later." between 839 and 856.12,1,6

Family 1

Unknown (?)
Child

Family 2

Osburh/Osburga (?) b. 810, d. c 852
Children

Family 3

Unknown (?)
Child

Family 4

Judith (?) Princess of France b. 844, d. a 879

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 73, ENGLAND 14. Hereinafter cited as Boyer, Med English Ancestors (2001).
  2. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), appendix. Hereinafter cited as Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelwulf: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020042&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 298, 316-317. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  7. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelwulf,_King_of_Wessex. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  8. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998, p. 27.
  9. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Judith de France: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00018644&tree=LEO
  11. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  12. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-14, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  13. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 16 November 2019), memorial page for Ethelwulf (806–13 Jan 858), Find A Grave Memorial no. 8720, citing Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England ; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8720/ethelwulf. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  14. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 1-9, p. 1.
  15. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Athelstan: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020081&tree=LEO
  17. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, Cannon & Griffiths, British Monarchy 1998, p. 44.